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and used for public purposes, is not taxable unless specifically made so by law. The Court, referring to Poor Directors vs. School Directors, 42 Pa., 21; Cooley on Taxation, 130, and other authorities, declared the law to be that the public is never subject to the general tax laws, without express statute, also that the property in question was not taxable at the adoption of the Constitution of 1874, that no legislation subsequent thereto makes it taxable; that said I, Art. IX. of the Constitution did not operate on the subject, because when the Constitution was adopted public property was not taxable.

School districts are not municipal corporations. They belong to that class of quasi corporations to which counties and townships belong. Wharton vs. School Directors, 42 Pa., 358; School District vs. Fuess, II W. N. C., 97. The property they hold for the public's use bears the same character as that held for the same purposes by municipal corporations.

It has been argued that the laws relative to exemption from taxation do not apply, because the water was used to construct the building; that it was building material, and that a borough is under no obligations to contribute material to build a church or a school house within its limits. If what has been said already does not demonstrate the untenableness of this position, it is suggested that borough governments are not vested with power to deal in building materials, and an attempt to do so would come to naught because not warranted by law.

If this demand were recovered it would go into the borough treasury as a sum realized by public impost. What is realized by an exercise of the taxing power is a tax. To dwell longer on this point would not be profitable. If the building were not a public school house, a tax of $46.80 would rest on defendant. Because of the public character of the property it is exempt. October 17th, 1892, upon the case stated judgment is entered for the defendant.



The facts givflected by Lewis R. Harley,

THE facts given in the following article

A. M., of North Wales, Pa., at the suggestion of the State Superintendent. It is the purpose of the School Department to make an exhaustive study of Secondary Education in Pennsylvania, and to embody the results in the next Annual Report.

Prof. Harley writes: From the earliest colonial times, schools have been among the most important of our American institutions. Upon the arrival of the settlers on our shores, the home, the church and the school were erected in rapid succession. In 1635, provision was made for a public school in Boston, and in a few years free instruction was provided for every white child in

Massachusetts. A year later, Harvard College had its beginning, and thus education was first implanted as a permanent element in American soil. The Constitution of Massachusetts, adopted in 1780, contains a clause written by John Adams, which provides that the legislature shall establish public schools.

The need of public schools was early felt in Pennsylvania. In 1657, during the period of Dutch rule along the Delaware, Evert Pieterson held the office of school-master, and he had a school of twenty-five pupils. Penn also urged the importance of public schools, and in 1691 George Keith opened school in Philadelphia at a salary of fifty pounds a year. Penn's Frame of Government, 1682, provides "that the Governor and Provincial Council shall erect and order all public schools, and encourage and reward the authors of useful sciences and laudable inventions in the said province;" further providing that the laws of the province shall be taught in the schools. Among the laws made at an assembly held at Philadelphia in 1683 was one, "that all persons having children shall cause such to be instructed in reading and writing, so that they may read and write by the time they are twelve years old."

The subject of education under our State government forms an important chapter in the history of Pennsylvania. From the days of the Constitution of 1790, which provided that the children of the poor shall be educated free, to the Constitution of 1873, which provides that all children above the age of six years shall be entitled to the privileges of an education free, there has been developed a wonderful sentiment in behalf of free schools. The educational history of our state is also marked by a wonderful growth in the colleges. Beginning with the University of Pennsylvania, founded by Benjamin Franklin, in 1740, as "The Charity School of Philadelphia," up to the present day, many thriving institutions have been established, and the college population in our State now reaches probably 8000.

The subject of the Relation of the High School to the College in Pennsylvania should claim more attention from educators than it does at the present time. It is the opinion of the best educators of the day that the system of public education should be complete from the primary school to the University, so that the one may naturally lead to the other. The school law of Pennsylvania allows directors to place such studies in the curriculum as will naturally lead to the college, and when the demand for such a course of study exists, School Boards are justified in so arranging the courses.

In the West, the idea of bringing the high schools into line with the colleges and the universities has taken a strong hold of the people and of the schools. Michigan has led off in this direction, and has sent out

the professors of its colleges into the high | schools, offering to accept their students without examination, if their high schools were brought up to certain standards. Today, Michigan has one of the very best school systems in the United States, a complete scheme of education from the Kindergarten to the University. Illinois is rapidly developing such a system, and the University of Illinois now has sixty accredited high schools from which it receives students into the Freshman class. The Illinois Wesleyan University has sixteen accredited high schools on its list, while the Northwestern University has twenty-one accredited high schools. Minnesota is also fast developing an ideal school system. The arrangement is as follows: Common schools, high schools, normal schools and the state university. The high schools are free to all the youth of the State, and they complete the preparation of many young men and women for college. At present, there are fourteen high schools of this class in Minnesota, with a full preparatory course, and fine equipments of libraries and apparatus.

The new States in the Northwest are taking the lead in offering liberal provisions for a higher education. Arrangements are made in their constitutions for the organization of the State Universities, in which the tuition is usually free, while below, there is an excellent system of high schools, giving ample preparation for the Universities. Accordingly, the sections on education in the new constitutions are more elaborate than they were in the constitutions of fifty years ago.

The leading European countries have a national system of education. In Germany, especially, the imperial government controls the schools, and the Universities, which are all considered to be of equal rank. These Universities heve a uniform standard for entrance, making the system harmonious throughout the empire. We have no national system of education, but instead, there are 44 systems. Probably it is better that each State is allowed to control its own system. However, the government of each State should require the colleges to adopt a uniform standard for entrance. It would be well for the colleges in each State to be more fully under State supervision. In chartering the colleges, the State bestows upon them large privileges, and the State should see to it that each degree granted by a college is worthily given, and possesses an intrinsic value. Too often the value of a degree means but little. Dr. Isaac Sharpless tells of an instance of an institution in our State in which a man and his wife constituted the facuity. Through the aid of a political friend, they secured a charter from Pennsylvania's generous legislature, which empowered them with the privilege of conferring degrees. The husband soon conferred upon himself the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and upon his wife that of Master

of Arts. of Arts. I know of another instance where a lecturer in a medical school gave a certain college a few dollars' worth of apparatus, and as a reward, the degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon him. If the charters of such colleges were annulled, and if the reputable colleges of the State were to adopt a uniform standard for entrance, all of our High Schools could be graded so as to lead naturally to the college.

Although the colleges of Pennsylvania have not yet taken any steps in this direction, still I find that many of our High Schools have been preparing students for college for many years, and some of the High School graduates of our State have been admitted into the best Universities. From a comparative study of High School catalogues, I have gathered much information. The following will show the amount of work done in the languages and mathematics in some of our high schools:

Norristown High School-German, 4 years; Latin, 4 years; Greek, 2 years; plane and solid geometry, trigonometry, algebra complete.

Wilkesbarre High School-Latin, 3 years; German, 3 years. Geometry, trigonometry and algebra, 3 years.

York High School-Latin, 4 years; German, 3 years. Geometry, trigonometry, algebra, 3 years. Scranton High School-Latin, 3 years; Greek 2 years; German, 3 years. Geometry, trigonometry, algebra, 3 years.

Towanda High School-Greek, Anabasis and Iliad; Latin, Cæsar, Virgil and Cicero. Algebra and geometry, 3 years.

Harrisburg High School-Latin, 4 years; Greek and German, 3 years, French, 2 years. Geometry, trigonometry, algebra, 3 yeers.

Reading High School-Greek, Anabasis and Iliad; Latin, Cæsar, Virgil and Cicero; German, 3 years. Geometry, trigonometry, algebra.

Tunkhannock High School-Latin, Cæsar, Virgil and Cicero; Greek, Anabasis and Iliad; geometry, trigonometry, algebra.

Lancaster High School-Latin, 3 years; Greek, 2 years; German, 4 years; French, 3 years; geometry, trigonometry, algebra.

Chester High School-Latin, 4 years; Greek, 2 years; geometry, trigonometry, algebra.

Altoona High School -Latin, Virgil, Cæsar and Cicero; Greek, 4 years; German, 4 years; French, 2 years: geometry, trigonometry and surveying, algebra.

North Wales High School-Latin, 3 years:: German, 2 years; algebra and geometry, 3 years. Williamsport High School Latin, Cæsar, Virgil, Cicero; Greek, 2 years; German, 3 years;. geometry, trigonometry and surveying, algebra.

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Wellsboro High School-Latin, 3 years;: Greek, 2 years; German, 3 years; geometry.. trigonometry, algebra.

Slatington High School-Latin, Cæsar, Vir-gil, Cicero; Greek, Anabasis and Greek Testament; algebra, geometry and trigonometry.

Bradford High School-Latin, Virgil, Cæsar, Cicero; Greek, Anabasis, Homer: algebra, ge ometry and trigonometry.

Meadville High School-Latin, Cæsar, Vir-gil, Cicero; algebra," plane and solid geometry.. Erie High School Latin, Cæsar, Virgil..

Cicero; Greek, Anabasis, Homer, Herodotus; German, 4 years; French, 4 years; geometry, trigonometry, algebra.

Central High School, Philadelphia — Languages and mathematics, full collegiate course. Degree of A. B. granted.

Pottsville High School-Latin, Greek and German, 3 years; geometry, trigonometry, algebra.

Besides approved courses of study, the above-named high schools have a more or less satisfactory material equipment. Apparatus in variety is provided, and the facilities for teaching the natural sciences are in some of the schools first-class. Many of these High Schools have a faculty with a professor in charge of each important subject. Thus the Reading High School has had for its Professor of Chemistry a graduate of a German University. The Philadelphia High School has twenty-one professors and instructors. The Erie High School has a faculty of eleven members, and nearly all of them are college graduates.

In addition to the above information, I have found by correspondence with the colleges of this and adjacent States that a great many Pennsylvania High Schools had been preparing students for college. The following are the colleges and the Pennsylvania High Schools that have prepared students for them:


Lafayette College--Classical Course: toona, Ashley, Bangor, Bath, Bristol, Butler, Catawissa, Chester, Clearfield, Danville, Easton, Erie, Franklin, Fredonia, Girard, Greensburg, Harrisburg, Hollidaysburg, Huntingdou, Houtzdale, Lewistown, Lock Haven, Mercer, Mill Hall, Montrose, Philadelphia, Portland, Pottsville, Scranton, Shenandoah, Slatington, Somerset, Sunbury, Uniontown, Warren, Wellsboro, Wilkesbarre, Williamsport, Stroudsburg, Hazleton. Many of these also entered students in the scientific course.

Haverford College-Classical Course: Philadelphia, West Chester, Towanda. Scientific Conrse: Philadelphia, West Chester, Norristown.

Washington and Jefferson College-Classical Course: Greensburg, New Castle, Pittsburgh, Scientific Course: Allegheny, Greensburg, Washington.

Syracuse University Classical Course: Greenville. Scientific Course: Philadelphia, Bradford, Erie, Scranton, Altoona, Athens.

Allegheny College - Classical Course: Oil City, Bradford, Pittsburgh. Scientific Course: Meadville, Union City, Erie, Warren, New Castle. Greenville.

Western University-Classical Course: Pittsburgh, Allegheny. Scientfic Course: New Castle, Meadville, New Brighton, Beaver, Erie, Leechburg.

Princeton College--Classical Course: Reading, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh. Scientific Course: Peoria, Titusville, Butler, Bethlehem, Hazleton, Lewistown. Lancaster.

Lehigh University-Classical Course: Central High School, Philadelphia. Scientific Course: Bethlehem and South Bethlehem, Lancaster.

Harvard College--Classical Course: Reading, Bradford, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia.

Should space permit, I have material on hand that would increase these lists very much, but the facts already presented show that there is a strong tendency toward college preparatory work in the High Schools of the State.

In an extensive correspondence with High School principals and Superintendents, I have also gathered much information relating to the subject. Principal Bevan of Mauch Chunk informs me that their graduates have entered the scientific course at Cornell, Dickinson and Lafayette. Superintendent Missimer of Erie writes that graduates of the Erie High School have entered the classical course at Yale, Cornell, Vassar, University of Michigan, Adelbert, Thiel, Allegheny, Oberlin, Smith and University of Pennsylvania. Principal Scheibner of Reading writes that graduates of the Boys' High School have entered Harvard classical, Yale classical, Princeton classical, Amherst classical, Cornell scientific, Lehigh classical, Pennsylvania College, classical sophomore, Franklin and Marshall classical sophomore, Muhlenberg classical sophomore, University of Pennsylvania classical, Columbia College classical. Prof. G. W. Phillips, of Scranton, states that their High School has prepared students in the classical and scientific courses for Princeton, Lafayette, Wesleyan, Lehigh, Bucknell and Vassar. Principal Putnam, of Towanda, writes that they fit for college if the students desire it. Students have been prepared in the classical course for Princeton and Haverford, and in the scientific course for Cornell, University of Pennsylvania, Lehigh and the Pennsylvania State College.

Superintendent Transeau, of Williamsport, states that they have prepared pupils for Lafayette, Lehigh, Cornell, Dickinson, Harvard and University of Pennsylvania. Twenty students were prepared in five years. J. C. Breidinger, principal at Tunkhannock, replies that students have been prepared for the scientific course of Yale, Harvard and Lafayette. Principal Bevan, of Catasauqua, informs me that students have been prepared there for Lehigh classical and scientific, Lafayette and Muhlenberg. Supt. Wm. M. Benson, of Huntingdon writes that students have gone from Huntingdon to Princeton, State College, Bucknell and Franklin and Marshall. The Slatington High School has prepared students for Muhlenberg, Ursinus and Lafay ette. Lafayette admits the pupils on the certificate of the principal. The Greensburg High School has prepared students for Washington and Jefferson, Bucknell, Geneva College and Grove City College. Thirteen students have been prepared for college during the past five years.

The movement seems to be general all along the line. Supt. Cottingham, of Easton, writes: "The old course of study

has been abandoned in order to give place to our new curriculum, adapted to the readjustment of the school into classical, scientific and business departments. The male graduates who enter college are usually matriculated at Lafayette, whilst a few have entered other colleges." Supt. Foster, of Chester, in a report to the School Board, some time ago, said, "I am proud to add our High School to the large number of those throughout the country that are recognized leaders of the higher institutions of learning." From Principal Roth, of Bradford, I learn that the Bradford High School has prepared students in the classical course for Vassar, Harvard, Yale, Oberlin, Wellesley and Cornell. Ample provision has been made to fit for any American college. A chemical and physical laboratory has been built equal to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Principal Hoxton, of Meadville High School, writes that since Meadville is a college town, most of the graduates of the High School attend Allegheny College, but the graduates are also ready to enter any college.


ADAMS Supt. Thoman: Another of the most successful Institutes was held at Gettysburg in the last week of November. One thing among others considered by our teach- | ers was the formulating of a plan for a county-school exhibit for the next Institute. The committee appointed for this work made the following report: Teachers are to send all the work they deem proper to the County Superintendent's office at least three weeks prior to the meeting of the Institute, the specimens to be selected from work done by pupils between this time and the date of sending in same; that a committee of seven teachers be appointed to meet at least two weeks before the Institute convenes, and select from work sent in, and arrange and classify it properly. The specimens are to consist of drawings, compositions, penmanship, botanical specimens, geological collections, examination papers, and manual training-work-in short, all school-room work will be accepted. The first regular session of the Directors' Association was held in the public-school building, Gettysburg, November 30th. The number of Directors present was about ninety, also a large number of spectators. The programme previously arranged by the executive committee was very satisfactorily carried out. Dr. G. B. Hancher, principal of the Keystone State Normal School, addressed the directors at their afternoon session; addresses were also made by ex-County Supt. D. G. Williams, of York, and P. D. W. Hankey, of Gettysburg. The Association unanimously recommended the system of graded work in country schools, introduced by the Superintendent, and urged its adop

tion where not already in use. The work of the Association proved of unusual interest. Along the lines of needed school legislation, our directors, being an organized body, are in a position with some prestige to memorialize the law-making power of the State, and thereby bring its influence to bear upon proposed enactments.

ALLEGHENY-Supt. Hamilton : An excellent four-room building was erected in Mifflin township in September. The dedicatory services of the new school in Duquesne were held November 4th. The building is a handsome one with eight rooms. It is heated and ventilated by the Bennett & Peck system. An elegant eight-room brick building was dedicated in Braddock township November 11th. It is heated and ventilated by the Smead system, and is one of the best buildings in the county. At all of these dedications the patriotic orders turned out and took part in the services: A fine twelveroom brick building in Braddock township was burned down early in November. It was insured for $30,000, and will be immediately rebuilt.

ARMSTRONG-Supt. Jackson: A school has been opened in Parks township on account of the crowded condition of No. 2. It would be an advantage to both teachers and pupils if many of the districts would follow the example of Parks and divide the overcrowded schools that exist in some places. No school should have more than forty pupils for one teacher. A very interesting school meeting, addressed by Dr. Waller, was held in Kittanning. A deeper interest has been aroused in that borough.

BLAIR-Supt. Wertz: The School Board of Antis township has demonstrated its progressiveness by advancing teachers' salaries to $40 per month, and repairing and renovating the school-houses. The house at Elizabeth Furnace has been much improved and refurnished with patent desks. Our County Institute was largely attended. The Jr. O. U. A. M. and the P. O. S. A., and citizens of Freedom township, placed flags on the school-houses at Leamersville and Puzzletown on Thanksgiving Day. Large audiences were present at each place. There were addresses and music appropriate to the occasion.

BUCKS-Supt. Slotter: The corner-stone of the new school-house at Morrisville was laid October 9. Lewis R. Bond conducted the exercises, in which the teachers and pupils participated. The large audience and the close attention indicate the deep interest people of the town and the surrounding community feel in everything pertaining to the educational welfare of their children. The site is an historic spot, being a part of the gronnds where Washington's army encamped in 1776. It is in every way well suited for its present use. The annual Teachers' Institute has left most encouraging impressions. The attendance throughout the week was much larger than

usual. Of the 300 teachers of the county, only six were absent; of these, four were at the World's Fair, and two were sick. On Directors' Day 122 directors were present. The schools of the 3d ward, Quakertown, moved into their new house November 13. It is a large brick building, finished in hard wood, and heated and ventilated by the Smead-Wills system. It is in every way a credit to the town. West Rockhill has placed a copy of Webster's International and a neat book-case in each school of the district. Warminster has enlarged two of its school-yards. The teachers of Northampton township have arranged to hold a Local Institute at Richboro, January 18th or 19th, 1894.

CAMBRIA-Supt. Leech : The annual County Institute was a most successful educational meeting, in point of interest and attendance of teachers and directors, and the character of the work done by the instructors, Hon. Henry Houck, Supt. J. S. Walton, Prof. John B. DeMotte, Dr. L. B. Sperry and Prof. A. D. Meloy. The strong points of the Institute were, the entire harmony throughout, the thoughtful attention of the teachers to the excellent work of the instructors, the division of the Institute for two hours during the forenoon into three sections, primary, intermediate and higher, and ungraded for the purpose of special instruction-and the music under the direction of Prof. T. L. Gibson, which was a source of much enthusiasm and inspiration. CHESTER Supt. Walton: Good work is being done this year by the various teachers' associations throughout the county. Over fifteen valuable meetings have been held. A large number of expensive charts were placed in our schools last summer. many places the dust accumulates upon them, where reference books and choice reading are scarcely known. Our teachers,


as far as visited, are doing better average work than during any previous year.

CLEARFIELD-Supt. Youngman: Twelve new schools were opened this year, making a total of 387 in the county. Additional graded schools are needed in some districts in order to reduce the primaries and make better teaching possible. The several new buildings erected are an improvement on the old style and are a promise of better things to come.

COLUMBIA-Supt. Johnston: The county institute was a success. Notwithstanding the fact that it was held more than a month earlier than usual, every teacher in the county except nine-four on account of sickness-was enrolled and in attendance, The instructors were Dr. J. B. De Motte. Dr. L. B. Sperry, Mrs. Ella Greene, Miss Ella Richardson, Dr. J. P. Welsh, Profs. Noetling, Chas. Albert, Henry R. Russell, E. K. Richardson, and C. M. Parker. The evening entertainments: Dr. De Motte, Prof. L. I. Handy, Col. Geo. W. Bain, and The Ollie Torbett Concert Company. Arrange

ments are being made to hold about ten local institutes during the school year. The first of these will be held at Berwick, Saturday, December 9th, with a lecture Friday evening previous by Prof. Handy. The schools so far as visited are in good condition, and the teachers are in most cases doing good work.

CUMBERLAND-Supt. Beitzel: Never before were teachers so scarce as at the opening of this year,--a condition brought about by raising the standard of fitness. Our aim has been to improve the schools and thus to raise the salaries of teachers. As a result, a larger proportion of our teachers are experienced in the work. Middlesex put in four new slate black boards. The Mechanicsburg schools now occupy their new building. Principal E. M. Baxter has introduced some new features, one of which is to march the pupils out of the building to the tap of the drum. He has also provided a series of educational lectures by prominent educators for the benefit of the teachers and friends of the cause a step in the right direction. Mechanicsburg can now lay claim to the finest public school building in the county. The Board is composed of public spirited men, and although they were considerably criticised for their progressiveness, they have erected a building which will be a lasting monument to their fidelity to the highest interest of humanity. Future generations will speak their vindication with grateful hearts.

FULTON Supt. Chestnut: Local institutes are organized and have been held during the term in each of eleven townships. Eighteen such meetings have been held, eleven of which I have attended. They are very beneficial to teachers, schools, and patrons. In one district, Belfast, the use of a house was forbidden by the President of the Board; two weeks later we held a meeting in another house of the same township. The aim is to spend enough time in each school to understand its practical working, and the spirit animating the teacher. Too many teachers lack energy and enthusiasm; all such should be weeded out as fast as possible. Most teachers are, however, anxious to improve.

GREENE-Supt. Stewart: The four local institutes held this month were well attended, and much interest was taken in them by teachers and citizens. Most of the teachers (I wish I could say all) did active work in these meetings. I am now spending most of my time in visiting schools. I find three classes of teachers: Those who are working merely to get in the time; those who feel that they are paid for their work, and ought to do enough to earn the money; those who are throwing their whole energy into the duties of each day, and are working as if their future success, and the wellbeing of society, depended on how they teach this winter. This latter class should be kept in the schools at any cost. I am edit

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