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ing an educational column in the Waynesburg Independent. This paper is sent free to each school in the county.

JUNIATA-Supt. Marshall: Our annual Institute was held at Mifflintown. All the teachers but one were present. Our instructors were Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, Prof. Chas. H. Albert, Dr. L. I. Handy, Dr. A. R. Horne, and Dr. J. B. De Motte. On Tuesday afternoon, Prof. J. T. Ailman made a very able address on The Mission of the Public Schools." Evening entertainments: address of welcome by Dr. H. C. Holloway; response, by Samuel J. Stoner; "Our Children's Heritage," by Prof. Albert; "The Road to Victory,' by Dr. Handy; "Push and Pull," by Dr, Horne; Concert by the Schumann Male Quartette; illustrated lecture, The Harp of the Senses, or, the Secret of Character Building," by Prof. De Motte. On " Directors' Day" about thirtysix directors were present. They were addressed by Dr. A. R. Horne, who spoke to them about what should be done with our portion of the $5,500,000 appropriation. Addresses were also made by several of the directors and citizens.


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LACKAWANNA-Supt. Taylor: In many schools the directors have ordered too few books. This is a serious mistake; but we hope all schools will be fully supplied before January 1st, 1894. Uniform examination questions were sent to all teachers in the county, and an examination held November 28th. A local Institute was held at Waverly. Prof. Geo. P. Bible, of Stroudsburg, gave an evening lecture, and also assisted at the day sessions. The teachers of the boroughs of Blakely, Winton, Olyphant and Dickson- forty-three in all-met at Olyphant, November 18th, and organized for monthly Institute work. Their meetings will be held on the second Saturday of each month. The work will be both scholastic and professional. Conductors in arithmetic, geography and theory of teaching were appointed. Hughes' "Mistakes in Teaching" was adopted as their first text-book in professional work. The officers of the organization are: President, M. W. Cummings; Vice-President, Carrie A. Kenyon; Secretary, M. J. Lloyd; Treasurer, J. A. Moyles. This is the only attempt to do regular, systematic work that has been made for some years.

LAWRENCE-Supt. Watson: The schools of W. Newcastle were opened in their new school building November 13th, with a large attendance-so much so that it was necessary to open the eighth room and elect another teacher. The schools of Mahoningtown have been closed for the past two weeks on account of dipththeria. Three deaths have been reported.

LEBANON-Supt. Snoke: Never before had there been a better attendance of teachers and directors at the County Institute. Every teacher in the county responded to the first roll-call. With one exception, I

have visited all the schools and found them doing well. Successful local Institutes have been held in Londonderry, Annville and North and South Lebanon.


LUZERNE-Supt. Harrison: The free textbook system brought about a noticeable change in at least one respect. Formerly it was not an unusual thing to find pupils who were spending their entire time in the study of three or four branches. teacher found it difficult to induce the parents to furnish the necessary books. If the Board insisted upon its being done, the pupils would sometimes leave school. Now it is a rare thing to find a pupil refusing to take up certain branches. Some districts failed to order a sufficient number of books and have been at a disadvantage in consequence; but this will soon be remedied.

LYCOMING-Supt. Becht: The plan of having District Superintendents hold monthly meetings is attended with great success. Limestone, Loyalsock, Lewis, Washington, Fairfield and Bastress districts have held such meetings, with the result of awakening an interest in teachers, directors, patrons and pupils. Jersey Shore has added a year to the course of study and will engage an assistant for the High School. The work throughout the county during the past month has been most encouraging.

MIFFLIN - Supt. Cooper: During the month I have visited thirty schools, including the borough of Lewistown, under the supervision of Prof. J. C. Houser, and the schools of McVeytown, under Mr. W. B. Rodgers. These schools are doing good work. Perhaps the greatest deficiency in some of our schools is a lack of discipline. Armagh and Brown townships held their first Institute November 3d and 4th. The evening session was especially well attended. Our County Institute, held in Lewistown, was a complete success, and the Superintendent thankfully appreciates the hearty coöperation of the teachers during the entire week. On Wednesday, which was Directors' day, about one-third of the directors of the county were present. "Employment of Teachers" and "Method of Ventilating School-Rooms were the questions discussed; the former was opened by Rev. Focht, of Lewistown, and the latter by Roland Thompson, of Milroy.

NORTHAMPTON-Supt. Hoch: Arbor Day was celebrated by the Bath schools with appropriate exercises. Addresses were made by Revs. Krider, Linderman and Erisman. Four trees were planted and named in honor of Supt. W. F. Hoch, Grover Cleveland, Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, and Geo. D. Humbert. Our County Institute was very successful.

PIKE-Supt. Sawyer: The free textbooks have given a stimulus to education. Evidences of educational advancement are noticeable on every hand, and children are anxious to make good use of the present advantages. Probably part of this is due to the better classification of pupils afforded

by the uniform text-books. For a number of years past the pupils in several districts have been permitted to study whatever books were brought to school, to save parents the expense of buying new books.. The result was that in a great many cases there would be several classes formed where there should have been only one of a certain grade. Less time had to be devoted to a recitation, and the small number of pupils in a class caused the interest in study to lag in spite of the earnest efforts of our best teachers. The difficulty has been overcome by uniform books, and the schools are the better for it.

SOMERSET Supt. Berkey: All the schools, 284 in number, are in successful operation. Local Institntes have been organized in all but a few of the districts, and under the direction of wide-awake and progressive teachers they are doing much good.

TIOGA Supt. Raesley: The attendance at the annual Institute on the part of teachers, and the general interest manifested, were never better. During several days the number of visitors was limited only by the size of the hall in which the sessions were held. Instruction was given by State Superintendent N. C. Schaeffer, Superintendent J. S. Walton, Dr. L. B. Sperry, ex-Supt. M. F. Cass, Profs. H. E. Cogswell, W. R. Longstreet, A. F. Stauffer, and J. P. Breidenzer, and Mrs. G. B. Strait. In addition to the work of the instructors, Hon. H. W. Williams, of the Supreme Court, delivered an able address on The Relation of the State to the Nation." Interesting papers were read by Profs. J. C. Doane and W. E. Blair, and Miss Flora Russell. In accordance with resolutions passed to that effect, a committee of seven teachers was appointed to establish a Teachers' Reading Circle. The county was also divided into fifteen local institute districts, and a committeeman appointed for each district.

UNION-Supt. Johnson:

I have visited

all our schools, and find that in nearly all the districts, directors have not only complied with the letter, but the spirit of the law, in arranging for books and supplies, and in the construction of out-buildings. All the schools of the county are working under a system of grading which promises good results.

VENANGO-Supt. Bigler: I have undertaken to introduce Welch's system of classification, gradation, and close supervision. A number of townships have already adopted it, and others are considering it. I think, if properly introduced, it will be an aid to better work. The best reason for the introduction of such a system is the loose and unsatisfactory results attained in our schools.

WASHINGTON-Supt. Tombaugh: Our district and local Institutes are very successful; many of them are being held. The attendance at the County Institute was larger than ever before. The number of antiquated

moss-backs, who learned it all long ago, and do not need Institute instruction, is becoming beautifully less each year.

WESTMORELAND Supt. Ulrich: In many of our townships local Institutes are being held; in some once a month, in others every two weeks. I hear very good reports from these districts relative to the interest taken in the Institutes.

ALLENTOWN-Supt. Raub: One male and one female night school have been opened with a good attendance. The male school is taught by one of the regular teachers, and the female by a young lady who holds the position of substitute.

BETHLEHEM-Supt. Farquhar: The public schools of Bethlehem observed Arbor Day, November 8th, in conjunction with the reception and dedication of a new bell for the Neisser building. Trees were planted and named. A glass jar containing a variety of articles was placed at the root of the tree named the " George Neisser Maple." The bell was dedicated to the memory of George Neisser, Bethlehem's first school teacher; it bears the inscription: "1893. In honor of George Neisser, Bethlehem's First School Teacher, 1743. His work will live forever." Director Edward Weiden delivered the introductory address; Director Augustus S. Bishop, the address of dedication; and Rt. Rev. J. Mortimer Levering, the formal address of the occasion on the "Life and Work of George Neisser." A pleasing incident of the exercises was the crowning of the bell with a wreath of choice flowers by Anna Frances Neisser, a descendant, who sought in this way to honor a worthy ancestor. The School Home class of Neisser building placed the flowers next day on the good man's grave in the Moravian cemetery.

Bradford CITY—Supt. Roth: The enrolment is the largest in the history of the schools. The attendance in the High School is relatively very large. This is owing to the re-organization effected last month, and already reported. The movement in providing fitting facilities for any American college has stimulated and raised the standard in every department in the High School, and more than doubled the attendance. However, our most pressing present need is for a compulsory school law to meet "cases of truancy." The attractiveness of the school-work will do much, but not enough to reach those pupils not within the scope of such influence. Without reaching such cases now on the streets, or prematurely at work, our State School system can never fulfil its mission. What can be done?

CHAMBERSBURG Supt. Hockenberry: Having united the two High Schools, and anxiously watched the result for three months, it is gratifying to all concerned to know that under the efficient corps of instructors, the anticipated advantages of the plan are being fully realized. All our teachers attended the County Institute, which was one of unusual value professionally.

DUNMORE-Supt. Williams: At their last meeting the School Board adopted Prang's system of Form Study and Drawing. The services of a competent supervisor have been procured. The directors are very favorable to progress, and undoubtedly other educational features of merit will soon become a part of our school system.

HAZLE Twp., (Luzerne Co.)-Supt. Mulhall: The study of Latin has been introduced into several schools of the township during the present term. Twenty-four copies of Allen & Greenough's Latin Grammar and Harper & Burgess' Inductive Latin method have been supplied to these schools, besides a number of Wentworth's Geometries. The pupils taking up these branches are doing so with a view to prepare themselves for a normal school course. Quite a number of pupils throughout this district are preparing for the teachers' ex


HUNTINGDON-Supt. Benson: The enrollment of pupils is much greater than that of any previous year. I believe free books and supplies have had much to do with it. Nor does it seem that the maximum enrollment is yet reached, for they are still coming in. Almost every day adds a few pupils to the roll of some school. Judging by the liberal contributions of the schools for the support of the orphans' home on Thanksgiving Day, we would conclude that more than mere routine book knowledge is being gained by our pupils.

MILTON-Supt. Goho: On Nov. 3d, the teachers of Mt. Carmel visited our schools, with Supt. Dean at their head. The Board is having an addition put to the high school building for the introduction of the Mead flush-closet system.

MT. CARMEL-Supt. Dean: The marked improvement in our schools is due to better grading, the introduction of drawing, and a better class of teachers. We are determined that those employed shall be normal school graduates or the equivalent thereof. There has been much sickness in the schools, and the percentage of attendance has consequently been lowered. The teachers are doing excellent work; they have taken hold of the drawing vigorously and with good success. Our high school is working hard, and under the efficient care of Mr. Cocklin will hold its own with the best of high schools. Ground has been purchased for a new high school building, to be erected next spring. We hold a primary grade meeting each Monday, and an advance grade meeting each Tuesday after


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NORRISTOWN-Supt. Gotwals: On Tuesday before Thanksgiving Day, our school children were asked each to bring a potato for the poor of the borough. The bringing was entirely optional. On Wednesday afternoon these were collected, and they amounted to over seventy bushels of the finest potatoes. The children seemed very happy to have this opportunity of giving something for the relief of the needy.

OIL CITY-Supt. Babcock: Free textbooks and supplies are a great help to the teacher; at least we find them so here. Heretofore there has been more or less delay, because some of the pupils were not promptly supplied with books. The children seem delighted, also, with the fact that their wants in school are so well provided for. Thus far we have found them more careful of the books and supplies furnished by the School Board, than they formerly were of their own.

SCRANTON-Supt. Phillips: Our night schools opened the first Monday in November. This year we have adopted the plan of admitting by card granted by the controller of the ward. Night schools heretofore have not been at all satisfactory; in fact, the results were not at all what the district had a right to expect. The branches taught are arithmetic, reading, writing and spelling. The contract has just been let for a $26,000 building, exclusive of heating and ventilation, to contain eight rooms. The architect has also presented plans and specifications to the Board for a twelveroom building. So the good work goes on.

SUNBURY-Supt. Oberdorf: The vacancy in the high school has been filled by the election of Prof. H. W. Consar, of New Berlin College. He is a man well qualified for the position, with eight years' experience in teaching, and will begin work January 2. The percentage of attendance has been reduced by sickness, measles and scarlatina prevailing. Otherwise work seems to be progressing satisfactorily. No time has been given to visitation of schools, my whole time being required in the high school. The directors do but little visiting, depending upon the Superintendent's report for their information as to the condition of the schools.

TITUSVILLE-Supt. Crawford: During the month we have organized all our teachers into the "Teachers' International Reading Circle." A very lively interest is awakening in the work.

WEST CHESTER-Supt. Jones: The boys' debating club and the girls' literary society are valuable features in the high school. These are managed by the pupils themselves in the presence of a teacher. Dr. Francis Newton Thorpe, of the Universiry of Pennsylvania, spoke to the high school on "Education and Citizenship." Prof. Howard, a prominent member of the Chester County Historical Society, presented a framed picture of Lafayette to the school.



J. R. SWENEY, by per.

1. I've reached the land of corn and wine, And all its rich-es freely mine; Here shines undimm'd one 2. The Saviour comes and walks with me, And sweet communion here have we; He gent-ly leads me A sweet per- fume up- on the breeze Is borne from ever - ver-nal trees, And flow'rs that never 4. The zephyrs seem to float to me, Sweet sounds of heaven's mel-o-dy, As an-gels with the


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substantial elements of the common school curriculum for many years have been Reading and Writing, Arithmetic, Geography, History, and Grammar. Without stopping to inquire how it came to pass historically that these constitute everywhere the substantial elements of the common school curriculum, let us see what each contributes toward producing in the pupil that condition which shall prepare him to become a free member of the institutions of society and to participate in the spiritual life of the race.

Mastery of the printed page emancipates the individual from the narrow range of the senses and enables him to use the senses of all mankind, at all times, in all places, and on all subjects. By identifying his thought with the best thought of the world's best men and women expressed in books, the mere individual enters into a life universal. Through the power to read he realizes, "that there is one mind common to all individual men, and that his mind is an inlet to the same and to all of the same." By means of writing he can be present to others far removed in time and space.

Arithmetic makes the individual master of numerical quantity. The individual brings his little product to the common store-house, where it is quanti


No. 8.

He also takes away from that store-house a quantity of the results of the labor of his fellows. Arithmetic is the science of quantity, and lies at the basis of all commercial transactions and renders social combination with its division of labor possible. The science of number, standing midway between concrete things and pure thought, is the first instrument which intelligence uses to gain a mastery over nature. Its efficiency as a means of giving power of attention, abstraction, and generalization, is universally recognized.

As a physical being, man's wants relate him to all countries. He is a member of a joint-stock company which owns an estate twenty-five thousand miles in circumference, and extending from pole to pole. Each individual is related to the entire estate. The return he receives from working the small part to which his attention is directly given, through commerce is infinitely enlarged by its connection with the whole. Geography teaches the individual that his labor and his locality are no private affairs, but that the entire world is interested in them. It teaches him that no part of the world is too remote to be of vital importance to him.

A deep water-way from Duluth to tidewater, and the immense milling and other

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