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special interests of cities, are matters of moment not only to the cities themselves and to the states of the Northwest and the country at large. London and Liverpool are as much interested as Duluth and her sister cities. The denizen of Russia and the peasant of France are as much concerned in these matters as the farmer of Minnesota and the Dakotas. Legislation in the Parliament of Great Britain affecting the monetary value of silver in India interests the merchant of New York and Chicago hardly less than the banker in Bombay and Calcutta. "No man liveth to himself" is the principle which lies at the basis of society, and Geography is the most efficient means of giving that insight.

Geography gives to man a knowledge of himself, by teaching him the infinite web of his relations extended in space, and history gives him a knowledge of himself as extended in time. To know himself, one must know the process of his becoming. Not alone are the man and woman who gave him birth his parents. He is the child of ages. All the past is his parent. To know himself, he must know that parent. To be an obedient and intelligent child of the state, he must know that state. This knowledge he acquires by the study of the history of his country. There he sees revealed in the struggle from which events are born that power in the world which makes for righteousness. He sees the process by which that which is eternal in the human will overcomes that which is negative and makes itself permanent and substantial by embodying itself in the objective world of institutions. History reveals to him the identity of the reason embodied in institutions with his own reason, and he will defend society because in so doing he is defending his own permanent, universal self.

The act of identifying the reason within with the reason without, is an act of reflection, a power which pre-eminently distinguishes man from the lower orders of being. The most efficient means of developing this power is the subject of Grammar. By the study of Grammar I mean the study of the forms of expression as based upon a study of the forms of thought which determine expression. Here the mind is brought face to face with itself. It studies it own products and the processes and laws by which those products are formed. It gets glimpses of

that Infinite Mind in whose image it is created, in which it "lives and moves and has its being," and which is the essence of the world.

Admitting that an elementary course of study, limited to reading and writing, arithmetic, geography, history, and grammar, is not entirely complete, it may still be insisted that such a course is exceedingly rich.

By means of these subjects the modern child has become what the ancients conceived their gods to be. A score of illustrations might be given, but one is sufficient. The name of the Hindoo goddess Ushas means, in the Sanscrit, "to know." In his bible, the Veda, the Hindoo describes his goddess thus: "Beautiful goddess! daughter of heaven, the giver of light. First of all the world is she awake, trampling over transitory darkness. From on high she beholds all things." Modern society is making each child another Ushas. She is placing him on high where he may behold all things. By means of the simple elementary subjects with which we have grown so familiar that there is a disposition in some quarters to treat them with contempt, the child becomes a denizen of all nations, a contemporary of all is ages, placed in right relations with his fellows, and is furnished the only "open sesame," to the world of matter and of man.

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Not the common school curriculum so much as the common school teacher, needs enriching. "Apperception" and concentration name principles that will greatly modify the method of dealing with the subjects of elementary education, but reason and experience have already furnished us the best possible subjects. The great need is fewer narrow individuals" and more large persons" in the school room. That our schools are imperfect, nobody knows better than those who, from the inside, are engaged in the effort to make them better; but nothing will prevent improvement so much as to divert attention from the real defects by dwelling upon side issues.

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Society insists that the editor shall have a keen insight into public affairs. It insists that the lawyer shall be a person, that he shall know the principles of jurisprudence, the statutes of his state, and the decisions of the courts. Society demands that the minister shall be orthodox, that he shall represent the doctrines of his church, rather than his mere indi

mastery of the elementary subjects, the technicalities of all knowledge, would march to his goal in spite of the memory-cramming, soul-killing monstrosity which the college authorities sometimes place in his way.

Suppose the morality of the pulpit should decline, and the high intellectual

vidual whims (sometimes he develops a personality larger than his church, and that is well). Society demands that the college professor shall know everything pertaining to the subject he professes (except the science and art of teaching it). Society demands that the physician shall be a person familiar with the established principles of physiology, path-ity of our clergy suffer eclipse (God forology, and therapeutics; and woe to the practitioner whose patient dies under a treatment not recognized by the code as regular! His fellows will give testimony, readily recognized as expert, and the court will approve the verdict of homicide.

That same society which is ready to demand all this of its public servants in other departments, will shut a giddy girl of sixteen summers up in a room with forty children, hour after hour, and week after week; but who ever heard of a prosecution for menticide?

It is well to insist upon personality in the other professions, but it is more important in the profession of teaching.

Suppose during a heated campaign the moral nature of our editors was so permanently twisted that they could never again tell the truth, and society should decide to get on without the editors-a generation of men and women who, in the public school, had acquired a taste for good literature and the power to read it, and with the old masters at their elbows telling them truths new every morning and fresh every evening, would hardly miss the editors.

bid !)—but suppose this calamity should overtake us, we would not mourn as those without hope. We would still have an open Bible which would be a lamp to the feet and a light to the path of the common school teacher's pupils. At best the minister meets the child about one hour a week, under circumstances that give him too little influence over it. The public school teacher has full control of the child six hours a day, five days in the week, four weeks in the month, nine months in the year, eight years of the child's life-an aggregate of eight thousand six hundred forty hours! Eight thousand six hundred forty rounds of a ladder up which little feet, God bless them! will climb toward Heaven, or down which little feet, God help them! will crawl toward hell, according to the influence of the common-school teacher.

Retrogression in any of the professions named would be a calamity, but whatever may be their fate with respect to editors, lawyers, doctors, college professors, or ministers, I pray Divine Providence, in the name of Him who loved little children, to send to my children good, efficient public school teachers, men and women possessing a large and rich per

Suppose the lawyers should degenerate intoshysters" who would, for a consid-sonality, and I will risk all the rest.

eration, work to secure the acquittal of a guilty client, and society arose in its wrath and abolished lawyers-a generation of men and women who, in the public school, had learned the beauty of the golden rule, could live together with a goodly degree of harmony without the aid of lawyers.

Suppose the healing art should decline -those who, in the public schools, had learned to conform to the principles of "plain living and high thinking," except in case of accident, would have little need of the physician.

Suppose the college professor should degenerate into what Carlyle calls gerundive, dry-as-dust grad-grind❞—the youth inspired by the common school teacher with a desire to develop the highest possibilities of his being, and given a

What I have been trying to make appear may be summarized in a few brief


Men are of real force in the world according as they represent in their conduct and their thought something of universal value. The universal man has expressed himself in institutions. Each child born into the world is a candidate for membership in the institutions of society. The school is the preparatory institution which qualifies the child for participation in the life of his fellows expressed in the institutions. The organization and curriculum of the public school are admirably adapted to the purpose. The increased efficiency of the school is. to be accomplished chiefly by enlarging the personality of the teacher.-Public School Journal.



SIR JOHN STAINER, Inspector of Music, makes the following report on music in Training Colleges in England and Wales in 1892:

My Lords: I have the honor to present to you my report and that of Mr. McNaught on music in training colleges. This being the tenth year of our work of inspection, a few remarks on the general progress of music in elementary schools, as well as in training colleges, may not be out of place. Ten years ago reading music at sight was made by the Code a requirement for the higher grant of one shilling. The requirements were not, and, indeed, could not have been, suddenly demanded; it had been long known that such a step would be taken, and the standard of work was gradually raised for several years. In 1884 about one and one-fourth million of children earned the grant, in 1892 the number closely touched three millions. All these children have learnt enough about music and theory and practice of music to constitute a sound basis for future work in after-life. Some take exception to this statement on the ground that the majority of children. learn the letter notation (Tonic Sol-fa), and not the Staff. But there need be no misgiving on this score, for the Tonic Sol-fa method now admits those instructed in it to the best literature of vocal music; an immense number of standard vocal works, ancient and modern, can now be obtained in this notation. But this is not all; it will be found that the majority of those having real musical taste use the Tonic Sol-fa system as a stepping-stone to the ordinary Staff; and no more scientific method can possibly be found for unravelling the acknowledged difficulties of the Staff as a vocal notation. The ordinary notation will be infinitely better mastered and understood by those who have passed into it through the gates of the more scientific Tonic Sol-fa, and it is important to note that all that is learnt by the Tonic Sol-faist is of value when studying the Staff. Nothing has to be unlearned.

The ultimate result of the present system of permitting two notations to run side by side on equal terms, will probably be that in the more favored and prosper

ous schools the lower divisions will be presented in the letter notation, the higher divisions in the Staff. This is the goal towards which our faces have been set from the very first; and our recommendation that this should be done has now been carried out in many important schools. It would be premature to make the combination of both notations compulsory; it can only be successfully adopted in schools which exist under very favorable conditions.

At last there seems to be a general movement towards providing school children with a better type of music. It appears to be a fixed notion among some persons that the interest of children can only be concentrated on something that is positively silly. In music, at all events, this is a fatal creed; a school song thoroughly taught and learned becomes a companion for life; it is, therefore, of the highest importance that these compulsory companions should exercise a good influence, not a bad one. Music, good and easy, can be found, and is now being issued for use in schools; and it is to be hoped that in future children leaving school will carry away with them, not a bundle of worthless rubbish which they would gladly throw away, but the cherished memory of many beautiful melodies which they will always recall with pleas


The excellent singing of children in our large town schools is, naturally enough, a fact unknown to the general public, hence the erroneous statements and criticisms made on school music. If some of these critics, whose habit seems to be to make statements first and afterwards look at facts, were to hear the remarkable sight-reading, the pure sweet tone and the tasteful part-singing, that is to be found in our leading towns, I am sure they would be astonished and delighted.

The introduction of this music code into elementary schools made it absolutely necessary to re-model the course of study of students in training colleges. Any attempt to make a sudden and unprecedented demand, would here, as in elementary schools, have defeated its own object. What has been done has been to gradually mould the character and raise the standard of the musical training to such a condition and degree, that every student passing creditably the Inspectors' practical examination may be accepted as

capable of preparing children for the higher grant. Those interested in education will know without further explanation the length of time required to bring about such a result, bearing in mind that music is only one of the many subjects that students have to master during their two years' residence in college. It has also been our object to improve the taste as well as the instruction in technique. Slowly, but surely, an unseemly mass of poor popular songs and ballads has been ejected from colleges to make way for beautiful classical songs, the very study of which is education in itself.

None of the good results we hope to have obtained could have been reached without the most hearty co-operation of the music teachers in training colleges; in previous reports the debt owed to them had been freely acknowledged, and again our expression of gratitude is due to them.

The large number of students entering training colleges absolutely devoid of any musical knowledge, has hitherto been a serious difficulty to teachers; but, owing to the steps taken by your Lordships in instituting an examination in vocal music for pupil teachers, this obstacle to progress has been, we hope, surmounted. It is, of course, too early to report on the results of this new departure; the system has only been got into working order; but it was much needed, and though involving more work on all sides, it has been welcomed everywhere.-The School Music Review.


T was the first day of the year. Dennis Duval was plodding along on horseback through the mud and the mist when he met, at the section corner, Paul Jones, a neighbor, mounted like himself, and the two headed their horses into the

same lane and jogged along together. Duval gave Jones a Happy New Year" as they met, to which Jones replied in a low monotone, "The same to you," and then became silent. The splash of the horses' feet was the only sound for several rods, when Duval broke out:

"What is the matter, Jones? I never saw you look so tore up in my life. You're always counted the best man in the business for a joke; but you don't

*By Wm. Hawley Smith, Author of "The Evolution of Dodd."

look much like it to-day. What's the matter? Anybody dead?"

Jones looked up, gave a grim smile, and replied: "No, there a'n't anybody dead, but I dreamed there was, that's all," and again he was silent.

Nothing but splashing for the next eighty rods, at the end of which Duval again made an attempt at conversation : "You dreamed there was? Who'd you dream was?"

"Myself," said Jones, with a wink and. a sly grin from under his slouched hat. "That you was?" said Duval, and there was silence again.

At length Jones heaved a deep sigh, straightened himself in his saddle, and spoke as follows:

"Yes, I dreamed I was dead. Didn't dream much about the dyin' part, but the first I knew I was standin' afore a gate and waitin' to get in. I waited around awhile, and nobody seemed to come; so I stepped into a kind of a little office just to one side o' the gate to wait. 'Twas a nice kind of a room, not very big, and I was going' around it, lookin' at things, while I was waitin'; and first I knew I saw a big book like a ledger, set up on a desk, or frame like. I kind o' wondered what it was, and as it was right out in the room where anybody could see it, I went up and looked at it, and as sure as I'm a sinner, there stood my account. It was headed in good style, 'Paul Jones, in account, etc.' Dr. on one side and Cr. on the other. It kind o' took me back a little to run onto it so sudden, but I'd been thinkin' about it more or less all the time I'd been waitin'. Well, nobody'd come yet, so I got to looking over the account. The first statement was, 'General Business account,' and I don't want to brag but I had a pretty fair showing, take it all around. I was charged up with some things, just as I deserved to be, but in the main I confess I was pretty well pleased with the way the account looked.

Well, then came the 'Church and Benevolent Society account,' and that made a fair show, too. You see I've always had considerable to give, and so I've given a good deal one way and another, and it was all down all right. There was one or two charges, though, on the other side, that got me a little. ings' and 'giving for personal benefit,' For instance, there was 'neglecting meetand giving for the sake of public approval.' That got me a little, but I

stood that pretty well. I went on down to the 'Widows and Orphans account,' which was in pretty good shape, too, and I was beginin' to feel pretty good, when I struck School Director's account,' and I tell you, Duval, my heart struck the bottom of my boots like lead. You see I'd never thought about running an account with that headin' anyhow. But there it was, and I had to face it. Well, as soon as I got my breath, I took a look at it. I daresn't tell you all there was there, but it makes me sick now to think about it. Why, the Dr. column run on for about six pages, and here's about the way it went:

"Item-Neglecting to keep schoolhouse in repair, on account of which Geo. Newcomb's little girl caught cold and died, and several children suffered severely.

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Item-Neglecting to confer with

And the old man winked slowly with both eyes, as he looked his companion in the face. He then proceeded:

"That let up on me a little, but even that couldn't make me feel just right, and I was pretty well down in the mouth about that business, when I heard the door open, and turned round to see who had come, and it was my little girl, who came to tell me breakfast was ready and wish me a 'Happy New Year.' Well, I got up and ate my breakfast, but I kept thinkin' of my dream, and I just made up my mind that I'm goin' to do what I can for the rest of my natural life to make a better lookin' record than that, when the time really does come that I have to face it. There's our school-house now, with no foundation under it, half a dozen panes of glass out, a poor stove, cracks in the floor, the plasterin' off in three or four places, so that the wind blows right in; the outhouses without roofs, and their sides torn half off, and I don't know what else; and I'm on my way now to call a meetin' of the board to fix things np, and if they aren't better'n they are now inside of a week, why my name a'n't Paul Jones, that's all, and if ever I hire a teacher for any reason except because he's the man or woman for the place, it'll be because I got fooled. Good morning."

And at the section corner they splashed away from each other at right angles, Jones to call the board together, and Duval to tell a reporter of Jones' dream and its results.-Western Teacher.


AID a College professor recently:

teacher and patrons about the interests of We usually think of the cities as

page after page, all charged up.

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Item-Neglecting to insist on uniformity of text-books, and so greatly crippling the school.

Item--Allowing private family quarrels in the district to interfere with and weaken the school.'

"I can't give 'em all, but they made my hair stand on end when I read 'em."

66 Was there nothin' on the other side of the account?" put in Duval.

"Well, yes, clear on the other end there was just one item, and that was, 'Credit by balance, for serving as school director for nineteen years without pay, and subject to the growls and slanders of the whole district.""

centres of cultivation, but my observation convinces me that there is more reading done in the farm-houses than there is in the city."

Undoubtedly this gentleman was right. Reading habits are the exception rather than the rule among the majority of the people in the cities. These people are

too busy to read," but not too busy to go to theatres, or base ball matches, or promenade the streets. The life of the city is unfavorable to reading habits.

The people on the farm are very busy, too, and generally regret that so little time is left them for the improvement of their minds. Nevertheless, few farmhouses are unprovided with periodicals of

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