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ford, and nearly three times as much as five times as much of a State Appropriadoes Sullivan.

tion as the rich; the one gets too little “Now, is this the end and aim of law- money, the other too much, so the rich makers? Do they intend that the rich one raises her levy to three mills and has shall escape all taxation and the poor be 90 units, the poor one cuts hers to 5 crushed down with burdens grievous to mills and has 150 units; each has the be borne? Are the children of the wealthy same amount of money, the 3 mills in the farmer in the valley around Jersey Shore rich township raising more money than more sacred than the children of the hardy the 5 in the poor. Is not this fair and mountaineer in McNett township, that just? No district can get money from the one shall escape all taxation, while the the state but as they assess themselves. other is taxed so heavily that were it not If a people are a live, progressive people, for the sacred purpose of educating their the state gives them a helping hand; if little ones they would not endure it? To they care nothing for education, they canstate the question is but to answer it. I not throw the burdens of taxation on the plead for the bright-eyed boy living on state. There can be no padding of lists our mountains in board houses, through to swell the State Appropriation; it fits which the snows of winter drift. I plead every condition and every people, and for the poor parent who, knowing he can while the lower rate of taxation must give him nothing else, at a fearful sacrifice ever remain with the rich township, it feeds, clothes and educates his child that permits of no such glaring injustice as at he may go out on the world not doomed present. It will permit every township to be a hewer of wood and a drawer of in the state to hire excellent teachers and water for his more fortunate neighbor; prevent the constant dropping out of the nay, more, I demand in the name of jus- profession of the experienced and better tice that this outrage shall cease and a class, and therefore we will have fewer more just mode of distribution be adopted. young, inexperienced teachers, and as a

'Do not overlook this fact, for it is of result all new teachers will be better vital importance, that the State Appropria- fitted for their work. It will check the tion is not voted to relieve taxation that constant stream of retired farmers and comes incidentally—but is voted that each others moving to towns that their chiland every child shall have the opportun- dren can have better facilities to obtain ity to receive a fair education; or in other an education; in short, it will mean a words, it is the child's interests, not the general advancement all along the line. taxpayer's, that are being consulted; “We have heard much in the last few therefore, some plan should be adopted years about the equalization of taxes. that would, as far as possible, place the Many a demagogue has ridden into office schools on an equality with regard to the on that hobby. The school tax is conwealth of the people, and at the same fessedly the heaviest tax we have to pay. time preserve the local rule of the people. Can you show us a better way to equalize We equalize the burden of sustaining the burdens of taxation than by this the schools by taxing all according to method ? Perhaps there may be better their ability to pay. Why should not the ways of distributing this fund than this converse of this proposition be true, and plan. I hope so. We need the best. give to all according to their needs, Let us look the matter fully over. Before equalizing the benefits accruing there- the next legislature meets a year will infrom by a wise and judicious distribution tervene, and the reports showing the reof this fund? How can this be done? sults of the new appropriation will have Suppose, instead of taking the taxable for been issued. Let every Director and the unit, we take some other method. friend of education study the tables careLet us take the number of schools in a fully and seek the best obtainable way. township, multiply it by the number of The world is moving onward, the Golden months taught, and that again by the Age is ahead of us, not behind, and alnumber of mills tax levied for our wants. though great has been our progress, still Let us again take the two townships hav- let Onward be our motto and eternal ading each five schools of six months each. vancement our creed. The dark night of The rich one levies two mills, her num- ignorance is passing away and the bright ber of units would be 60; the poor one morn of universal education tints crimson levies ten mills, her number of units the eastern sky. God speed its glorious would be 300. The poor township gets / noon-day!"

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OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. | height it is best to have the water-closets on

each floor, although basement closets with FREE TEXT BOOKS AND SUBSCRIPTION separate stairways answer the requirements SCHOOLS.

of the law. In all cases they should be made

as neat, and comfortable, and modern as 7. Question : Can the Free Text-Books fur- those of the well-appointed home in the nished for use of any given public school be community. used by a subscription school held in the same Undue economy here is criminal disregard building during a part of the year when the of duty. Everything should be planned as public school is not in session ?

carefully, and should be as durably and atAnswer: The law does not contemplate tractively finished, as any other part of the nor warrant the use of free books by schools school building or its belongings. The not exclusively under the official jurisdic- natural result of this proper care, insuring tion of the directors. A Board of Directors privacy and comfort, is to educate youth to cannot consistently nor lawfully discrimi- such views, impressions, and habits in this nate in the use of books in favor of children direction of vital importance as should charwhose parents may raise a fund for subscrip- acterize a human being. The great body of tion schools for their benefit at the close of right-thinking American people are, in their the regular public school term.

personal habits, the most decent in the The patrons of the school are to be com- world. Of this fact observant gentlemen mended for the progressive spirit shown in and ladies of intelligence who have lived the desire expressed to have better educa- abroad or traveled widely in Europe are well tional advantages for their children than are convinced. This high standard of delicacy, offered by short terms of school. The refinement, decency, should prevail every: proper course, however, to pursue in all such where amongst us. The purpose of general cases is to extend the term of the public education is to lift, slowly but surely, the school, and thus give all the advantages of average of intelligent thought and refining longer annual terms and free books, as well habit to a higher plane-always higher as as free tuition.

the generations go onward. This is the correct solution of the whole When, as in most cases, these houses are question, and is in accordance with the spirit outside of the school building, let shrubbery, of the laws governing the operation of the flowers and vines be planted about and near public school system. Where free text- them, in part to conceal them from public books are in use the schools must be free view; and along the fences and walks, as also, open to all children alike, without any may be convenient, the latter being laid out conditions or restrictions which the law it- with reference to such planting. This will self does not authorize.

add to the appearance of the school grounds,

relieving their too often unattractive barrenSUITABLE AND CONVENIENT OUTHOUSES ness and giving impulse to the good work ON PUBLIC SCHOOL GROUNDS.

of Arbor Day. 8. Question: What is the meaning of the Act

Superintendents and citizens,-especially requiring Boards of School Directors and Con

the Directors and patrons of the schools, -trollers to provide for the better protection of

should see to it that this wise law is carried the health and niorals of children in their re

into effect in its full and proper intent and spective districts?

purpose throughout the entire State. It was Answer: In assigning School Directors

published in our July number, (Vol. 42, p. the duty of providing suitable and conveni- 42), but for the convenience of the reader, ent outhouses for each school under their it is republished as follows: jurisdiction and of making provision for the An Act to require Boards of School Directors keeping of the same in a clean, comfortable and Controllers to provide for the better pro, and sanitary condition, the last Legislature tection of the health and morals of school rendered an invaluable service to the chil- children in their respective school districts. dren of the Commonwealth. No law has Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate been enacted that will do more to protect the and House of Representatives of the Comhealth and morals of the pupils during the monwealth of Pennsylvania in General Asmost formative period in sife.

sembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the The framers of the law evidently contem- authority of the same : That boards of school plated something better than apartments directors and controllers shall provide suit: separated by a mere board partition. They able and convenient water-closets for each of undoubtedly had in mind separate houses the schools under their official jurisdiction, for each sex, either placed at some distance not less than two for each school or school one from the other, or with walks thereto building where both sexes are in attendance, separated by a closed fence not less than in their

respective school districts, with sep. seven feet in height. In cities and boroughs arate means of access for each ; and, unless with school buildings two or more stories in placed at a remote distance one from the

other, the approaches or walks thereto shall ment of Pennsylvania, Grand Army of the be separated by a substantial close fence not Republic, shall then recommend to the Govless than seven feet in height; and it shall ernor five honorably discharged soldiers for be the duty of the directors or controllers to the appointment, who, if approved by the make provision for keeping the water-closets Governor, shall be appointed to serve for in a clean, comfortable, and healthful con- two years. The Governor shall be a memdition.

ber ex-officio of the said Commission. At Sec. 2. Any failure on the part of school the expiration of the said terms of the said directors or controllers to comply with the appointees their successors shall be approvisions of this act shall make them liable pointed in like manner and for like term. to be removed from office by the court of Vacancies occurring in the membership or quarter sessions of the county in which the the said Commission shall be filled by the schools are located, upon complaint made to appointing powers as above set forth. the court under oath or affirmation of not Sec. 4. The said Commission shall elect, less than five taxable citizens resident in the from their own number, a president, secreschool district in which the school is located. tary, financial secretary and treasurer, and

The law of the State of New York on this shall employ all necessary clerks, teachers important subject and the instructions of and employes necessary for the proper conState Supt. Crocker will be found elsewhere

duct and care of the schools. in this issue of The Journal.

Sec. 5. The said Commission shall have full power to continue the soldiers' orphan

schools as now constituted, or, if necessary, SOLDIERS' ORPHANS.

change either, any or all of them, to other

localities, until such time or times as the THE PENNSYLVANIA SOLDIERS' ORPHANS'

Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial

School shall be completed, or sufficiently INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL.

advanced to accommodate said orphans, Act of 1893. Providing for the erection of the

when the Commission shall close all of the Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial

said soldiers' orphan schools. School, the purchase of land and the erection

Sec. 6. The said Commission, under such and equipment of the building or buildings

rules and forms of application as it may necessary therefor, making appropriations for adopt, shall be and is hereby authorized to such purposes, erection and equipment, and

admit to said soldiers' orphans schools, or the maintenance of children admitted therein, to the Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans Inplacing the care of the same in the Commis- dustrial School, soldiers' orphans, of parents sion now known as the Commission of Sol- residents of this state, for a continuous perdiers' Orphan Schools of the State of Penn- iod of not less than five years prior to their sylvania, and regulating the admissions to

application, who shall be under fourteen the said Pennsylvania Soldiers' Orphans' In- years of age, to be educated and maintained dustrial School and the said Soldiers' Orphan therein until they shall severally become sixSchools.

teen years of age, unless sooner discharged Section 1. Be it enacted, &c., That there for cause by order of the Commission. shall be erected at some point within the Sec. 7. Preference in admission shall be as state, easily accessible, a building or build- follows: ings, to be known as the Pennsylvania Sol- 1. Full orphans, the children of honorably diers' Orphans' Industrial School.

discharged soldiers, sailors or marines, who Sec. 2. That the Commission now in served in the war for the suppression of the charge of the soldiers' orphan schools are rebellion, and were members of Pennsylvaempowered to purchase not more than one nia commands, or, having served in the hundred acres of ground, the title of which commands of other states, or of the United shall be vested in the Commonwealth, and States, were residents of Pennsylvania at the to erect buildings thereon, equipping the time of their enlistment. same with shops, tools, etc., for industrial 2. Children of such honorably discharged training as well as for the educational soldiers, sailors or marines as above, whose course, and for the maintenance of the sol- father may be deceased and mother living. diers' orphans, first taking security for the 3. Children of such honorably discharged faithful performance of all contracts, and for soldiers, sailors or marines as above, whose the completion of the building or buildings parents may, either or both, be permanently in a substantial, good, and workmanlike disabled. manner.

Sec. 8. In order that the benefits of indusSec. 3. The said Commission, as now con- trial training may be given to the childreu stituted, shall continue until the third now in its soldiers' orphan schools, and who Wednesday in January, one thousand eight may arrive at an age to be discharged at or hundred and ninety-seven, at which time about the time of the opening of the said there shall be appointed by the president Soldiers' Orphans' Industrial School, the pro tempore of the Senate, two members said Commission is hereby empowered to thereof, and by the Speaker of the House, extend the time of the discharge of such chilthree members thereof, to serve for two dren, who may be fifteen and sixteen years years, and the Commander of the Depart. of age, for the space of two years additional.

annum.

Sec. 9. The per capita rate of appropriation proved and certified to by the said Commisfor the education and maintenance of the sion. children admitted in the Pennsylvania Sol- Sec. 15. Any balance remaining unexdiers' Orphans Industrial School shall not pended for the year one thousand eight hun'exceed the sum of two hundred dollars per dred and ninety-four shall be available for the

year one thousand eight hundred and ninetySec. 1o. No compensation shall be allowed five, in addition to the sum of fifty thousand any member of the said Commission, except dollars herein appropriated for that year. such reasonable expenses as they may incur Sec. 16. That all acts or parts of acts inin the performance of their duties, and no consistent with the provisions of this act be member of said Commission shall be directly and the same are hereby repealed. or indirectly interested, financially, in any school under care of said Commission, or in the education and maintenance of said sol

ITEMS FROM REPORTS. diers' orphans, nor in furnishing supplies to or for the same, nor in the purchase of lands, ARMSTRONG—Supt. Jackson : The County erection of buildings or equipments of the Institute, held at Kittanning, was prosame.

nounced by those in attendance as the best Sec. 11. The said Commission shall, on or we have had in many years. Out of 289 before the third Wednesday in January of teachers, only 17 were absent; most of these each year, present to the legislature, under were kept away by sickness. oath, a detailed report of the financial trans- BEAVER-Supt. Hillman : On Saturday, actions of the preceding year, setting forth in Nov. 11th, the people of Aliquippa, in Logsdetail the amount of all moneys or other town, Ind. District, did themselves great property received on account of such Penn- honor in the dedication of their fine new sylvania Soldiers' Industrial School, and an two-room school-house. The P. O. S. A. itemized statement of the disbursements presented a flag. There were speeches, thereof,

lunch was provided, and a pleasant time Sec. 12. That the year for all provisions was had in every way. The good impresunder this act shall begin on the first day of sion made on the minds of the many chilJune in each year, and end on the thirty-first. dren present will be lasting. An important day of May of the year then next succeeding. educational event during the month was the

Sec. 13. To carry out the provisions of this dedication of the beautiful new school-house act the following sums are hereby specifi- at Fallston. It is a fine brick structure, cally appropriated out of any money in the containing four school-rooms and a hall, treasury not otherwise appropriated, which with the latest improved arrangements for sums shall be paid to the treasurer of the heating and ventilation. The building and Commission of Soldiers' Orphan Schools, grounds cost about $9,000. who shall be required to give a bond in the BeDFORD—Supt. Potts : Never have we sum to be named by the said Commission, had a more successful session of County Inwith security for the proper application of stitute. The attendance was large, both of such moneys:

directors, teachers and patrons. The in1. For the establishing, building, furnish- struction was of a high grade and duly aping and fitting up of said Pennsylvania Sol- preciated. T. L. Gibson, of Ebensburg, our diers' Orphans Industrial School, as herein- musical director, is equal to the best we before provided, the sum of one hundred and have ever had. Good work is being done fifty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as in most of our schools. Local Institutes are may be necessary.

being held in many districts. Bedford town2. For the education and maintenance of ship has completed the Wolfsburg schoolthe children admitted to said Soldiers' Or- house. It is the best in the township and phans' Industrial School, for the year ending one of the best in the county. Directors May thirty-first, one thousand eight hundred deserve the thanks of the people for the good and ninety-four, the sum of ten thousand work being done. Hopewell has moved into dollars, or so much thereof as may be neces- its new house; it is a model building. sary.

BLAIR-Supt. Wertz: The new school3. For the education and maintenance of house at Tyrone, a beautiful and substantial the children admitted to said Soldiers' Or- building, was damaged by fire on the night phans' Industrial School, for the year ending of December 15th, to the amount of several May thirty-first, one thousand eight hun- thousand dollars. The arrangements for dred and ninety-five, the sum of fifty thou- the dedicatory exercises had been made for sand dollars, or so much thereof as may be December 30, preparatory to the opening of necessary.

the schools January 2d. The damage will 4. For the expenses of the Commission, as be repaired as speedily as possible, and the hereinbefore provided, the sum of three house will be ready for occupancy early in thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may February. Neat and substantial book-cases be necessary.

have been placed in the school-houses of Sec. 14. All moneys to be paid on the Nor Woodbury, Huston and Greenfield warrant of the Auditor-General, drawn on townships, and some of the houses in the the State Treasurer upon requisition, ap- latter townships have been neatly repaired.

The first session of the County Teachers' hold provisional or one-year certificates, and Association, for the present school year, was 57 have high grade certificates or State held in Altoona December 9. It was well Normal diplomas. There have been 365 attended, and was pronounced the most in- applicants examined for provisional certeresting meeting since the organization of tíficates, of whom 42 were rejected, and 323 the Association.

passed with an aggregate grade on nine CARBON-Supt. Beisel : Our annual Teach- branches of 18 or less. About 50 of those ers' Institute was held in the opera house, who passed are not residents of Clarion Lansford, the first week in December. We county, and of the number who passed the have 179 teachers, of these 177 enrolled. required grade, 137 are not now teaching in The average daily attendance was 174. The the county. The supply is greater than the same two teachers were noted for their ab- demand. This condition suggests the nesence a year ago. The work done at our cessity of a higher standard. Such work as County Institute was very satisfactory. barely gave a teacher a grade of 18 this year "Not a weak man on the programme" was will cause that teacher not to be licensed the remark of a person able to judge. The next year. Let Directors give the longest Institute was well patronized, which made possible term, pay the highest wages, and deit a success both financially and intellec- mand the best teachers obtainable, regardtually from an educational point of view. less of the desire to bestow personal favors The directors decided to hold their meeting and do acts of charity. This year 184 perhereafter on Wednesday, and to devote the sons were granted certificates aggregating whole of the afternoon to the discussion of only 16 or lower. And as near as I can tell topics bearing upon their office. On Satur- about 65 persons each hold a professional day, December 16th, the principals of the certificate, a permanent certificate, or a county held a meeting at Mauch Chunk. Normal diploma. So we see there are more After squaring up the business pertaining than enough teachers of good grade to fill to the County Institute, they formed a per- all the schools. I would, therefore, suggest manent organization. At this meeting we to all school directors that as soon after the divided the county into five local institute first of June as possible, they determine the districts and decided to hold two institutes, length of next term, and the salary of the one in the second district at Weatherly and teachers they will employ, then pass such the other in the fourth district at Lehighton. resolution in regard to the teacher's cerThis organization will prove a factor for tificate as they think right. Such action good both to themselves and to me. Four will do more in one year to raise the standof our teachers resigned-one has gone ard of qualification than I can do in three. West, another into business, two are pro- If they will elect teachers early, they will moted to the “queenship" of the household. have an opportunity to choose from the The schools of Carbon are doing well. best. Next spring examinations will begin

CENTRE-Supt. Gramley: The attendance in May, and be finished before July 1. This of teachers and citizens at our annual Teach- will give directors a chance to act on the ers' Institute was very gratifying. All above suggestion. Let our teachers strive manifested unusual interest in the proceed- to meet all conditions imposed by the most ings. The executive committee of the advanced school board, and let our watchDirectors' Association had outlined an ex- word be progress all along the lines. A cellent programme for Directors' Day, and very interesting local Institute was held at although the number of directors present Sligo. The programme was arranged by was not as large as it might have been, yet Prof. C. M. McNaughton, principal of the such interesting discussions cannot fail to Sligo schools. County Institute was held be productive of good to our schools. Our at Clarion ; 232 teachers were enrolled, all instructors were Drs. Schaeffer, Groff and but eleven of the whole number. Some new Philips, and Profs. Swift, Twitmyer and departures were taken in Institute work, one Brumgard. Our evening lecturers were Dr. of which was the reading of a Pestalozzi Philips, Profs. Twitmyer and Perrine, and Primer. It was a success. Much of the time an entertainment by the Schumann Concert was given to local talent, with gratifying Company.

results. Prof. Isensee, of ittsburg, conCLARION-Supt. Beer: We have two new ducted the music. Receipts, $787.15; exschool-houses ready for occupancy–Rimers- penditures, $771.33. The Institute was acburg, three rooms, and Callensburg, two. counted by the teachers as good as any ever I have arranged for several local Institutes. held here, and it had a larger enrollment of But one township (Piney) divided their term actual teachers than ever before. and employed two corps of teachers. Toby CLINTON-Supt. Snyder : Our County Inalso divided the terni, but only so far as stitute was very largely attended, limited wages were concerned.' The same teachers only by the capacity of the court house. are teaching the winter term that taught Directors' day found most of the districts the fall term. The average length of the represented, and considerable interest was term is 6% months; it ought to be longer. manifested on their part as to how they can There are 37 districts, 243 schools, which is best advance the school interests. a gain of 4 over last year; 244 teachers and CLEARFIELD — Supt. Youngman: The 219 Directors. Of those now teaching, 187 | County Institute was well attended, 365

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