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Jesse Williams, who conceived the idea of a cheese factory and built the first one at Rome, New York, in 1851. Our pupils read about the pioneers who fought and cheated the Indians, but how few have heard of the pioneers in improved methods of farming, whose services to humanity entitle their statues to occupy conspicuous places in the temple of Fame?

If these facts are to be instilled in the minds of our farmer's sons and daughters, if the secrets and principles of agriculture which are now known to a favored few, shall be made as familiar to our country boys and girls as are now the facts and principles of mathematical and physical geography, once known to but a few leading men at the great universities, then the one thing that is needed above everything else is better teachers and longer terms in our rural s hools. Every sane man admits that the rudiments of knowledge, which are seldom acquired if not learned in childhood, should be taught first. Every teacher knows that the time during which some boys and girls find the schools open, is barely sufficient to give them a taste for good literature, and to teach them the essentials of a common-school education.

Pennsylvania ranks thirteenth among her sister States in length of school term. Is she thirteenth in resources and material wealth? With the exception of West Virginia the States bounding her on the north, south, east and west have a longer term. In violation of the plain letter of the law, the minimum term of six months is subdivided into a summer and a winter term, whereby some farm hands get but two or three months schooling each year. Is there a single southern State that does not give its colored children better school facilities than that? Does the South think more highly of its negro boys than Pennsylvania of her white children? A youth living in one of these divided-term districts can be excused for migrating into the city in the hope that even if his golden hours for study are forever gone, his posterity may enjoy school advantages equal to those which are offered south of the Mason and Dixon's line.

There are some things which the School Department can not explain. Some districts levy no school tax whatever. One hundred and thirty-three (133) districts pay less in teachers' salaries than the State gives them for the support of the schools. Most of these districts have but

a six months' term. In the long run, can this be anything but a suicidal policy for the agricultural districts? When the next Legislature meets, will the cry not come from the cities that the country districts have been receiving more money than they need, that a larger share of the appropriation should go the cities which with increased taxes and the annual erection of new school houses, still find it impossible to provide as many seats as there are children to be educated? May not the corporations claim that they have been taxed beyond the necessities of the Commonwealth? A part of the public revenue is obtained by taxing widows' thirds and the money which guardians have loaned out for the benefit of their wards. May the widow and the orphan not justly claim a return in the shape of better schools and longer terms?

It has been said that a poor lawyer is too dear at any price. A poor teacher is too dear as a gift. Where a poor teacher is employed the children lose golden hours and golden opportunities, their taste for study and desire for knowledge is destroyed, and the salary paid is public money wasted. But all the blame should not be cast upon the poor teacher. The State College furnishes a library on agriculture, consisting of fifteen volumes, for $18.04, but what teacher, earning from twelve to thirty dollars for six months, can afford to purchase such a library? Moreover, there are districts in Pennsylvania where the farmer taxes himself five or six hundred dollars for each son and daughter in order to procure for them, at boarding school, an education in branches which might be taught at home if the best teachers were employed and township high schools were established and maintained. The farmer whose acres are free from debt may afford this expendi ture, but the tenant who farms "on shares," is unable to send his children away to school; hence they grow up, having poor school advantages, with no knowledge of how to make farming pay, and is it any wonder that they move to the cities in quest of better schools and more lucrative employment?

The following measures and remedies deserve careful discussion and adoption in so far as they are feasible and practicable:

I. An agitation that will create in the public mind the belief that on a farm there is nothing more valuable than the farmer's sons and daughters.

2. The purchase of a small library on agriculture, such as the State College furnishes for $18.04. This would not be half as expensive, and might be made ten-fold more useful than the expensive charts which many School Boards have been led to buy.

3. The employment, in rural districts, of teachers with enough training to show the application of elementary science to agriculture and horticulture. Enough instruction might be given to awaken interest and thought in the direction of successful farming.

4. The lecturers who speak before farmers' institutes might visit the schools and show how object lessons can be given in their special line.

5. Follow the example of France in fixing a time when Agriculture shall form a part of the school curriculum in country districts.

6. Ascertain whether any industries have been brought to Pennsylvania whose property is exempt from all direct and indirect taxation for school purposes, thereby obliging the farms and other real estate to pay for the schooling of the children of those employed in these industries, and if so, equalize the taxation for school purposes.

7. Where schools are so small that a teacher must be hired for less than a dozen pupils, give directors the option of paying for the daily transportation of these pupils to other school houses, thus increasing the attendance at each school to a reasonable number, and making the hiring of the best teachers possible. This plan has been followed in Massachusetts with good results.

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claimed that there were children just recovering from measles and kindred maladies who were physically unable to undergo vaccination. To this the court very properly rejoined: "If the child is too ill to be vaccinated, it must be physically weak and unable to attend school." Should the Board of Health find it wise to omit vaccination for physical reasons in in the case of any child, the resolutions of the Board of Directors are not unchangeable like the laws of the Medes and Persians; but if it is found advisable, they can make exceptions, for instance, in the case of a child afflicted by a scrofulous constitution. It should ever be borne in mind that all power and responsibility in this matter belongs ultimately to the School Board.

W

SLOYD IN PITTSBURG.

WHEN the Pennsylvania Commission on Industrial Education visited the manual training schools of Europe and America, very excellent work was found in several of our large cities; but it was mostly adapted to pupils in advanced grades. grades. In 1890 Supt. G. J. Luckey, who was a member of the Commission, resolved to try a plan of wood work in the schools of Pittsburgh.

Miss Elin Esselius, a graduate of the Normal Sloyd School of Sweden, was employed to give instruction in wood work. A room in the basement of the Forbes School was fitted with workbenches, each supplied with the ordinary tools, such as two planes, four saws, turning saw, T-square, try-square, marking guage, dividers, drawing tools and the like. Special tools for occasional use were also placed in the room. Both the tools and the wood were supplied by the local Boards, while the teacher was paid by the Central Board.

Classes of sixteen recite on alternate days, during periods of one and a quarter hours, so that one special teacher instructs two hundred and fifty-six (256) pupils in the course of six days. Blue prints are purchased from which the pupils make their own drawings, these being afterwards applied in their wood work. They become familiar with the use and commercial value of the different kinds of wood, and develop remarkable. skill in the use of tools.

The eagerness and the interest with

which they work, show how deeply Sloyd has taken hold of their minds and hearts. Not only does it give them an opportunity to work off their surplus physical energy, 'but truants have been cured of their bad habits by the threat that absence from school would involve the loss of a place in the Sloyd class.

The total cost for fitting a room with benches for a class of sixteen is about three hundred dollars, and the movement in favor of this kind of manual training is gradually spreading into all the ward schools, and thereby solving a new problem in the Pittsburg schools.

"KANSAS LEADS."

TEXT OF LAW OF STATE OF KANSAS.

ANOTHER State heard from! The following welcome note is received from Hon. H. N. Gaines, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, under date "Topeka, Kansas, January 23d, 1894." We are glad to know that Kansas is ahead. He says: "The circulars pertaining to School Outhouses have been received. In reply, permit me to say that Kansas never follows, she always leads. The educators of Kansas congratulate the people of your State for having taken such a step forward in civilization. A statute has been enacted as follows:

"That the school boards and boards of education, having supervision over any school district in this State, shall provide and maintain suitable and convenient waterclosets for each of the schools under their charge or supervision. These shall be at least two in number which shall be entirely separate from each other. It shall be the duty of the officers aforesaid to see that the same are kept in a neat and wholesome condition; failure to comply with the provisions of this act by the aforesaid officers shall be grounds for their removal from office."

One says: "The expanding crusade for decency in connection with School Outhouses is one of the very important movements in our educational history and cannot but exert a transforming influence upon our civilization."

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Dr. E. E. White, of Cincinnati, Ohio, writes: 'Many thanks for your circulars on School Outhouses. This is a most necessary reform. For years I have cried aloud against the abominations found in too many school districts. I have made it a point on Directors' Day to preach a

little of the Gospel of Purity in plain language, but I did not know until last fall that Pennsylvania has a law on the subject. Good for the Keystone State! I think I like the New York law better than yours. Now let all school officers enforce the law for the children's sake! Please send a copy of these circulars to the Ohio Educational Monthly, and to all other educational journals, that they may aid in this good work."

A clergyman writes: "The matter is one of very great importance. I doubt whether one in ten of the Directors in

county knows what the law requires, and I doubt also whether the outhouses of one school in twenty in our country districts are what the law requires. Why not supply enough circulars to each County Superintendent, so that he may place at least one copy in the hands of the Secretary of each School Board, urging him to call the attention of the Boards to this matter?"

"OUR CALL TO DUTY"

was a scattering fire of grape and canister which, it was thought, might be effective. Not a few of these texts in paragraphs from many sources go straight to the mark as if shot from a Maxim gun. The far-reaching possibilities of this work grow upon us as we see how wide-spread is the recognition of its value.

A lady of Chicago who has for a long time been a leader in education and other good work, writes: "Will you kindly send me a number of your circulars upon School Outhouses, if you have them to spare. I wish to send them to our Superintendent, Education Department of the Women's Club, and other places where they will do the most good. Your 'Call to Duty' is one of the best things on the subject that I have ever seen."

"In the February number," says Supt. Jos. K. Gotwals, of Norristown, under "Our Call to Duty," I find many very excellent selections. Can I have them printed on separate slip, as I would like them for distribution? I am much pleased with The Journal. All its articles have merit in them. The prominence given to the proper arrangement and care of outhouses has my hearty approval. I feel that there is great improvement needed in this direction. It is to be hoped that Directors in every city, borough, and district will see that this law is observed to the letter.

HEALTH AND MORAL TRAINING.

The following communication was addressed by County Supt. H. M. Putnam, of Warren county, to each School Director in his county, with a copy of the new law on the subject:

"Below you will find an Act of Assembly that is of great importance both from a sanitary and a moral standpoint. That the provisions of the act are not complied with in many parts of Warren county is well known. In many districts the character of the outbuildings furnished is such that a description would be out of place in this communication.

"The health and moral education of the children in our schools should certainly receive the care and attention their importance demands, and it is not necessary to argue that clean and comfortable outhouses aid in both directions.

"It is hoped that school officers will see that the law is strictly complied with. Teachers should call the attention of Directors to the condition of things in their district, and all who have the best interests of the children at heart should aid in enforcing the law. The authorities in many counties of the State are taking active measures to eradicate the evils that the law on this subject seeks to remedy. We of Warren county have a work to do. Will we do it?"

BUSINESS METHODS.

HERE appears to be a want of under

THE

school boards scattered here and there throughout the State, as to the proper method of paying for their necessary purchases. It is well to do business as business men are in the habit of doing it, and this brief statement may afford information to some of our readers.

1. Unless otherwise agreed between the parties, bills for purchased articles are payable, not at the house of the treasurer, wherever that may be, but at the place where they are kept for sale. It is the duty of the purchaser to remit, at his own expense, to the party selling the goods, the amount of his bill.

2. An order on the treasurer does not constitute a payment unless accompanied by the cash or its equivalent.

3. An order on the treasurer duly endorsed by the person in whose favor it is drawn, becomes a receipt or voucher for

payment of the bill, and in the treasurer's hands, is evident that the bill has been paid. It is evident, therefore, that such endorsement should not be required until the bill has been paid, it being both irregular and unbusiness-like. The treasurer should make the order payable at some bank, or accompany it with his check signed as treasurer, and payable to order. The party receiving order or check can not collect the money from the bank without endorsing the check, and this endorsement constitutes a receipt or voucher in the treasurer's hands. It then becomes the duty of the recipient to endorse the order and return it to the treasurer, and as it has no value except as an additional voucher, there could be no inducement to retain it.

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the Philadelphia High School is HE long struggle for the principalship of happily ended, in the choice of the best man that has been at any time named in connection with that very important position. Rev. Robert Ellis Thompson, D. D., LL. D., late John Welsh Centennial Professor of History at the University of Pennsylvania, who is chosen, is such a man as should leave his impress deep and enduring upon the school, and through it upon the best life of the great city. He has already taken hold of his new work. The ceremony of installation, February 26th, began with the reading by the Rev. Dr. McCook of Proverbs viii., followed with a prayer by the Rev. W. J. Wylie.

In introducing the new President, Mr. S. S. Huey said: "Shortly before the beginning of this year, President Johnson

resigned his position. I introduce to you as his successor, Professor Thompson, known to us all as a ripe scholar, an experienced teacher, and a pure and upright

man. He comes to us in obedience to call which has seemed to him to be a summons to duty-with a warm, loving interest in youth, an enthusiasm for the profession of teaching, a consecration of all his powers to the future of this charge, and an earnest desire for sympathetic cooperation in his labors."

Addressing Prof. Thompson, he said: "The Board of Education places in your hands to-day the control of the principal school under its jurisdiction as a sacred trust. Over 700 young men preparing for their life's work constitute a precious charge. We hand it to you. Humanly speaking, a whole generation of youth. will feel your impress. Care for them as you shall answer in the forum of conscience and at the bar of public opinion. The city looks on hopefully, even thusiastically, as it echoes our belief that your brain, your heart, your energies, your character, constitute a guarantee of the work you will do and the results you will achieve.

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The new President received an ovation from the assemblage, the pupils enthusiastically applauding. From his manly inaugural address we take the following paragraphs:

It is always embarrassing to find that the commonplaces worn and well used by a thousand occasions are the only adequate expression of one's feelings. This exactly is my present position. What can I say first of all but to express my sense of my own inadequacy to the responsible charge to which you have called me, of the greatness of the work to which to-day I am to put my hand, and of the reliance upon God's help and yours, which alone could encourage me to undertake it? I can say with entire truth that this place has sought me and not I the place, and it was only when I was brought to feel that there lay in your call to it a higher vocation from a higher wisdom than yours or mine, and that it would be cowardice in me to shrink from a charge which it would have been rashness to have sought, that I yielded to the suggestion made by some of you.

Since that decision was reached I have been greatly confirmed in it by the hearty expressions of public satisfaction which have reached me, and not least from my former colleagues in the Faculty of the University, who have worked for years by my side. It is not generally supposed that persons of my nativity are deficient in selfesteem, but I have not yet reached the point

of taking this post with the light heart of an easy confidence, yet I do take it with gratitude to your honorable Board for the great honor they have done me in making this selection, and with the earnest purpose to leave nothing undone that lies within my power to justify you in the choice you have made.

But enough of myself. In the letters I have received I have become aware of two facts, which I regard as most encouraging for the future. The first of these is the warmth of attachment which binds the alumni of this school together in support of its good name and its interests. Of this, indeed, I already had taken notice in observing its recent history, and the strong expressions of filial regard which they all, from the Governor of the Commonwealth down to the youngest graduate, had employed on fitting occasion.

But it was brought home to me more closely when I myself heard everywhere this almost passionate attachment expressed. I realized as never before the advantages possessed by a school which stands related, as this does, to the intellectual life of a great city, and whose alumni form a homogeneous body, not drawn from all parts of the country and scattered to all parts on commencement day, but Philadelphians born, Philadelphians to live and die, and blending their love and respect for their city with like feelings for the institution in which the city gave them their training for the largest walks of social usefulness. The possession of such sons is the best ornament of their Alma Mater. . .

Certainly of not less importance is the larger development of the school to meet the actual and ascertained wants of the community it is to serve. This, however, is a matter on which I can speak only in the most general terms, as the whole question calls for careful study on the part of all that are to have any voice or part in giving shape to its future.

But it is not too much to say that the changes to come will be evolutionary rather than revolutionary in their character. They will be on the lines indicated by the school's past history, and not violent breaks with that history; and I share the hopes of those who look for such an elevation of the character of the work done here, that its degrees in arts will be worth as much to those who receive them as those conferred by any sister institution. To me it seems that Philadelphia gave something like a pledge to that effect when she accepted from the State the right to confer University degrees upon the graduates of this school.

Permit me to express my great satisfaction with the changes effected under the administration of the late President of the school. By enlarging the facilities for classical studies in preparation for a university curriculum, the school was brought in harmony with the High School system of the

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