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expect such views in the atmosphere of despotic Russia, and yet they are not infrequently heard in liberal America. The social snob patronizes private schools, pays the school tax grudgingly, and maintains that learning is not good for the lower classes; it makes them discontented. Public education is the only safeguard of the age against arrant anarchism. The religious snob is another who in these days lifts up his voice against public education as propagated by our public schools.
Dr. Berkowitz reviewed the history of the public schools. They have been provided to educate for citizenship. The State owes to itself this duty, each citizen being a sovereign, the ballot his sceptre. The Jews are enthusiastically in favor of the public schools. Their children are everywhere prominent in these schools. The Israelites resent the charge that the schools are godless. They feel that the public school is the grandest gift which America has given to mankind. Its humanizing, moralizing, uplifting influence is astounding. The commingling of all races, classes and creeds, by its friction, produces the highest manliness through American fair play. Practical religion is the outcome of the punctuality, industry, kindliness and other virtues fostered by the public schools. The enemy of the public school is the foe of the State.
THE MODEST HERO.
OT since the death of Henry Ward Beecher has Brooklyn had so grand and imposing a funeral as that of General H. W. Slocum, who bore such a distinguished part in the thrilling drama of the Civil War. General Slocum was a simple man of retiring life, although always prominent in civil as well as military affairs; but the splendor of his war record made him one of the greatest of Brooklyn's citizens and certainly the most noted of her soldiers. Consequently there was an imposing military funeral. The body of the General was carried with due military honors from his spacious but
plain mansion on Clinton avenue to the Church of the Messiah, and thence, after the the religious services, to Greenwood Cemetery. The parade of soldiers and veterans after leaving the church passed the General's house, marching to the music of a dirge. A vast crowd thronged the streets, and everywhere along the line of march flags were displayed at halfmast or draped with mourning on the front of private houses. General O. 0. Howard and staff were there to represent the United States Army, and the members of General Slocum's old staff were also present. There were, besides delegations from many organizations and corporations to which General Slocum belonged, committees from the Legislature, and men prominent in every line of noble effort.
Rev. Charles R. Baker read the Episcopal service, and Rev. Dr. R. S. Storrs, the distinguished Congregational divine, preached the sermon. He spoke of the contrast between "the great and brilliant General of armies, as our friend was for a series of years, and the quiet, unostentatious, always unassuming citizen and friend whom we have familiarly known. I remember," he added, “to have been much impressed by this one summer day nearly a year ago, when General Slocum, in one of the last conversations I had with him, did me the honor to ask and to urge me to give an address at Gettysburg at its approaching anniversary of the great and fateful battle there fought. The address was impossible, but the interview I gratefully recall. It seemed almost incredible at the time that the modest, friendly and unassuming gentleman, who sat so quietly talking in my library, should be the great leader who, with forces suddenly diminished, had held the right of the national army with unflinching steadiness to the perilous edge on that day; with whose fame the world resounds, who had recaptured positions already torn from him by overwhelming numbers, and had contributed so grandly to the ultimate triumphant success.
"But so it was always when one met him on the street or any social or festive occasion. The glamour of a great past was upon him, yet beneath it he was simple as if unknown. He, who had fronted the grimmest and fiercest perils of war with an undisturbed pulse, and at whose command batteries had opened and armies had been launched on their victor
ious and destroying way, was still our helpful neighbor and cordial friend. Yet even this contrast of past and present positions before men was not so remarkable as was that between the moral and personal qualities shown in the camp or amid the uproar of battle, and those appearing in subsequent domestic and social life.
"Men could harldly believe sometimes that the daring, energetic, invincible leader, fiercely aggressive, with flashing intuition and trained intelligence, and with an utterly unconquerable persistent courage, was the same man in whom what was gentle, gracious, playful, affectionate, came so constantly into view at home and in society; the grasp of whose hand was so cordially welcomed, whose eye was so kindly, whose voice had in it the musical pathos of such serene sympathy; who was so fond of children and friends, of books and of home; that one who had been stern and terrible on occasion should present himself to all who knew him in later life as among the most lovable and delightful of men.
"But the contrast was not real. It was only apparent. Always there are two aspects of a great character. Strength and beauty are joined in it, as sparkling fountains issue singing from rock recesses, as delicate blossoms charmingly appear on craggy cliffs.".
EXHIBITION OF SCHOOL WORK.
TO TEACHERS OF PENNSYLVANIA.
HE Pennsylvania State Teachers' Association will meet in Media, July 3d, 4th and 5th, 1894. The Executive Committee of the Association has made arrangements for the holding of an exhibition of school work. It is desirable to get the best work from the different sections of the State. If any school or system of
The exhibit should comprise written work in primary, grammar, and high schools. Products from the Kindergarten, Manual Training, and Sloyd schools should be included. Class and special work in form and drawing, botany, language, geography, literature, history, reading, etc.; can be shown. When certain methods have produced great interest or excellent results, or when certain devices have helped teachers to overcome difficulties, it is profitable to the profession to learn of these matters.
Ungraded schools in Pennsylvania are making great strides in methods. The results are, in many cases, equal to the best work in graded schools. The Committee desires that the exhibition shall include work from these schools. County Superintendents can urge the teachers in their best schools to send work. A room will be retained for the exhibition of ungraded school work.
The rooms in the Media public schools will be fitted for the exhibition. Applications for space should be made to the Chairman of the Local Committee, Principal Leon H. Watters, Media, Pa., giving character and extent of work. Wall and table space will be provided. To secure uniformity in grade work, the terms, First Year, Second Year, etc., should be used. The work should be the product of the last school year. The Association will pay local expenses, such as carting from station, placing the exhibits, etc. The parties preparing the exhibits pay freight to and from Media. Exhibits should reach Media on or before June 25th.
Kindly write to some member of the following State Committee your intention to exhibit: Supt. Addison Jones, Chairman, West Chester; Mrs. M. E. Van Wagonen, Forbes Avenue, Pittsburg; W. W. Rupert, Pottstown; Jos. F. Barton, Shippensburg; J. H. Shroy, Doylestown;
schools excels in certain lines, it will be del C. Sickel, 637 N. 40th St., Phila
profitable to the other schools to have such work on exhibition. Exhibitions of school work are educational. While comparatively few teachers take time to examine all carefully, yet all that go through the exhibition building get some ideas which are germs to bear fruit in the entire community from which the teacher comes. Let there be a generous response, so as to make the Media meeting and exhibition the best in our history.
delphia; C. S. Davis, Steelton; or E. L. Kemp, East Stroudsburg, Pa.
Supt. A. G. C. Smith, chairman of the executive committee of the State Association, has appointed the following local committees:
Enrollment Committee.-Supt. Charles F. Foster, Chester City, chairman; Supt. R. F. Hoffecker, Norristown; Supt. William H. Slotter, Doylestown; Miss Hannah A. Sears, South Chester; Mrs. R. H. Verlenden, Darby; Miss Ellen Gilbert,
Wayne, and Miss Mary L. Dunn, Haverford.
Exhibit Committee.-Leon H. Watters, Media, chairman; Supt. John I. Robb, of Bryn Mawr; Miss Elizabeth Lloyd, Langhorne; J. A. Clarke, Berwyn; Miss Mary P. McFarland, Marcus Hook; Miss Laura B. Smith, Chester, and Miss B. Emilie Groce, Lansdowne.
Souvenir badges will be presented by the Delaware county teachers to each member of the State Association in attendance. The badge Committee is already at work. It consists of Miss Louisa Stern, Haverford; Miss Celia A. Simpson, Clifton Heights, and Prof. J. C. Hockenberry, of Chester. Let us have a grand meeting at Media, and the Association on adjournment be transferred bodily to Asbury Park for the National Convention which will be in session during the following week.
NEW SCIENCE HALL.
THE Mary Thompson Science Hall of Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pa., was dedicated with appropriate exercises on Tuesday afternoon and evening of March 6. The story of its erection is given by the Pittsburg Commercial Gazette in the following words:
"S. R. Thompson, A. M., professor of physics in the college, and his wife, are the friends who have generously built and equipped Science Hall. A few years ago a daughter, an only child, died. The parents, desiring to erect some enduring memorial to their daughter, chose this means of doing it. They donated to the college $20,000 to be used in the erection and equipment of the building dedicated yesterday. A memorial stone bearing the words "The Mary Thompson Science Hall" is in the hands of the mechanics, and will ultimately be placed over the entrance to the hall. The donation lifted a heavy burden from the shoulders of the trustees, who were planning to provide this very thing for the College.
The new hall contains rooms for the museum, for the departments of physics, electricity and microscopy, and for practical work in photography and in the manufacture of apparatus. Several years ago the trustees gave Prof. Thompson fifty dollars' worth of tools and materials, and at the end of the year he and his students had supplied the laboratory with
apparatus which according to catalogue prices was worth over eleven hundred dollars. So far as the writer knows, there are in America but two machines for measuring the hourly growth of a plant. One of these is at Harvard, and the other is in the laboratory of Westminster College.
During the dedication exercises Rev. Dr. W. S. Owens gave an interesting account of the progress of the College in recent years; Prof Thompson described the plan and uses of the Hall; State Superintendent N. C. Schaeffer discussed the mission of the Denominational College in Modern Education; and President Ferguson read letters from distinguished alumni and friends of the institution. The audience went to their homes fully convinced that the principal educational institution of Lawrence county has entered upon an enlarged career of usefulness and prosperity.
HERE are people who seem to think th that the government can create money or, as it is sometimes said, make "fiat' money. This is the form of a Latin verb, which means "let it be made," or "let it be done," and the word is used as though to command were the only thing needed. The folly is that of the boaster who can call spirits from the vasty deep," and it is properly answered in the reply, "Why, so can I, and so can any man, but will they come when you do call them?"
The country once had sad experience of such money. During the Revolutionary War the United States and the States, having no coin, and practically no credit, began issuing "fiat" paper money. This was issued in such quantities, and so depreciated in value, that it was a common expression to speak of a thing having little value as being "not worth a continental," meaning a piece of Congressional paper money. Prices rose enormously; gold and silver disappeared from circulation. A barrel of flour cost $1575. John Adams paid $2000 for a suit of clothes. As an illustration of the value of "fiat" money, the following copy of an original bill of sale, made in Philadel phia in the year 1781, will be read with
If paid in specie, £18, 10s.
That is, $2965.75 in "fiat" money was worth 18, 10s., ($92.50) if paid in gold coin. We cannot afford to cheapen our currency.
NINETEENTH ARBOR DAY.
HE two Arbor Days appointed by Governor Pattison resulted in the planting of many trees, the writing of many editorial paragraphs or more extended articles, and in directing to the planting of trees the thought and conversation of many, both old and young. It may be of interest to speak of the day at the school nearest to us, and indeed it is that of which we know most at the present writing.
The programme arranged for the Spring Arbor Day April 13th, was one of the best that have been given at the Lancaster High School. Dr. J. T. Rothrock, late a professor in the University of Pennsylvania, and now State Commissioner of Forestry under the law passed at the last session of the Legislature, made an interesting address to the schools. He was followed by Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, who came from the extreme western part of the State to be present here. The two feet of snow that had fallen within the preceding three. days were not favorable to tree-planting, but the pupils planted their hundred and twenty-five trees a few days later. The music, both vocal and instrumental, was greatly enjoyed by everybody. Prof.
Thorbahn wrote an Arbor Day March especially for the occasion. Both orchestra and chorus did their work well. The beautiful show of plants and flowers was from Mr. H. W. Schroyer's greenhouses. The following is the programme of the day:
Harold F. Diffenderffer.
(During this Recitation Schools sing "Annie Laurie.") Instrumental, Arbor Day March (1894). Carl Thorbahn. Members of Orchestral School. Address by Dr. N. C. Schaeffer, State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania. Instrumental, Overture, "Oriental."
High School Orchestra.
Chorus, with Double Quartette, "The Swiss Girl” Linley.
High School Orchestra-First Violins, Benjamin A. McComsey, Donald G. McCaskey, Walter A. Miller and Howard W. Fry; Second Violins, Eugene A. Heim, F. A. Werkheiser and William P. Ostermayer; Violas, J. S. Thorbahn, Walter S. Mellinger and Harry C. Bolenius; Bass, Walter E Leonard; First Flutes, Arthur H. Ball and A. W. Bolenius; Second Flutes, Oliver J. Smith, B. F. Saylor and James F. Gable; Clarionets, Thos. Thorbahn and Leon G. Dodge; Cornets, Lewis K. Knight and George W. Cornelius; Drum, George W. Leonard; Piano, Fanny Thorbahn; Leader, Prof. Carl Thorbahn, Instructor Instrumental Music in High Schools.
In introducing the programme of the afternoon, Mr. J. P. McCaskey, the principal, spoke much as follows:
REMARKS OF MR. MCCASKEY.
It was our purpose to plant a hundred and twenty-five trees to-day, but the event of the week has been the snow-storm. That grand storm deserves to take precedence even of Arbor Day, and the trees must wait until the Spring returns. We are well content to celebrate to-day indoors, when we consider that the necessity which compels it has afforded a scene of such wondrous beauty as that of Wednesday morning last. Just below us, on the street, there rises a shapely tower which we think the finest thing in Lancaster; but on that morning there stood by it a vision of supernal beauty, that made one forget church and tower, in the grand elm, near a century old, weighed down in every long sweeping branch and gracefully
pendent twig with its weight of fleecy snow.
It stood a dream of loveliness. Not in the lapse of nearly fifty years that we have known and enjoyed it has it ever been so much "a thing of beauty." Petrified in that perfect shapeliness and purity, its fame would soon be world-wide. He was a public benefactor who planted that elm-tree three generations ago.
The work of tree-planting is going on in Lancaster as never before. Everywhere the trees have been planted in large numbers, without regard apparently to the item of cost or the wishes of those upon whose grounds they are placed, but with the single purpose to have them well planted. They don't grow much, it is true, or show frequent signs of life in leafage, bud or blossom. But bark and limb gone, and root and top cut away before planting, what better
result can be expected? Telegraph poles! Many of them were once noble trees; all are now unsightly “sticks!” But they have one good use, along with others, in the suggestion they give of the atmosphere of the forest from which they came, and the susurrus of the pines as the summer breeze swells and dies away among their branches.
This Arbor Day will be memorable to us in the presence upon our programme of two distinguished names, those of Dr. N. C. Schaeffer and Dr. J. T. Rothrock. The former is the executive head of the vast Common School System of Pennsylvania, a man of broad scholarship, wise purpose and untiring energy, a worthy leader of a million souls in the work of general education. Dr. Rothrock is our State Commissioner of Forestry, a gentleman who is believed to be the best botanist and the most enthusiastic and efficient advocate of Forestry in Pennsylvania. He is equally at home in the woods, on the sea, in the town-a many-sided man, as modest as he is capable, to whom, if his life be prolonged, Pennsylvania will owe a debt of gratitude that will not be forgotten in many generations. I once heard it said of him by a friend who knew well his mastery of woodcraft: "Dr. Rothrock could take his bow and arrows and live in the woods like an Indian; and if he didn't have them, he could make them, and then use them." University professors of this sort are not found everywhere.
We have also with us two other strong men, but these we have seen before-Professors Carl Matz and Carl Thorbahn. Somebody has said that "music is the fourth great want of our nature, the first three being food, clothing, and shelter." This want these masters can supply; and, to those who can and will receive, it is worth living in this High School, if for nothing else than to be truly in touch with the spirit of their work.
We thank these four good men for the fine programme of our nineteenth Arbor Day.
The following is a report of the Arbor Day remarks by Dr. J. T. Rothrock, Commissioner of Forestry in Pennsylva
DR. ROTHROCK ON ARBOR DAY.
Less than three centuries ago, in the providence of God, our ancestors fell heirs to a land which was not only well-watered and fertile, but well-wooded. It is fair to say that on the Eastern slope of the continent there was no second area equal in size to Pennsylvania, which possessed resources so varied and that bid fair to last so long. So rich was our inheritance that we felt we could never come to want or see the end of our resources. American extravagance has become a by-word among other nations, and Pennsylvania is in no respect behind others in the sisterhood of States.
But already, practically seventy-five per
cent. of our State is destitute of real forest growth, and to meet the wants of a rapidlyincreasing population we are now importing lumber. Not only this, but from about an eighth of the land which we have cleared we have so exhausted the fertility that it can no longer be made remunerative in agriculture. In at least one county of our State we have the word of the President Judge that the barren hillsides are being deserted by their population because they can no longer wring a living from the impoverished lands.
Thus far mankind has derived its food from the soil, or the water. In the State House of Massachusetts there hangs a figure of a codfish, to indicate that from the sea that great Commonwealth derives a large part of its support. Our waters are practically barren, and our strength must come from the soil. I desire now to leave a question with the young people of Lancaster. It is this: If on the one hand, we double our population in about thirty years, and if, on the other hand, we continue to make so much of soil poorer every year, how will those who come after us obtain a living? Bear in mind, that when you render the soil incapable of producing a crop, you cut off the head of the State. Thirty years and more ago our nation's life was in danger. From the hillsides of Pennsylvania more than two hundred thousand brave men poured down to save the country, that your lives might be peaceful, happy and prosperous. I know you love the dear old flag around which so many of us rallied. I know that there is not a boy or girl before me but thinks the red, white and blue of "Old Glory" are the very brightest and best colors that fly in the breeze of any land. Its ample folds mark the thousands of school houses where you are taught to become good men and women and patriotic citizens. But you are now called upon to save the State from wasting its strength and from becoming weak and poor, when it should be strong and rich. God never allowed a child to grow up to be a citizen without providing something for him or her to do for the public good. Every citizen should in some way aid in making every acre of the State as productive as it can be made. Of all things, a useless soul and a useless acre are the most useless. I call upon you young people here, who are thinking already what you will do when you grow up, to resolve that you will be patriots, and help make the land in which you live as near a paradise as you can. You will be wiser if you begin at once to do some good thing. Here is a chance. Every tree that is planted helps to save water for the uses of the people. It helps to restrain the floods which destroy life and property. It helps to keep the air in pure condition for you and your associates. It helps to moderate the climate so that crops may grow and fruits mature.
If then you plant a tree you increase the