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polishing the shoes on a well-dressed, of other human apes. By neglecting the gentle-appearing man. The latter was development of his powers of mind and unfortunate in having a deformity which soul. By looking on wealth and the ease compelled him to wear a shoe on one of it will purchase as the greatest good to be his feet with an exceedingly thick sole, obtained in this world. Man needs only thus endeavoring to make up mechani- to eat, sleep, and seek to conform his life cally for what nature had denied him. to what society calls "good form," to “How much shall I pay you ?” he asked conform to the opinions of other people the boy. “Five cents, sir.' “Oh! but and have none of his own, to be a slave you should have more than five cents for of fashion, a creature of the tailor, a dupe polishing my shoes,” said the gentleman, of society, the tool of the scheming partapping the thick sole significantly with tisan. Man, the noblest of God's crehis cane. “No, sir," said the boy.ations, is but a step removed from his “Five cents is enough. I don't want to Darwinian predecessor. The step across make no money out o' your hard luck." this boundary is far too often taken.-F. The customer handed out a coin, laid his & M. College Student. hand on the youngster's head for a moment, and passed on.-Sydney Methodist.
COUNTRY AND CITY SCHOOLS. No man can pass into eternity, for he is already in it. The dead are no OW to increase the allurements of more in eternity now than they always country life and check the movewere, or than every one of us is at this ment of the rural population toward the moment. We may ignore the things cities, has become one of the serious probeternal; shut our eyes hard to them; live lems of our day. A writer in the current as though they had no existence-never- number of the “New England Magatheless, eternity is around us here, now, zine" thinks he has found the secret of at this moment, at all moments; and it the unmistakable tendency of country will have been around us every day of people to migrate to the towns in the deour ignorant, sinful, selfish lives. Its fective system of schooling in the counstars are even over our head, while we try. He says: “The common school sysare so dilligent in the dust of our worldli- tem is educating its pupils away from the ness, or in the tainted stream of our farms, and is not adapted to create a race desires. . The dull brute globe moves of farmers capable of adjusting themthrough its ether and knows it not; even selves to the times. What we want of so our souls are bathed in eternity and our country schools is to make the farmare never conscious of it.-Farrar. ing of to-day intelligent, interesting, and
profitable. What is a man? A creation of God, “It is possible for a system of educa endowed with certain faculties, body, tion to become entirely foreign to the age mind and soul, for the proper use of which in which it is in practice. Certainly the he is responsible to his Creator. At birth farmer must insist that the tendency of he is a bundle of dormant possibilities; at the school shall not be to take his childeath he is a bundle of realized and dren away from the farm, unsettle the wasted possibilities. To perfect every home instinct, unfit them to be happy agendowment, to realize every possibility, riculturists and turn them over in a to become a person, a complete unit in the ceaseless tide into shopkeepers and sum total of humanity, is the end of tradesmen.” every man. What is a monkey? A cre- The common school system in the ation, of God, endowed with body and the country has failed to keep pace with the instinct to preserve it, but not responsible public school system in cities, imperfect for his actions. An animal, whose duty as the latter may be, because it has in life it is to eat, sleep, and do as it sees omitted to introduce certain studies diother monkeys do. Perhaps he was cre- rectly bearing upon the farmer's calling. ated to show human apes how silly they The recent introduction of manual trainare. If that is not the purpose of his cre- ing schools in the public school system in ation, I confess I don't know what it was. cities, by 'which students may be How can a man become a monkey? By equipped to take up trades which flourish giving up his individuality and becoming best in cities, is an illustration of an efa mimic of the senseless conventionalities | fort to make the city schools serve a more
practical purpose than they once did. cheaply, grace very few country homes. In the report of the Philadelphia Board The townspeople are the best patrons of of Education of 1893, the Board says: this countryside literature. “The value of manual training is now It is not the aim of the common school conceded by many who heretofore to graduate fully-fledged scientists, as it doubted it to be properly a part of public is not the design of the city manual trainschool work. Such training results in ing school to graduate skilled workmen. close attention, accurate observation, The world smiles at the youth who anconcentration of thought, keener intelli- nounced that he was going to school to gence and a relish for the higher forms of learn to be a college president. It is the skilled labor. About 70 per cent. take to object of the public schools to give our those industrial pursuits in which the youth a fair start in life that they may trained hands play an important part, and cope" each with his fronting foe'' in the in such callings men who have been thus fierce competition of modern business trained are in demand." The manual and iudustrial life. The city school has training and industrial art departments of conformed in a measure to these modern city common school education are there requirements, but the country school, fore preparing city youth directly for which should help to make country life city employments. What are the coun- attractive and farming pay, is doing little try schools doing for agriculture, the for the farm.-Philadelphia Ledger. farmer's calling ? Very little, indeed, so far as specialized studies are involved. How many of those who have been
POEMS AND STORIES. educated in the country schools, not those of country towns, but the schools
BY SARAH L. ARNOLD. of the real countryside, have seen botanical, geological or chemical text "HE lessons which provide material for book in use within them? How many of language lessons, as far as thought the country school teachers are equipped, getting is concerned, are in two classes : even in the most superficial way, to those in which the material is gained teach the rudiments of such studies ? through observation on the part of the They are not found on the curriculum of child, and others in which the child gets the country school. Yet these sciences his needed thought through listening to have an exceedingly intimate connection the teacher's story or through reading with agriculture, and a knowledge of for himself. them, sufficient for practical purposes, Among the many subjects which might should be the ambition of the intelligent well be chosen for the language lessons, farmer. The country school educates the writer has come to select two chief men for clerks, for professions, and only sources-science and literature, including incidentally for the farm. The Penn- | history. The work which the child does sylvania country school is a fair example in observation is incomplete unless it is of Mr. Powell's charge in the article to re-enforced and interpreted by the obserwhich reference has been made, and vation of others, and this re-enforcement which has been briefly quoted in the must come through reading. Again, the foregoing extract. "It is possible for a observation helps the child to interpret systeni of education to become foreign to what he reads, and makes the poem or the age in which it is in practice.”
story more clear than if he himself had More attention to studies which can be not been open-eyed to his own surroundpursued with peculiar advantages in the ings. If the general lessons are chosen country, with less devotion to a purely in these two lines, the language lessons “ literary” education, is urgently de- will naturally be associated with them, manded in our rural schools. The botany and the work in each line will suppleand geology classes which invade the ment that of the other. In considering country every spring are city folk, who the language lesson as such, we must refind in the fields and the hills “ a plea- | member that its purpose is both thought sure, a delight and a desire,” to which and expression. Through the study of the country lad is likely to be a total the poem or story the child will obtain stranger. The botanical text-books and new material for expression. His horipopular manuals on the subject, which zon is widened by going beyond that are being published so abundantly and which he himself has seen, by reaching
out into the new fields which his obser- In his beautiful preface to Child Life vation has enabled him to discover. in Prose, Whittier wrote, “The child is
In thinking of the observation lesson always something of a poet, if he cannot isolated from such reading or study, we analyze with Wordsworth and Tennyson are reminded of Sam Weller's reply to the emotions which expand his being. the inquiry as to whether he had seen Within his fullness of life blest above the certain important event in which Mr. birds and flowers, he finds with them all Pickwick was interested, “Having only nature plastic to his mind and eye. The eyes, my wision is limited.” The child's soul and the whole of childhood are one vision is limited, if he has not been -not irreverently-as Jean Paul said, 'I taught to see with the mind's eye, to use love God and little children ; ye stand his imagination, and to translate the new nearest to Him, ye little ones.'» through his knowledge of the old. So The truth which Whittier has so emthe story, the poem, and the fable, should phasized has been illustrated over and be brought into the school-room, intro- again in our primary schoolrooms. We duced into the language class as well as have seen children drinking in the story into the reading, and used to supplement of “Hiawatha" or Whittier's
"Snowand complete the science lessons.
bound,” or reciting with joyful voices If the child is to gain thought which Tennyson's
Tennyson's "Song of the Brook," or becomes his own and is afterwards to ex- singing still more sweetly his “Sweet press it, this thought should be, in every and low, Wind of the western sea." I case, worth the getting-something that remember a class of first-grade pupils will not only add to his knowledge, but who could recite pages of Hiawatha, and which will accustom him to the beautiful whose chief delight was to play it, takin thought and expression, and so willing the part of the pines and fir trees and inspire him to follow higher ideals. All the animals in the forest, of “Nokomis" the stories or poems should be the best and “Hiawatha,” and even representing which the child is capable of hearing and the wigwam. Their eyes kindled as they appreciating. We make a mistake when recited the beautiful words, and their we read down to the children, when we lives were beautified and made happier imagine that all truth must be diluted by the thoughts and pictures which had before they can hear it or attempt to as- entered into them through their study of similate it. The child is by nature a the foem. Children whose home life poet; he appreciates what is most beauti- was narrowed and dwarfed, whose opporful in poetry; he will prefer the poem to tunities were meager, whose surroundthe jingle; will unconsciously select that ings were rough and poor, entered into which is best, and things which he cannot the spirit of the poem with the same understand will remain with him in his eagerness as did the children of more memory, recurring again and again as favored homes. A class of Bohemians some association recalls them, until his and Italians in a primary grade in Minlater experience has enabled him to inter- neapolis learned nearly all of Whittier's pret them, and they come with new full- "Snowbound," and begged to be allowed ness of truth or beauty in his time of to continue their study when the time need. But the period of his childhood is came for changing the course of the rethe period in which he should become citations. A class of little Scandinavian familiar with beauty of thought and ex- children to whom had been read Longpression; not through analysis-that fellow's beautiful poem, "My Lost time is not yet-but through simple ab- Youth,” turned in troubled disappointsorption of the ideas presented to him in ment to the teacher as she closed her the rhythmic poem or story. There is no book at the third stanza, saying, “That other period when he takes so strong and is all you can understand.” 'Do read eager hold upon such things. He ab- it to us, even if we do not understand," sorbs now what he will interpret here they pleaded, touched and held by the after, and he should be made familiar rhythm of the poem and the beauty of with the good in order that when he expression, which they felt, even if they comes to the time of choice, with the did not understand. power of reading to serve as a key to un- Out of such teaching should come lock the door of the treasure-house, he greater power of imagination, pure and shall know the gold from the dross and beautiful pictures, ideals of what is strong will choose that which is of eternal worth. and noble and true, as history has shown
us these virtues, and a love for the crimson letters at the back part of every beautiful strong enough to lead the child class-room in the world, directly in front away from the slough of trash which is of the teacher's eyes. Satan will enter in waiting to swallow him up.
and take his place in your school every The stories chosen for the language day-especially on dull, stormy, rainy lesson should be fables or parables, teach- days, and particularly in the afternoons ing truth in the form which the children -unless you actually crowd him out by love so well, or anecdotes embodying the keeping every one busy and interested in truth in heroic form. Much as children the work of the class to which he or she love the marvelous and delight to hear belongs. the animal speak, or see the brave invar- You need to be in your place very early iably winning renown and the beautiful on the morning of the opening of your invariably inheriting riches and bliss, school, not later than forty minutes before they are still more entranced by the school time. Take with you a few sheets stories of real life—the true stories for of foolscap and tear one or two of them which they plead and for whose repeti- up into small pieces, about three inches tion they constantly urge.
by two and a half, having the ruled lines The teacher will find numerous sources lengthwise. Write on two
or three upon which she can draw for her stories, dozen of these slips along the margin, but she will find no one book or paper Parent's name, Pupil's name, Age, Class, which will contain sufficient material Why do you come to school? What do suitable for her class, nor would it be you wish to become? Have these ready, best if she could. The story which will if possible, before the arrival of the first teach the child most is the one which she pupil, and after a cordial greeting ask herself loves and appreciates, which she him or her to fill up the form. Do the remembers because she has loved and ap- same with every other pupil immediately preciated it. The best poets should be after his entrance into the schoolroom. read, the best books should be studied, The last two questions will help you to myths and fables and traditions should talk to your pupils about their past yield their treasures, and history should studies and their future plans, and at pledge its heroes to the teachers of little nine o'clock you will know every one by children. All that is best in her life af- name and have some insight into the mofects the life of the children ; that which tives that bring them together. Preis most truly hers affects them most. No cisely at nine o'clock ask all the pupils to story which she reads from the book to seat themselves at their desks, but say her class will have the power or charm of nothing about the location or position. the story that she tells because she has Do not talk too much; allow the pupils to loved it, has sympathized with the truth choose their own seats. which it expresses, or has lived the exper- As soon as all are in their places, read ience.- American Teacher.
the fourth chapter of Proverbs and open the school with the Lord's Prayer. Ask
the pupils to look at their readers and AN OPEN LETTER.
prepare a reading lesson, any one they
choose to select, each one for himself. MY DEAR JOHN: I understand that In the meantime, classify the names on you are to take charge of your new school your slips in alphabetical order if you on Tuesday, and that you would like to have not already done so, and rapidly have a few hints or suggestions that may copy them out on a sheet of your foolsbe of assistance to you in your new cap. Check over the list and place a duties. The first piece of philosophy figure opposite each name to indicate the that I have to communicate to you is class to which each pupil nominally betaken from an old Greek book which con- longs, and put a pin to hold this sheet on tains several letters written in a decidedly | your desk before you. Quickly make original vein, two or three of them ad- another copy of this list, which as you dressed to young people of your own age. perceive is to be a temporary register for In this book I remember meeting with a day or two, but in the second copy put the following remarkable expression : | down the names by classes, still in alpha“Neither give place to the Devil," and I betic order. All this will take a comhave often wished that I could have paratively short time, and you are ready these half-dozen words painted in bright to begin your work. If any other pupils arrive late, hand them slips and quietly | table you prepared before coming to ask to have them filled up properly. school. The first period of school is then Write these names on your sheets oppo- over without any awkward pause, withsite their proper places.
out any long address, without any enunNow call on some senior pupil to come ciation of rules and penalties, and you forward and read a page—not less than a now proceed with confidence along the page-of the lesson he or she has se- systematic track you have laid out for the lected. Do not criticise the reader, but rest of the day. Dismiss early on the if necessary render what help may be first day, after you have carefully assigned needed to assist the pupil over the hard very short home lessons. places. Next call up another pupil by Next morning, as soon as prayers are name from a different class, following the over, seat the whole school in the alphasame uncritical method and doing your betic order of your register list, taking all best to assist the reader when necessary. the care you can to separate as far as posIt would be better not to correct mistakes sible all the pupils who show special at all so long as the pupil does not come anxiety to sit together. You will thus to a dead pause. Take another pupil very effectually isolate the worst talkers from a lower class, then one from the and the most restless scholars, and place highest class, and so on, so that no pupil them under better conditions for steady can have any hint as to his turn. This attention and diligent work. Bring your uncertainty and the novelty of the exer- school diary or note-book on this day, cise will be sufficient to keep the atten- and keep a minute and accurate record of tion of the school for an hour, if you all you do and every incident that recurs choose to prolong the lesson to that in your work on every day.-Canada Ed. length.
Journal. While this reading is going on use your eyes to observe the general demeanor of your class, and you will, no
THE DISTINCTIVE IDEA IN doubt, discover that in taking their seats
SCHOOL MUSIC. the birds of a feather have flocked together. Study them carefully as the
BY DAVID M. KELSEY. reading proceeds, and the moment you observe a careless or noisy pupil, select 'IXTY years ago Carlyle exclaimed: that person as the next to be called up. By way of surprise call on this same ants, without knowledge of man's nature pupil to come forward and read again if or boys. Innumerable dead vocables they the whispering or restlessness recurs. crammed into me, and called it fostering
Do not talk too much; leave a certain the growth of the mind." The Bible part of your plans to be revealed by what says that the time shall come when “payou do rather than by what you say. tion shall not lift up sword against nation,
When you are satisfied with the gen- neither shall they learn war any more. eral examination of the reading, write on But they shall sit, every man under his the blackboard a few questions in arith- vine and under his fig-tree, and none metic, of several different degrees of dif- shall make them afraid,” and “all the ficulty. These should be carefully pre people shall sing of the goodness of the pared beforehand, and should include Lord.” And we believe that God is using some work for every class. Let the our system of public instruction to hasten pupils proceed to do these questions at the day. their desks, while you take your place The verb to educate is not limited by the behind the pupils and observe how they one word knowledge. The entire sum of set to work, using all your perceptive outside influences upon a child are yet faculties to note the individul character less potent in his moulding than are the and foibles of each pupil. Study your unfolding of the hidden forces of his hu. pupils till you know them as well as man soul. Heredity is more powerful possible.
than habit. Genius, which is inherited, A few minutes before recess time, take must ever triumph over talent, which is
. If this is so, when you have mediately after the ten minutes' inter- derstand good music universal, you have mission, in accordance with the time- set in motion a train of influences which
a definite piece of work to be done im- taught a child to sing, to enjoy and un