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fully to the unaided efforts of man than has often been the case in similar attempts.

One thing only nature has given-the mighty water that washes the low-lying shore. But all else is the work of man, and of man alone. He has not even quarried from nature's heart the rough-hewn masses wherefrom to shape his ideal. The dream" has not the rugged solidity of stone and marble, nor the practical, enduring qualities of brick and mortar. The materials are fragile, perishable, coarse, as the thoughts to which they have given shape are strong, enduring, and refined; but so long as the short life lasts the material is forgotten, the thought supreme.

After all, is not that perhaps the most, the highest, the noblest that man can accomplish, or need dream of realizing! The enduring quality of materials can never be more than comparative, a question of competition between wealth and weather, and in the long run of years and ages, summer's sun and winter's frost and rain, the wind and the storms will outbuffet riches in the fight. But man's highest thoughts, truest impulses, and purest conceptions and perhaps, too, his basest-are proof alike against time and eternity.

I may safely leave to others, whose province it is, to describe and catalogue the sights I saw on a certain bitter winter's morning when I visited the World's Fair grounds at Jackson Park.

There was a terror of great cold in the biting air, and such a wind out of the hard, blue northwestern sky as might not only blow the cobwebs from a man's brain, but carry with them the rafters and old corners across which they were spun. The great area was bleak as winter's own incarnation, yet neither bare nor desolate.

Up to the very steps of the divine portico which looks over the little harbor, the splendid ice lay solid as a rift of rock, and beyond it stretched the limitless blue depths, the sun blazing down upon the varied contrast of snow and wind-blown sapphire behind, upon the level shore, the glorious colonnade of spotless white -nature's reality in all its purity, brought face to face.

What matter if the one were very real indeed the other the most passing and fragile fancies? In thought, in the real reality of consciousness, the truths were brought together and were harmonious as they were meant to be from the begin

ning. What matter if the portico be but a moulded shell of wood and plaster, looking down upon the inland sea whose waves will wash away the footprints of a million generations of men?

One of the points by which I am most struck is certainly the wonderful taste and knowledge of effect shown in the relative position and placing of the greater buildings. They are not crowded one upon another; no one of them cuts off the view of its neighbor to such an extent as in any way to injure the general effect.

In reality the most central part of a very great city has been conceived and laid out and built up with all due regard and consideration for permanent beauty, as well as for the inevitable necessities of traffic by which the topography of great cities is governed.

Few men, I think, can leave the future scene of the great exhibition without wishing that the buildings, and streets, and the approaches, might, in great part, be made permanent; that the water might never ebb from the lagoons and canals; that the lovely portico might forever face the lovely lake, and that the noble Art building might be the centre of it in beauty-and of a country of which that city should be worthy in greatness.

Why should this, or some part of this, be beyond the bounds of possible realization? Or is it wrong to dream that the vast sums of money which might be given, and constantly are given, for the sake of practical ethics, for charities, for education and for government, might in part at least be devoted to the creation of a monumental work as nearly perfect and imperishable as man can produce?

Something of this kind is certainly to be done in the future, possibly before many years have elapsed. Why should it not be done, or at least thought of and decided upon, even before these card-board palaces shall have crumbled under wind and sun and weather, or shall have been torn down when they have served the transitory purposes of their present existence?

Among the many chief elements of success, Chicago seems to have much of the will and all the power to realize the impossible, as well as the determination to be first in everything, at any cost. Why, then, should not her tens of millions cast in stone and marble be what her millions have molded in wood and plaster? Why should this be a dream

only and not the first step to a fact stupendous in itself, enduring as anything can be, and beautiful as man can make it? Standing before the building which has been erected to the arts, I was forcibly reminded of one of the great modern feats of architecture which I have often seen and dearly love. I mean the marble uni

love of beauty has life that it may take shape and permanence and come down from on high and dwell among us.Marion Crawford, in Inter-Ocean.


versity, library and museum of Athens, Hors are the general school ex

in which the little Greek people by one noble and self-sacrificing effort have expressed, urbi et orbi, their deep-seated and reverential ancestor-worship. They did not try to do everything themselves, though they paid for everything. They employed the highest skill that money could command and the most durable and beautiful materials that wealth could buy, and they have produced something which has as good a chance and as good a right to live as the Parthenon, the Eryctheum, or the temple of the Wingless Victory. It will be strange indeed if in the long run poor Athens should have conceived and accomplished what million-making Chicago does not even contemplate. Shall we make a new proverb, or a new version of the Scripture, and say "He who hath shall do nothing, and he who hath not shall do even that which is impossible?"

I have heard it said that men of surpassing genius have sometimes in their sleep dreamed their greatest works. The image of one of the greatest dreams ever dreamed by man is hovering like a vision upon the shores of Lake Michigan, We see it but indistinctly, perhaps as dreams are seen, not rounded as a whole nor absolutely perfect in detail. It is that fleeting grace which belongs rather to visions than to reality. We know that it must fade and vanish before long, like the merest hallucination of the night. But it has passed before us and is yet within the sphere of our vision; it has yet the momentary embodiment, which is all the thought requires in order to fix itself upon our memory.

It may be too much to look forward with even a little certainty to the materialization of even some small portion of what has been so temptingly reflected upon earth and air and water.

But anticipation is one thing, hope is quite another. Let us hope, then, even against the probability; let us pray to the gentle deities of art's sanctuary; let us offer incense and votive sacrifice in her temple, and go on hoping so long as the

HE points of professional interest to teachers

hibit in the department of Liberal Arts, the Children's Building, the government school exhibit in the Government build ing, and certain State school exhibits in their own buildings.

When the general plan of the Fair was laid, the educational interest was overlooked. The agitation of the question, moreover, lacked that promptness and organization which would have secured a special building for school exhibits. As a compromise, says the New York School Journal, a space of 200,000 square feet in the Manufactures and Liberal Arts building was decided upon. This space, comprised in the southern portion of the gallery, being centrally located and well lighted, is considered very satisfactory. Here are gathered the exhibits of states, cities, and special institutions.

The plan has been to arrange the exhibits with respect to locality rather than departments. Thus the common schools and higher institutions of a given city will usually be found in adjacent stalls. As an exception to this rule, the manual training exhibits will be seen ranged along the southern wall. Some of the universities and special institutions also are placed irrespective of their state locations. The spaces are partitioned off in stalls, and on the walls of these the work is chiefly hung.

The foreign education exhibit will be found with the general exhibit of the respective countries. Japan is the exception. She has asked permission to exhibit with the American schools and occupies space accordingly.

Although an after-thought in the general plan, and late in its completion, the Children's Building is an exceedingly important feature of the educational exhibit. The funds for its erection and maintenance were raised through the independent action of the Board of Lady Managers. Part of the money was subscribed by the public school children themselves. A large sum was raised by Mrs. Potter Palmer, at a home entertainment.

The plan of the Children's Building

provides for an exhibition of the most ap- | library of five thousand volumes for a

proved methods for rearing and educating children. Miss Marie Love, of Buffalo, will conduct a model crèche. For the créche we are indebted to the French. It is a pre-kindergarten institution. Here babies may be cared for while their mothers visit other features of the Exposition. In connection with the crèche, short lectures will be given on the dressing and general care of babies. There is an exhibit of babies' clothes and cradles from all lands and all times. A model kindergarten is also found here, with all the best appliances. Miss Emily Huntington will conduct a "kitchen-garden" where little children may learn the elements of good housewifery. Mrs. Quincy Shaw (daughter of Agassiz) has arranged for a sloyd department in the Children's Building. This will be in charge of Mr. Gustav Larsson, of Boston. Here teachers may see the working of the noted system of Swedish manual training. There is an exhibit of wood-carving in connection. The large central hall of the Children's Building is for physical culture. In addition to a regular system of gymnastics, many games and plays suitable for school purposes are shown. Other features of the building are a library of American and foreign literature for children; a children's class of deaf mutes; a delightful roof garden, made safe by wire netting. In shaded parts of the garden are exhibited toys of all nations. Col. Parker takes charge of the Assembly Hall of the Children's Building. Here are given stereopticon lectures supplemented by visits to the neighboring exhibits that illustrate further the topics of the lectures. The gymnasium occupies the central court, with a gallery around the upper story. The large audience room on the first floor is decorated with a frieze of medallions, between which are appropriate inscriptions, as "The hope of the future lies with the children, Come let us with our children live."

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The United States Government exhibit occupies about 3,500 square feet in the Government building, main floor. It is the special exhibit of the Bureau of Education at Washington. The detail of the exhibit is as follows:

Photographs and pupils' work illustrating conditions and results of school-work in Alaska. Photographs of same in United States. Catalogues of colleges and universities of the world. Selected

town library, by a committee of the American Library Association. Blanks, etc., arranged by the Library School, Albany, N. Y. Photographs and drawings. of Library Architecture, arranged by committee of the American Library Association. Examples of best bindings, temporary and permanent, for books of various sizes and kinds. Examples of book stacks furnished by various firms. Examples of furniture endorsed by the American Library Association. Machine known as the Rudolph Indexer. Copies of educational journals and reviews of the United States. Full set of Annual Reports, Circulars of Information, and Bulletins that have been published by the Bureau of Education. Photographs and pupils' work illustrating methods used in Reformatories and Indian Schools. Models of school apparatus for the demonstration of applied mathematics. Photographs of the exterior and interior of school buildings. Models illustrating development of American invention in school furniture. Reports of state and local superintendents of public schools in the United States. Photographs of teachers and groups of pupils. Documents illustrating methods of conducting school savings banks, arranged by J. H. Thiry, esq., L. I. City, and Miss Oberholzer, Norristown, Pa. Catalogues and photographs of secondary schools of New Zealand. Charts showing American and foreign statistics relating to population, school population, ratios and comparisons with expenditures for all school purposes. Maps showing location and distribution of educational institutions, and volumes of original returns that have been used in compiling the statistics for the report of the Commissioner of Education.

From Pennsylvania fine exhibits are made by the Philadelphia School of Design, the Spring Garden Institute, the Pennsylvania Museum of Industrial Art, the University of Pennsylvania, Bryn Mawr Female College, Ogontz College near Philadelphia, the School for Feeble Minded, the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, the Institution for the Blind, the Pennsylvania State College, Lehigh University, the Philadelphia Manual Training School, Girard College, Pennsylvania College, the Indian School at Carlisle, and other educational institutions, as well as from the Normal Schools and the common schools in general.

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Na letter written a couple of weeks ago we said there was seating capacity on the grounds for 10,000 people, and that this seemed to be enough. But almost immediately it became apparent the sittings must be increased if the people were to have sufficient resting place. It must be said to the credit of the managers of the Fair that just as soon as they realized the necessity of increasing these accommodations they set about the work. Settees enough to hold 50,000 more people were at once ordered, and day after day the contractors have placed wagon-loads of benches all over the grounds. The managers of the Fair did this at considerable expense, at a time when they scarcely knew which way to turn for money. They had exhausted their treasury in opening the gates May 1st, and were in debt. For every dollar that was taken in at the gates a hundred hands were outstretched. Contractors, supply houses, officials, and even workmen, were unpaid. The attendance, owing to unfavorable weather and high railroad rates, was not as great as had been expected. Yet in the face of all these difficulties the managers, be it said to their honor, did not hesitate to incur expenditure whenever the comfort of the people was involved.

I do not intend to pose as a defender of the managers, nor as their apologist, but I like to see justice done. When one reads in eastern papers criticisms of the management of the Fair that are notoriously false and malicious, it is not easy to maintain silence concerning them. It is not true that the World's Fair is a great money-making scheme. If it were, the directors would have avoided millions of dollars of expenditure-would have kept in their treasury vast sums that were expended for adornment, for statuary, for public comfort, for elegance, that could have been saved by a narrow and selfish policy. Why, these very directors, the best business men of Chicago, have given and continue to give their time and energies to this enterprise without a dollar of salary or direct reward.

They do not stint their expenditure in any worthy direction. Come even now to the Fair, and you will see long lines of wagons waiting every evening to carry

their loads of benches to various parts of the grounds. Other lines of wagons are laden with fresh sod, which is brought in every day by train-loads, to be used in freshening the park. A huge streetcleaning department waits also for the visitors to leave the gates, and then works all night. all night. By morning every bit of dirt and rubbish, every particle of mud and refuse, has been cleared away. When you come to Chicago, make an effort to reach the Exposition at least once or twice during your sojourn early in the morning. Then you will see the Fair at its best. Everything is bright and clean. There is a sweetness, a freshness everywhere, which cannot be found in the afternoon, after the multitude has come.

The managers of the Fair spent a small fortune for music. Without cost the visitor may hear the finest bands and orchestras in the country. He may sit in the shade of the palaces which surround the central court, amid a scene of unparalleled splendor, and fill his soul with music's divine strains. An admission fee is charged to some of the special concerts in Choral Hall-concerts at which famous soloists appear-but every such concert is a financial loss to the management, and is not expected to be anything but a loss. The large appropriation made for music. is another example of the generosity of the men who have made this Fair.

I have watched the Columbian Guard with a good deal of interest. They were 2,500 young men gathered from all walks of life, particularly those in which the influences are not refining or elevating. As hired they were a motley mob, unaccustomed to discipline, and some of them strangers to civility. Well, it is interesting to note how quickly they have been transformed into good soldiers. Already they have the bearing, the repose, the dignity mingled with the considerateness, which should ever characterize men who are thrust into positions of responsibility and delegated authority. This army of guards has been to me an exposition of ' itself-a display of the manhood of the common people, and of the adaptability of our young men to military service. presents an object lesson in the soldierly qualities of Americans, and shows this generation in a small way that which the last saw on a grand and more terrible scale the ease with which our countrymen may leave the plow and the bench, the railway brake and the desk, the coun


ter and the school, and become part of an effective, intelligent and thoroughly disciplined martial force.

It would be foolish to say these guards are altogether perfect. They are not ideal. But the other extreme, that reached by the spirit of fault-finding which is altogether too prevalent in this country, is equally absurd. The guards are a credit to the country and the Exposition, and they are improving every day. Some people ask why so many guards are necessary. Two thousand five hundred is a pretty large number of policemen for one city, it is true. But it must be remembered they have both day and night duty to perform. Their vigil over the almost priceless exhibits here displayed never ceases. It is estimated there are in the Exposition goods valued at $300,000,000. All these are open to the public, and must be protected and watched. There are thirteen main Exposition buildings and some eighty smaller ones. Two hundred and fifty guards are needed in the great Manufactures building alone, during the day; and 100 are stationed there at night. In the day time 100 are assigned to the Art palace. Besides the buildings and their exhibits, the walks and all other parts of the grounds must be patrolled.

Study the situation as I have done, and you will see that 2,500 is none too large a number of guards for the White City. You must not forget that vast crowds of people come here every day, and that it would be simple madness to leave them without police protection. As long as everything goes well, perhaps there is not much need of the presence of the guards. But suppose fire breaks out, or there is panic from any cause? These are the things the management has had to think of. Though the fault-finders may be thoughtless, the men who are responsible for the conduct of this great enterprise cannot afford to be. And I must say they appear to have thought of everything.

It would require many columns to expose all the lies I have seen in eastern papers concerning the World's Fair. Life is too short to devote much of it to this purpose. There are too many things here to admire and praise. But I wish to reassure my readers on a few points. The Fair is now finished. It is complete and perfect. If an exhibit here and there is not just as its owners or managers desire to have it, probably it will be by the time

this reaches your eye; and at any rate, all these exhibits together do not amount to a drop in the great bucket. The fair is clean and orderly, as I have shown you. So much attention has been paid to the comfort of visitors that every one is astonished at the completeness of the arrange


There are seats within the buildings and without. The toilet rooms and lavatories are everywhere-free. There are rest rooms in various buildings. If one is taken ill or overcome by heat, an ambulance service attends and a good hospital awaits. Drinking water-free and good— may be had at every turn. There is no extortion within the grounds. Those restaurant keepers and other providers who started out to gain riches have quickly found they were on the wrong road. transportation facilities to and from the Fair grounds are almost perfect. No previous exposition was so well served in this respect. On the days of greatest attendance there is no uncomfortable crowding.


Let me give you a little personal experience, that you may judge of the conditions existing in Chicago and at the Fair. I board at the Grand Pacific hotel, where I pay only regular rates, as every one else does-the, same rates asked last year and every year. This is true of nearly all the hotels. One large hotel served notice in the latter part of April that it would double its rates May 1st. The guests didn't complain. They did not go to the office and growl. They simply said to themselves: "This landlord has the right to charge what he pleases. That is his business." But on the morning of May 1st there weren't a dozen guests left in the big house. A vast hotel was empty, cavernous. Café, bar, barber-shop, bell boys, cigar stand, cashier, room clerk, everything and everybody had a holiday. The next day was no better. It was even worse, for only half a dozen guests remained. Then the proprietor capitulated. He came down to his old scale of prices. Gradually his guests returned, but even yet the house is suffering from the effects of that mistake. It cost that landlord $10,000 to learn that people will not be robbed. This is the lesson which a great many people have learned in Chicago.

Well, a five-minutes walk takes me to the Illinois Central station. In two or three minutes an express train starts for the Fair. It makes the journey in fifteen

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