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week in the fourth year of the High School course.

The Conference claim for English as much time as the Latin Conference claim for Latin in secondary schools, and it is clear that they intend that the study shall be in all respects as serious and informing as the study of Latin. One of the most interesting opinions expressed by the Conference is that the best results in the teaching of English in high schools cannot be secured without the aid given by the study of some other language, and that Latin and German, by reason of their fuller intellectual system, are especially suited to this end."

Study of Words.-They say that the study of words should be so pursued as to illustrate the political, social, intellectual and religious development of the English race, and they urge that the admission of a student to college should be made to depend largely on his ability to write English, as shown in his examination books on other subjects. It is a fundamental idea in this report that the study of every other subject should contribute to the pupil's training in English, and that the pupil's capacity to write English should be made available and be developed in every other department.

An Elective Course in German or French. -The most novel and striking recommendation made by the conference on Modern Languages is that an elective. course in German or French be provided in the grammar school, the instruction to be open to children at about ten years of age. The conference made this recommendation"in the firm belief that the educational effects of modern language study will be of immense benefit to all who are able to pursue it under proper guidance." They admit that the study of Latin presents the same advantages, but living languages seem to them better adapted to grammar school work. They plead that all pupils of the same intelligence and the same degree of maturity be instructed alike, no matter whether they are subsequently to enter a college or scientific school, or intend to pursue their studies no farther." Finally, they declare that "the worst obstacle to modern language study is the lack of properly equipped instructors, and that it is the duty of universities, States and cities to provide opportunities for the special preparation of modern language teach



Teaching of Arithmetic.-The Conference on Mathematics were unanimously of opinion "that a radical change in the teaching of arithmetic was necessary." They recommend "that the course in arithmetic be at once abridged and enriched; abridged by omitting entirely those subjects which perplex and exhaust the pupil without affording any really valuable mental discipline, and enriched by a greater number of exercises in simple calculation and in the solution of concrete problems." They map out a course of arithmetic which, in their judgment, should begin about the age of six years, and be completed at about the thirteenth year of age.

Among several other recommendations is one that a course of instruction in concrete geometry, with numerous exercises, be introduced into the grammar schools, and that this instruction should, during the earlier years, be given in connection with drawing. They recommend that the study of systematic algebra should be begun at the age of fourteen.

Physics, Chemistry and Astronomy.The Conference on the subject of Physics, Chemistry and Astronomy urged that the study of simple natural phenomena be introduced into elementary schools, and at least one period a day, from the first year of the primary school, should be given to such study. Apparently the Conference entertained the opinion that the present teachers in elementary schools are ill prepared to teach children how to observe simple natural phenomena. The Conference was clearly of opinion that from the beginning this study should be pursued by the pupil chiefly, though not exclusively, by means of experiments and by practice in the use of simple instruments for making physical measurements. The report dwells repeatedly on the importance of the study of things and phenomena by direct contact. It emphasizes the necessity of a large proportion of laboratory work in the study of physics and chemistry, and advocates the keeping of laboratory note-books by the pupils, and the use of such note-books as part of the test for admission to college.

Natural History.-The Conference on Natural History unanimously agreed that the study of botany and zoology ought to be introduced into the primary schools at the very beginning of the school course, and be pursued steadily, with not less

than two periods a week, throughout the | mitted to memory and the reading of

whole course below the high school. In the next place they agreed that in those early lessons in natural science no textbook should be used, but that the study should constantly be associated with the study of literature, language and drawing. It was their opinion that the study of physiology should be postponed to the later years of the high school course, but that in the high school some branch of natural history proper should be pursued every day throughout at least one year.

History, Civil Government, etc.-The Conference on History, Civil Government, etc., believed that the time devoted in schools to history and the allied subjects should be materially increased. They declare that the teaching of history should be intimately connected with the teaching of English; that pupils should be encouraged to avail themselves of their knowledge of ancient and modern languages, and that their study of history should be associated with the study of topography and political geography, and should be supplemented by the study of historical and commercial geography and the drawing of historical maps. They desire that historical works should be used for reading in schools, and that subjects of English composition should be drawn from the lessons in history. They would have had historical poems com

biographies and historical novels encouraged. While they are of opinion that political economy should not be taught in secondary schools, they urge that, in connection with United States history, civil government and commercial geography, instruction should be given in the most important economic topics.

Geography.-The Conference report on Geography deals with more novelties than any other report, exhibits more dissatisfaction with prevailing methods, and makes, on the whole, the most revolutionary suggestions.

It is obvious on even a cursory reading of the report that geography means for all the members of this Conference something entirely different from the term geography as generally used in school programmes, Their definition of the word makes it embrace not only a descripof the surface of the earth, but also the elements of botany, zoölogy, astronomy and meteorology, as well as many considerations pertaining to commerce, gov. ernment and ethnology. "The physical environment of man expresses as well as any single phrase can the Conference's conception of the principal subject which they wish to have taught.

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The entire report has for some time been under discussion in educational centres in all parts of the country.


HARRISBURG, June, 1894.

HE annual written and statistical reports THE annual perintendents should be on file in this department as early as possible after the close of the school year, and not later than July 1st.

The manuscript should be carefully prepared, written on one side only, and in length the written reports must not exceed six hundred words. As there are so many reports to be printed, brevity is very desirable.

In filling the blank form for the annual statistical reports, Superintendents will be careful to make these reports as complete and accurate as possible. Note carefully the statistical items called for, and place each item in the proper column and space designated for it, with the totals in all cases given plainly in the footings below.


Supt. Public Instruction.


HE State Teachers' Permanent Certificate

was issued april 26th and 27th, to graduates of colleges here named:

38. John A. Keys, McKeesport, Allegheny county, graduate of Washington and Jefferson College.

39. W. J. Alexander, Beaver, Beaver county, graduate of Lafayette College.

40. Calvin R. Neff, Millheim, Centre co., graduate of Franklin and Marshall College. 41. Rolandus Kocher, Flowerville, Columbia county, graduate Bucknell University. 42. Geo. E. Wilbur, Bloomsburg, Columbia county, graduate Dickinson College.

43. T. M. Morrison, Union City, Erie county, graduate of Allegheny College.

44. Mary E. Dawson, New Wilmington, Lawrence county, graduate of Westminster College.

45. Milton J. Kramlick, Allentown, Lehigh county, graduate of Muhlenberg College. 46. W. W. Kelchner, Williamsport, Ly

coming county, graduate of Bucknell University.

47. C. C. Williamson, Sharpsville, Mercer county, graduate of Thiel College.

48. Charles E. Lord, Franklin, Venango county, graduate of Dartmouth College.

49. Fred J. Turnbull, Oil City, Venango county, graduate of Colgate University.

50. J. D. Trussell, Claysville, Washington county, graduate of Washington and Jefferson College.

51. C. N. Heller, Greensburg, Westmoreland county, graduate of Franklin and Marshall College.

In April No., No. 30 should read “Angelia Hambleton, Swarthmore, Delaware county, graduate of Adrian College, Michigan."



THE Elementary Course of Study for State Normal Schools, adopted by the Principals of the several Schools at a meeting held at the Department of Public Instruction in Harrisburg, February 3d and 4th, 1886, and revised March 16, 1893, is as follows: JUNIOR YEAR.*

Pedagogics-Elements of School Management and Methods.

Language-Orthography and Reading; English Grammar, including Composition; Rhetoric; Latin, sufficient for the introduction of Cæsar.

Mathematics-Arithmetic, Elementary Algebra to Quadratic Equations; Plane Geometry, first two books.

Natural Sciences-Physiology and Hygiene. Historical Sciences Geography, Complete; History of the United States; Civil Government.

The Arts-Penmanship, sufficient to be able to explain some approved system, writing to be submitted to the Board of Examiners; Drawing, a daily exercise for at least twenty-eight weeks, work to be submitted to the Board of Examiners; BookKeeping, Single Entry, a daily exercise for at least seven weeks; Vocal Music, elementary principles, and attendance upon daily exercises for at least one-third of a year. Physical Culture.


Pedagogics-Psychology, embracing the Intellect, Sensibilities, and Will. Methods; History of Education; Model School Work, at least twenty-one weeks of actual teaching daily during one period of not less than forty-five minutes; a Thesis on a Professional subject.

*When one or more students are recommended by the Faculty for examination in six or more studies of the Junior Course, the State Board of Examiners will examine such candidates. All the candidates must be recommended in the same branches, and that examination will be final only in the school in which the candidate passes in all the branches selected.

Language-The Outlines of Rhetoric, together with at least a fourteen weeks' course in English Literature, including the thorough study of one selection from each of four English classics; Latin, Cæsar through the Helvetian War.

Mathematics-Mensuration, Geometry. Natural Sciences Elementary Natural

Philosophy; Botany.

Historical Sciences-Reading of General History with the History of Education.

The Arts-Elocutionary Exercises in connection with the study of English Literature. Manual Training.

POST-GRADuate course.

The following is the Post Graduate Course of study, adopted February 4, 1891: Mathematics-Solid Geometry; Plane Trigonometry and Surveying.

Latin-Three books of Cæsar's Commentaries; three books of Virgil's Æneid. Pedagogics-General History, Moral Philosophy, Logic, Advanced Psychology, and Practice in Teaching.

Science-Chemistry, Zoology, and As

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THE following named gentlemen were appointed May 12th, 1894, by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, to serve as trustees of the State Normal Schools:

Millersville-Dr. O. T. Huebner, Lancaster, and John S. Mann, Columbia, Pa. Kutztown-Lewis Butz, Kutztown, and David H. Schweyer, Bowers, Pa.

East Stroudsburg-H. S. Rinker, Mauch Chunk, and A. W. Dickinson, Scranton, Pa. Mansfield-David Cameron, Wellsboro, and Fred. M. Allen, Mansfield, Pa.

Bloomsburg-Charles W. Miller, Bloomsburg, and C. C. Peacock, Bloomsburg, Pa.

Lock Haven-Dr. R. Armstrong, Lock Haven, and S. M. McCormick, Lock Haven. Indiana-W. J. Mitchell, Indiana, and John W. Sutton, Indiana, Pa.

Clarion-Gen. W. W. Greenland, Clarion, and J. W. Reed, Clarion, Pa.

California-H. S. Darsie, Uniontown, and Hon. Geo. V. Lawrence, Monongahela, Pa. West Chester-Maj. L. G. McCauley, West Chester, and R. E. M. Evans, Norristown.

Slippery Rock-Hon. H. J. Gourley, Pittsburg, and John Buchanan, Beaver, Pa.

Shippensburg-Hon. H. C. Greenewalt, Fayetteville, and Henry R. Hauk, Shippensburg, Pa.

Edinboro-A. F. Moses, Edinboro, and H. C. Billings, Edinboro, Pa.


ADAMS Supt. Thoman: All the schools excepting those of Gettysburg are closed. A number of successful local institutes for teachers are now in progress at Abbottstown, Littlestown, Gettysburg, New Oxford, Hampton, Mummasburg, Bendersville, Arendtsville, York Springs and doubtless elsewhere, of which I have not been informed. A large number of our teachers are also in attendance at one or other of the State Normal Schools. This means progress. When teachers once see the necessity of properly fitting themselves for their work we may expect better results. In a few districts directors have not as yet complied with the requirements of the law relating to outhouses. It is hoped that immediately after the organization of the new Boards they will give this matter their prompt attention, in order to have all school-houses supplied with the necessary outhouse arrangements prior to the opening of school in the fall. The nine central examinations were conducted with great success and very satisfactorily to all concerned; 148 pupils were examined in 7th and 8th year's work. Of the latter grade the committees recommended 74 for graduation; of this number 66 presented themselves at the final examination. Diplomas were granted to 59 and certificates of scholarship to 7. This is our third graduating class since the adoption of the graded course of study.

BEDFORD-Supt. Potts: We have closed one of the most successful school terms the county has known. Of 299 teachers but three were changed. The commencement exercises were largely attended. On account of the unusual expense of supplying books not many districts will be free from debt; yet we feel that the law is a good one.

BERKS Supt. Zechman: The Hamburg high school was examined during the month. The pupils of the county contributed $243 towards the erection of a monument to the memory of Conrad Weiser, the pioneer of the Pennsylvania German people.

BLAIR-Supt. Wertz: The commencement exercises of the schools at Bellwood, Roaring Spring, and Martinsburg were interesting and suggestive. The graduates at each place in the order named numbered 7, 7 and 6; sixteen girls and four boys. Arbor Day was appropriately observed by many of our schools.

CAMBRIA-Supt. Leech Local normal schools are in session with a large attendance at Conemaugh, Scalp Level, Elton, Wilmore, Ebensburg, Chest Springs, Carrolltown and Mountain Dale.

CHESTER-Supt. Walton: The educational meeting held at New London, April 20th, consisting of two day sessions and one evening, was productive of an unusual amount of good. When these meetings can be called and held under the auspices of the School Board there is a gain in local interest

which is exceedingly valuable. The arrangement of the outhouses in West Gordon is a step in advance for rural schools. They can be entered only from the school room. Directors would do well to examine their structure.

CUMBERLAND-Supt. Beitzel: Flags have been raised at the Hedge school in Dickinson township, the Gap school in Lower Mifflin, and at the Sycamore school in South Middleton, with appropriate exercises. A large number of patrons and citizens were present in each instance. Clay modeling has been introduced into the primary departments of the Shippenburg schools. The children are very much interested in the work, and have become quite proficient in constructing some of the simpler geometrical forms. Music is being taught in the schools of Shippensburg, Newville, Carlisle and Mechanicsburg, by the aid of Mason's New National Music charts.

DELAWARE-Supt. Smith: The attendance this year has been much more regular than for some years past. The teacher has in consequence been enabled to do more satisfactory work, and our schools with a few exceptions have been making steady advancement throughout the term. The County Teachers' Association held one of its most successful meetings April 7, in Marcus Hook. Over 100 teachers were present and unusual interest was manifested. Supt. Foster of Chester and Prof. F. H. Green of the West Chester Normal, took part in the exercises. All of our teachers are deeply interested in the approaching meeting of the State Teachers' Association to be held in Media. We all look for a big meeting.

FOREST Supt. Kerr: Most of our schools have closed a very successful eight months term, and many teachers have gone to attend the Clarion Normal School. In many of our advanced schools, I have held examinations for the higher grades ; but diplomas are not granted.

FRANKLIN Supt. Zumbro: On the 24th we attended the commencement exercises of the graduates of the Mercersburg High School, and delivered the address to the class, sixteen in number. They all acquitted themselves creditably and received diplomas.

FULTON-Supt. Chestnut : All our schools are closed except those of McConnellsburg. Notable improvement was made in many during the winter. Several flourishing normals are in progress. The law prohibiting superintendents from teaching will work great good in our county.

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HUNTINGDON Supt. Rudy: Orbisonia graduated its first class, four young ladies, April 6th. A large audience was present to witness the exercises. It was very apparent that the citizens and patrons were well pleased with the first commencement. Dr. Eckels delivered the address to the class.

JEFFERSON-Supt. Hughes: Many of our schools have closed. A six-months term is

entirely too short. Three-fourths of our pupils will be out of school between five and six months. Eight months, not less, ought to be the minimum term.

JUNIATA-Supt. Marshall: A visit to the schools of Mifflintown during this the last month of the term, enabled me to observe the marked progress that has been made in all the grades. These schools may be classed among the best in the county, in respect of efficiency, system, and the educational spirit of the people. This is due to the fact, first that the schools are well graded and working under a practical course of study; and second, that the Directors are independent and careful in the selection of teachers. The primary rooms are, however, too much crowded. Directors should remember that small children need a great deal of individual attention. Their progress depends greatly upon the immediate direction of the teacher. Another teacher is needed, but the building contains only four rooms.

LACKAWANNA-Supt. Taylor: Local institutes have been held this month at Jermyn, Olyphant, Dalton, and Old Forge. On April 6th a handsome four-room building was opened in Dixon borough with appropriate ceremonies. An interesting musical and literary programme had been prepared by Prof. J. E. McCauley and M. J. Lloyd. A large audience was present. Addresses were made by the County Superintendent and the President of the Board. This building is really a great credit to the Board of Directors. The rooms are large, lofty, and well-lighted. Each room has two cloak closets which may be entered both from hall and school-room. The furnishing is of the latest improved pattern, single desks with noiseless hinges; and each room has about 60 square feet of slate blackboard. There is also a room for Directors' meetings. Directors are coming to feel that nothing but the best is good enough for the children. The central examinations for the common school course will be held May 12th at six


LEBANON-Supt. Snoke: During April I visited the schools of Jonestown, West Lebanon, Independent, and Cornwall districts. With some exceptions in the primary grades, these schools are in a progressive condition. In two of the primary schools, I found beginners as teachers, a very questionable arrangement. If somebody must learn this "noblest of arts" by experimenting upon the children, it should not be done in the primary schools where the foundation for the superstructure is laid. The schools of Cornwall were never before in a better condition. This is to be attributed to the fact that all their teachers are highly successful. Probably in no other district does the Board exercise more judicious judgment in the selection and retention of teachers. No beginner can gain a foothold in this district. The unsuccessful teacher is sure not to re

ceive a second trial, while the progressive teacher will be retained if at all possible. Successful schools for teachers are conducted by Profs. Heilman, Gerberich, Leopold, and Alleman at Annville, at Lebanon Valley College, Palatinate College, and Schuylkill Seminary, while quite a number of our teachers are attending State Normal schools.

LEHIGH-Supt. Rupp: At a meeting of the executive committee of the County Institute it was decided to hold the next meeting in Market Hall instead of the Court House, which has for some years been too small for the purpose. The Institute will convene November 5th. I propose to hold my examinations about a month earlier than last year. Apparently teachers will be quite numerous this year again, and I have therefore decided to raise the standard of the certificates considerably.

LYCOMING-Supt. Becht: The April meeting of the Teachers' Exchange was probably the most important meeting of that body held during the year. Mr. G. B. Milnor read a paper on The Higher Qualifications of Teachers;" Mr. F. W. Robbins and Mr. G. F. Dandais discussed the subject of English as found in the report of the Committee of Ten. The following course of reading for teachers was suggested: Boone's History of Education in the United States, Baldwin's Elementary Psychology and Education, White's School Management, Rooper's Apperception, Howland's Practical Hints. It was recommended that one of these books be read each month and then discussed at the meeting of the Exchange. The examination in the Theory of Teaching will be based on this course of study. Montoursville borough held its first graduating exercises on the evening of April 25th. A class of three boys and two girls received diplomas.

MCKEAN-Supt. Eckels: We have just granted diplomas to twenty-six pupils who have finished the common school course. The examinations for these diplomas are of a high grade, and consequently a diploma is highly prized. As one of the healthful signs we note the fact that more of our teachers will enter the Normal schools this year than ever before. Our schools have never been in a more hopeful condition. Now that the short term has been abolished we expect the schools to take a long stride forward.

MIFFLIN Supt. Cooper: Nearly all of the schools in the country have closed. The Lewistown schools are making preparations for their graduating exercises, which will take place the latter part of May. An unusually large number of our teachers and young persons preparing to teach have gone to some Normal school. The course of study adopted in the Yeagerstown schools bids fair to be productive of good results.

MONROE Supt. Serfass: Arbor Day was appropriately observed at the East Stroudsburg Normal School. Representative R. F. Schwarz delivered a very interesting ad

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