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sized sculptures of American animals, one which have been spent in preparation of skirts the Electricity Building. On the the Exposition grounds: Grading and fillother side of this is the Mining Building, ing, $450,000; landscape gardening, and still beyond is the monstrous Trans- $323,500; viaduct and bridges, $125,000; portation Building, the decoration of piers, $70,000; waterway improvements, which alternately suggests a kaleidoscope $225,000; railways, $500,000; steam plant,

, and the band-wagon of a circus.

$800,000; electric lighting, $1,500,0CO; Leaving out the State buildings there statuary, $1,000,000; vases, lamps, etc., are only three conspicuous blotches on $50,000; lake front adornment, $200,000; the beauty of the Exposition as a whole. water supply and sewerage, $600,000; They are the Transportation Building, other expenses, $1,000,000. Total, the Illinois Building, and the United $5.943,500. The total expense of organi

$ States Government Building.

zation, administration and operation of A remarkable thing about the Exposi- the exposition is estimated at $5,000,000. tion is the number of interests that have This takes no account of the sum spent been given separate representation. The by the Government, the States, or foreign Woman's Building is an instance of this. nations. Education is illustrated in a thousand One hundred and twenty car-loads of forins. Almost every Government has glass, enough to cover twenty-nine acres, turned its educational department loose, were used in the roofs of the various Exand the result is a wilderness of charts, position structures. More than forty-one models, books and statistics, that, in a car loads, or eleven acres, were required measure, confuses and overwhelins the by the great Manufactures Building average spectator.

alone. Provision has been made for the trans- A thing that will impress itself upon portation of sixty thousand persous an the thoughtful observer is the fact that hour to and from the grounds. The every brauch of science and industry has elevated railway, the Illinois Central been split up into ininor departments. Railway, the ordinary street cars and a This is the age of the specialist. Each fleet of steamboats, have been organized separate thread is taken by an independinto a complete system. Passengers who ent division of workers and followed out travel hy water are landed at the portal minutely. Visitors to the Exposition will of the great water court, while all the be confused until they recognize this fact. railways terminate in a beautiful building Agriculture, horticulture and forestry are

, on the grounds.

apart. Electricity, mining, steam machinOn the steamboat pier are moving side- ery and artillery engineering are divorced walks. The outer sidewalk moves at a from each other. The artist and the rate of three miles an hour, so that pas- merchant are no longer under one roof. sengers can step upon it while it is in This impressive lesson is, of course, motion. They can then step to an inner only to be learned in the departments of sidewalk which has a speed of three the greater nations. The old style still miles faster, so that they are carried holds with the Japauese, the East Inalong the pier at the rate of six miles an dians, the South Americans and the hour and can get on or off at will without South Sea Islanders. inconvenience.

And after the student has spent weeks Close by is a fine harbor for visiting in the various buildings, he can sit down yachts, and it is known that there will be in the open air and watch the world pass a fine attendance of yachtsmen from all before him— Turks and Russians, Greeks parts of the country and from Europe. and Bulgarians, Japs, Esquimaux, In

Lines of coaches will be run to and dians, Britons, Frenchmen, Spaniards, from the Exposition, and this fine out-door Italians, Dutchmen, Switzers, Peruviaus, sport will be revived in royal fashion. Chileans, Brazilians, Moors, Swedes,

Fifty thousand people can be fed. Danes, Cingalese and the people of all

And the mothers, too, have been pro- lauds, come to honor the memory of a man vided for. There is a building where

who built his fame on faith and courage. babies can be checked just like a hat or For a mile around him will be palaces, coat or umbrella. The charge is moder- flower gardens and the wealth of civilized ate and the nurses are good.

man in its highest form challenging critiAside from the cost of the great build- cism. Here Saint-Saens and the Garde ings the following are among the sunis Republicain Band will pour out harmony;


there the wand of a great leader will kinds of low-growing willows, cornuses, wave over an army of violins. Great spiræas, loniceras, lilacs, snowballs and chorals will swell from the lips of in- barberries. These form the basis of the numerable singers.

groups, but to give variety and test A hundred thousand armed and uni- their adaptability to the climate many formed soldiers will be massed in Chicago rare shrubs were added. this summer. This great camp of Amer- The inner, higher part of the wooded ican warriors will be in August. Militia island, reserved for the use of the Floriorganizations fronı every State in the cultural Department, was laid out in Union will be present, besides a large lawns, flower beds and a rose garden, representation of troops from the regular while the extreme north end space was army. To these must be added military set apart for the Japanese temple and companies and perhaps regiinents from garden, which are to remain as a permaforeign countries. The military display nent reminder of the patience, ingenuity, will be one of the grandest ever seen gentleness, good-will, and love of beauty in this country.

of that nation of artists. The flower ex

hibits on the island will form a long and HORTICULTURAL DISPLAY.

charming procession. The wooded island Two years ago Jackson Park, Chicago, is about sixteen acres in extent, ten of was a sandy waste, with a few puddles of which are devoted to the plantations of water which the waves of Lake Michigan trees, shrubs and native plants already had washed over the beach into the hol- described. Through the middle is the lows. There was one little hillock near long sweep of lawns and flower garden, the centre of the plot, covered by a growth about six acres in all. At the south end of shaggy oaks.

of this space will be shown for the first When the World's Fair landscape gar- time in the West, it is believed, a comdeners took hold of the park to put it in bination of plants and style of grouping shape for the reception of the buildings, that is seen on large places in the East, they deepened the hollows, made silvery notably on the grounds of the Newport lagoons of the mud-puddles, and an island home of the late Miss Catharine Lorillard fringed with rushes of the wooded knoll. Wolfe, consisting of azaleas and rhodoWalks, roads and avenues of trees fol- dendrons, and in the partial shade of lowed, and the lake was hemmed in by a these shrubs great clumps of lilies in stone embankment, along which there is many varieties will be planted. The a magnificent promenade.

bulbs and shrubs bloom at different seaThe islands are fringed with shrubbery sons, and thus the arrangement affords and great stretches of wild flowers grow- double pleasure. ing in colonies, as they do on the prairies Over the lawns north from this fine exand borders of woodlands and in marshes hibit will be seen a green and flowery all through Northern Illinois. Semi-wall, the first hint of the rose gardenaquatic plants troop down to the brink; the glory of the island. This is a plot of tall reeds and other water-plants rise from one and one-quarter acres, oblong in the lagoon itself, and on its quiet surface shape, and it will be inclosed by a wire lily leaves float dreamily, while the low fence supported by posts nine feet high outlying isles are tinged a living green by set at intervals of eight feet. Between the sedgy things that creep to the water's the posts the wire netting droops in edge.

curves, the lowest point of each curve There have been planted on the islands being six feet above the ground. The and in the other parts of the grounds 12,

fence will be lined with climbing roses 618 trees, 50,644 shrubs, 151,394 hardy and draped on the outside with many perennial, herbaceous, and miscellaneous kinds of light-growing creepers. The plants, 136,678 aquatic and semi-aquatic gracefully-shaped vine-covered, flowerplants, 3,300 ferns, 8,582 vines, climbers, starred wall will be in itself a thing of and ornamental grasses; 60,000 willow beauty. Access to the interior will be at cuttings, 114,920 bulbs and similar plants, four points only-in the middle of each and a great collection of native plants, side and at the middle of each end-so which were used by the car-loads. The the garden will possess the first requisite trees used were principally willows, pop- of a garden--seclusion. It will also poslars, water-maples, cherries, elms, and sess the second-flowers. lindens. The shrubbery consists of various In addition to the floral displays on


the island, Chief Thorpe has arranged the power of to-day to imagine and confor exhibits of flowers in the Horticultural struct. Let it represent the present as Building, which will extend throughout well as recall the past; make it shadow the months of the fair, varying from time forth the highest tendencies as well as to time as the season advances.

the practical uses of the present. You may have labor and material in limitless

quantities, and the best skill of the world A DREAM CITY.

is at your disposal. If any man of Amer

ican blood has special gifts, call him to HE title, “ A Dream City,” is that you and command his power. Painters

under which Mrs. Candace Wheeler, and sculptors and creators of beauty in president of Associated Artists of New landscape shall collaborate with you, York, and director of decoration in the and according as you express the ideal of Woman's Building, at the Exposition, a nation nobly you shall be honored and contributes to the

the May number of praised. Harper's Magazine a paper on the build- And so the result stands to-day, under ings of the World's Fair and their sur- a blue or a cloudy sky, beside a lake which roundings. Mrs. Wheeler is thoroughly smiles one moment and rages the next, a familiar with her subject, and her de- vision and foretaste of how the world will scription, which is from a stand-point one day build in earnest. new to periodical literature, is one of the Some one, considering only the celerimost vivid and entertaining yet pub-ty with which this fairy spectacle was lished. “A Dream City” is illustrated created, has called it a skeich ; but it is with fifteen engravings. We take the not even that, for a sketch has at least a following pages from the article:

chance of preservation. It is a dream The fair! The faïr! Never had the which will vanish when the purpose name such significance before. Fairest which called it into being is fulfilled. of all the world's present sights it is. A It is foredoomed to evanishment. The city of palaces set in spaces of emerald, wood and the iron upon which it was reflected in shining lengths of water shaped, even the creamy-white staff whick which stretch in undulating lines under covers all the skeletons of the palacefiat arches of marble bridges, and along like structures, and gives them such a banks planted with consummate skill. look of travertine as takes one back to

Unlike any city which ever existed in Roman walls and streets, are already sold substance, this one has been built all at to the highest bidder; and when the Fair once, by one impulse, at one period, at is over, these imposing temples will come, one stage of kuowledge and arts, by men one by one, to the ground, and their ina-almost equally prominent and equally deterials go into other uses, more in keepveloped in power.

The differences in ing with every-day mortal habitudes than. their results are indications of individu- these. ality alone, and not of periods, circum- At first this thought runs like a waili stances, and influences.

through all the delight of seeing; but No gradual growth of idea is to be gradually, very gradually, one falls into. traced, no budding of new thought upon a mood almost of self-gratulation that the a formulated scheme. The whole thing world has been vouchsafed one perfect seems to have sprung into being fully vision which will never suffer from de-. conceived and perfectly planned, without cay, but remain like a translated city, progressive development or widening of all its premeditated and accidental beauscope.

ty preserved in the translucent amber of For the building of this city the privi- thought and memory. leged few have been called. It has been I can imagine, too, that its impermasaid to them, practically: Bring together nence is one of its charms. If it were to, all your dreams of beautiful architecture; remain, one might gradually find flaws in remember the best work of the races who its beauty; things which are least beau. have lived and built before our time; re- tiful would grow more insistent, and the call all that has been dedicated to reli- things which are most beautiful might gion, or devoted to luxury, or given to become a matter of course, and so less national use,-and from them all devise and less an excitement to the sensės, till something of to-day which shall take its as time went on, and one had learned to place in all men's minds as a symbol of discriminate between good and best, he might grow critical or hypercritical Art Building as one which is the crown enough to cease to enjoy the past-time and jewel of the whole; and, indeed, I miracle or to feel enthusiastic for its con- think a layman, a totally unthinking and tinual existence.

uneducated one, if shut up in a landscape In spite of the first impression of ethe- with the frontage of the Art Building, real and pervading beauty, after a few would become possessed with its charmdays of indulgence in unmixed and en- would be conscious of the fact that that thusiastic admiration, buildings begin to particular vision had reached perfection advance and recede in order of preference, of line and absolute beauty of proportion. and perhaps of excellence, in one's mind. It is useless to say that it was designed or Certain of them are capable of arousing built by such or such a man. It was the enthusiasm day succeeding day, while angel or archangel who possessed him others become a secret subject of sinful when that particular vision came who criticism.

designed it. Perhaps some freed spirituAt first it seems sacrilege to suffer this. al intelligence who had had experience in The earliest detrimental thought which the building of the New Jerusalem becomes creeping into the mind garding came conscious of a possible improvement, one of these shining architectural won- and longing to verify it, came down for a ders is like an evil thing lifting its head brief period to join the band of builders against a consecrated one. The impress and distinguish his share of work in the sion of the whole shames it.

Dream City. To see this miracle of harThe impression of the whole is not due monious form at sunset, with all its lovealone to architecture, or to landscape- ly length shining down the lagoon, is gardening, or to decorative painting, or easily to believe in its heavenly origin. to sculptural adornment, although these But the most peaceably human of all arts are carried so far and with such suc- the buildings is the Woman's Building. cess. It owes its last and crowning charm It is like a man's ideal of woman-delito color and reflection.

cate, dignified, pure, and fair to look The doubling of beauty gained by upon. It has made no bid for popular water reflection could hardly have been admiration, and seems an effort only to taken into account in the first inception reach a permitted and sanctioned ideal. of the plan, unless, indeed from the There is a feeling of indescribable rest landscape-gardener's point of view, but and satisfaction in coming to it day by it was a more than fortunate adjunct, and day, and I have a fancy that if all these its effect upon the general glamour is be- buildings should sing together at midyond calculation. The constant repeti- night, this building would lift a pure. tion of beautiful forms of architecture, soprano note like a flute, the voice of the starting in immaculate and ivory white- Art Building would be a thrilling tenor, ness from the green strip of lawn on and mighty trumpets and beats of drum which the structures so lightly stand, to would accompany them from all the the highest point of crowned cornice; or others. of aerial domes of gold or crystal, flash- “The Woman's Building is one of the ing facets of color against the sky; or of good buildings,” said one who knows; waving flags and gonfalons, softened in and good in this city of beauty means outline, varied in color, and crimped by beautiful. That is what it is in truth ; ripples from moving launches and gon- one of the most satisfactorily beautiful of dolas:-this, seen under a sunset sky, them all. filled with bits of winged and floating The building was a gift to the Woman's cloud, is enough to overfill the heart of Commission from the General Administhe most prosaic of mortals, or to delight tration, as an acknowledgment of the stray spirits of air.

help expected from women. Its design Much has been written, and well writ- was the first independent work of a ten, of the architecture of the fair build- clever woman architect, Miss Hayden, ings. It is thoroughly understood that, who answered, from the scholarly city of as a whole, the buildings are beautiful | Boston, the call for a woman who could beyond all precedent or expectation, but design an important national building. there are certain of them around which The best characterization of it I have all regards cluster, and concerning which heard was from a chance woman visitor, all opinions coincide. Architects, paint who, after prolonged and critical study, ers, and sculptors have singled out the declared, "It is not too much of any



9 thing; it is just enough;" and that char- take the bed prepared for it, it found that acterization holds good after much famil- a delicate attention to its likings had iarity. One feels like emphasizing the fringed the borders with the heavenly dictum, “It is just enough. It is espe- blue of the arrow-head, the scarlet of the cially true of the ornamentation. The lobelia, and the dwarf sunflower and yellong classic-looking front, with its pillars low sunbeam so dear to its watery heart. and arches, is surmounted by a richly Nothing had been neglected to make it at modelled pediment, but except for that home. What wonder, then, that it lies and the bands of ornament which divide so placidly and contentedly in its bed, rethe stories and outline the arches, it is fecting heaven and earth with thankful quite simple and plain of surface.

beauty! Enough to say in praise of all There are eight winged groups at the this wonderful and successful planting is angles of the roof balustrade, representing that the law of appropriateness, which uncertain virtues which are supposed to be derlies all art, seems never once to have peculiarly feminine. The sculpture, in been violated. It has never entered into its choice of symbolism, follows the lead the heads of the blue-winged water birds of thought which dominated the building; which haunt the shores of the lagoon and that is, it is essentially feminine, and ap- islands to doubt the spontaneity of the pears consciously to avoid anything bold water plants, or their free selection of haor even insistent in style. The sculptor bitat, or that of any one of their floral was Miss Rideout, of San Francisco; and friends who are growing here. He who the architect and sculptor, having the planned and planted all this beauty knew breadth of the country between them, by nature and by instinct the law which have yet joined hands in making a build- governs every green thing, and could coming which perhaps expresses the "just pel its highest grace. He foresaw every enough” and “not too much'' of woman's charm of leaf and flower, of shadow and, aspirations in this aspiring century. reflection, and placed each plant where

But while sculpture and painting have its highest possibility of beauty was inevcontributed so much to the ideal beauty

ity itable. If ever man whose breath of life of the fair, it could not afford to lack the lias all too quickly ceased lives in his crown of color and glory which has been work, how truly this one still lives in offered by the landscape art.

every leaf which here keeps time to Everywhere are stretches of greenest pulses in the air, and in every plant lawn, so close and full as to seem like a which thrills responsive to the sun! Here, painted foreground of a picture. Pansy as in the hearts of the friends and fellowbeds lie along the sides of some of the artists who talk of his work with loving white palaces, an eternity of seedlings enthusiasm, he surely and vitally lives. showing first buds or first blossoms as a But not landscape art alone has worked foretaste of the carpets of velvet bloom its magic in the grounds of the great fair. they are preparing to spread for the eyes Gardening and floriculture have also of the coming world. All that is done played a potent part. Around the pallooks as if it had grown forever on that aces, and along the great basin, with its one same spot, and is being tended and marble margins and royal flights of steps, cared for because of its happy effective- where arches and colonnades and founness in that position, and not at all as tains lift themselves, and statues stand if it had been thought out as part of a in royal groups, turf cultivated to superscheme; and all that is being done in the fineness is everywhere. No English lawn way of transplantation or creation is with of a hundred years of cultivation ever such exquisite naturalness of thought spread a finer, closer, evener web than that it may stand as absolutely the work these strips of greenness. The closely of nature. One only knows that the shaven blades of grass are like the hair lakes and lagoons and islands grow their on the back of a well-clipped colt for own kind-wear their own hair, as it fineness, thanks to the prairie loam which were.

underlies them, and to the constant rain No long-leaved rhododendron or Jap- of the sprinkler which the great reservoir anese hydrangea reflects its color in the of fresh lake water makes possible. winding lagoon, but a constant succession One of the large islands made by the of bloom which belongs just here does its mould lifted from the lagoon beds is debest to be beautiful, and easily succeeds. voted to a rose garden. Thousands and When the blue lake water rushed in to thousands of varieties will blossom there


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