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water of which was so hot as not easily to be endured; but, to render it more temperate, we ordered the passage through which it runs into the basin, to be stopped. The inhabitants of Tiberias have built here a small house with a cupola ; but there seems to have been formerly a much more splendid edifice, as the baths were very famous. The water rises something higher, whence it is conducted into a stone basin. This water is so salt as to communicate a brackish taste to that of the lake near it.' Hasselquist has given a still more minute account, which Dr. Clarke has evidently overlooked in referring to him. The fountain or source,' he says, “is at the foot of a mountain, at the distance of a pistol-shot from the Lake Gennesareth, and a quarter of a league from the coasts of Tiberias. The mountain consists of a black and brittle sulphureous stone, which is only to be found in large masses in the neighborhood of Tiberias, but in loose stones also on the coast of the Dead Sea, as well as here. They cut millstones out of it in this place, which are sent by water from Acre to Egypt. I saw an incredible quantity of them at Damietta. The spring which comes from the mountain is in diameter equal to that of a man's arm, and there is one only. The water is so hot, that the hand may be put into it without scaling, but it cannot be kept there long: consequently, it is not boiling hot, but the next degree to it. It has a strong sulphureous smell. It tastes bitter, and something like common salt
. The sediment deposited by it is black, as thick as paste, smells strongly of sulphur, and is covered with iwo skins, or cuticles, of which that beneath is of a fine darkgreen color, and the uppermost of a light rusty color. At the mouth of the outlet, where the water formed little cascades over the stones, the first-mentioned cuticle alone was found, and so much resembled a conferva, that one might easily have taken this, that belongs to the mineral kingdom, for a vegetable production; but, nearer the river, where the water stood still, one might see both skins, the yellow uppermost, and under it the green. At that time (1750), the waters appear to have been neglected, and tire miserable bathing house was not kept in repair.
It seems at first difficult to account for the statement given by this usually correct writer, that there is but one spring, when Captain Mangles states that there are three; but Mr. Buckingham's minute and lively description explains the apparent discrepancy.
'Leaving the town at the western gate, we pursued our course southerly along its wall, and came to some scattered ruins of the old city of Tiberias; among which we observed many foundations of buildings, some fragments of others still standing, and both grey and red granite coluinns, some portions of the latter being at least four feet in diameter; but among the whole, we saw neither ornamented capitals nor sculptured stones of any kind, though the city is known to have been a considerable one.
In our way, we passed an old tree, standing annid these ruins, and observed its branches to be hung with rags of every hue and
color, no doubt the offerings of those who either expected or had received benefit from the springs in the road to which it lay. Throughout the cliffs of the overhanging mountain on the west, are rude grottoes at different heights; and opposite to the tree are two arched caves, one of them having a square door of entrance beneath the arch, and both of them being apparently executed with
We had not time to examine them, though we conceived them to have been most probably ancient sepulchres.
«In less than an hour after our leaving the town, we arrived at the baths. The present building, erected over the springs here, is small and mean, and is altogether the work of Mahommedans. It is within a few yards of the edge of the lake, and contains a bath for males and a bath for females, each with their separate apartment annexed. Over the door of the forıner is an Arabic inscription; ascending to this door by a few steps, it leads to an outer room, with an open window, a hearth for preparing coffee, and a small closet for the use of the attendant. Within this is the bath itself, a square room of about eighteen or twenty feet, covered with a low dome, and having benches in recesses on each side. The cistern. for containing the hot water is in the centre of this room, and is sunk below the pavement; it is a square of eight or nine feet only, and the spring rises to supply it through a small head of some animal; but this is so badly executed, that it is difficult to decide for what it was intended. My thermometer rose here instantly to 130°, which was its utmost limit; but the heat of the water was certainly greater. It was painful to the hand as it issued from the spout, and could only be borne gradually by those who bathed in the cistern.
• There is here only an old man and a little boy to hold the horses, and make coffee for the visiters; and those who bathe, strip in the inner room, and wash themselves in the cistern, without being furnished with cloths, carpets, cushions, or any of the usual comforts of a Turkish bath. The whole establishment, indeed, is of the poorest kind, and the sight of the interior is rather disgusting than inviting
• At this bath we met with a soldier whom they called Mahommed Mamlouk, and I learnt that he was a German by birth, having become a Mamlouk and Mahommedan when a boy. He was now the hasnadar or treasurer to the Agha of Tabareeah, and was so completely a Turk as to profess, that he would not willingly return to his native country, even if he could do so under the most favorable circumstances. He spoke the Turkish and Arabic languages equally well; and it was in the latter that we conversed, as he had entirely forgotten his native tongue, though not more than thirtyfive years of age.
• Besides the spring which supplies the present baths, there are several others near it, all rising close to the edge of the lake, and all equally hot, finely transparent, and slightly sulphureous, resembling exactly the spring at El-Hame. There are also extensive ruins around, which are most probably the remains of Roman edifices; though that which has been taken for the remains of a theatre, appears rather to have been the choir of an early Christian church, Among them all, there is nothing, however, either interesting or definite. We quitted this spot to return to the town, and in our way by the bath, saw a party of Jewish women just coming out from the female apartment. Their conversation was in German ; and, on inquiry, they said that they had come from Vienna with their husbands, to end their days in the land of their fathers. In our way back from hence, we were met by a party of Moslems, who conceiving me from iny dress and white turban, to be of their faith, gave us the usual salute, which I returned without scruple; but our guide was so shocked at the interchange of forbidden salutations between a Christian and a Mohammedan, that he expressed his confidence in its ending in some unlucky accident to us. To avert this, however, from his own head, he took a large stone from the road, and after spitting on it, turned that part towards the north, repeating a short Arabic prayer at the same time. Besides the present incident, 1 had observed on several occasions, that, in this country, set forms of expressions are regarded as appropriate to men of different faiths, and even different ranks in life ; and that nothing is more necessary for a traveller, than to acquaint himself with those ininute shades of difference; as they serve, like the watel word of an army, to distinguish friends from foes; and any errors therein might produce the most alarming consequences.
‘On our way we met a Jewish funeral, attended by a party of about fifty persons, all male. A group of half a dozen walked before, but without any apparent regard to order, and all seemed engaged in humming indistinctly hyinns, or prayers, or lamentations; for they might have been either, as far as we could distinguish by the tone and the manner of their utterance. The corpse followed, wrapped in linen, without a coffin, and slung on cords between two poles borne on men's shoulders, with its feet foremost. A funcral service was said over it at the grave, and it was sunk into its mother earth in peace.'
This traveller notices some ancient baths, to the north of Tiberias also, which appear to have escaped the observation of preceding travellers. About an hour from Tiberias, pursuing a northward course along the border of the lake, he came to the remains of three, close to the water's edge, which he describes as so many large circular cisterns, quite open, and not appearing to have ever been inclosed in a covered building. They were all,' he continues, 'nearly of the same size; the one around the edge of which I walked, being eighty pacos in circumference, and from twelve to fifteen feet deep. Each of these was distant from the other about one bundred yards, ranging along the beach of the lake, and each was supplied by a separate spring, rising also near the sea. The water was in all of them beautifully transparent, of a slightly sulphureous taste, and of a light-green color, as at the bath near Oom Kais; but the heat of the stream here was scarcely greater than that of the at
mosphere, as the thermometer in the air stood at 84°, and when immersed in water, rose to 86o. The first of these circular cisterns had a stone bench or pathway running round its interior, for the accomodation of the bathers, and the last had a similar work on the outside ; in the latter, a number of small black fish were seen swimming. Each of the baths were supplied by a sinall aqueduct from its separate spring; and there were appearances of a semicircular wall having inclosed them all within one area.
Mr. Jolliffe reports the estimated number of inhabitants to be 4000, two thirds of which are Jews. Burckhardt's account agrees with this as to numbers; but he makes the proportion of Jews only one fourth.* There are, he says, from one hundred and sixty to two hundred Jewish families, of which forty or fifty are of Polish origin; the rest are Jews from Spain, Barbary, and different parts of Syria. The quarter wbich they occupy in the middle of the town, had lately been much enlarged by the purchase of several streets, so that ibeir numbers appear to be on the increase. Tiberias holds out to the Jews peculiar advantages. They enjoy bere perfect religious freedom; besides which, Tiberias is one of the four holy cities of the Talmud, the other three being Saphet, Jerusalem, and Hebron. It is esteemed holy ground,' Burckhardt states, because Jacob is supposed to have resided here, and because it is situated on the Lake of Gennesareth; from which, according to the most generally received opinion of the Talmud, the Messiah is to rise. It is a received dogma, that the world will return to its primitive chaos, if prayers are not addressed to the God of Israel, at least twice a week in the four holy cities. On this account, Jewish devotees from all parts flock to these cities; and three or four missionaries are sent abroad every year, to collect alms for the support of these religious fraternities, who do not fail successfully to plead this imminent danger as an argument for liberal contributions. One missionary is sent to the coasts of Africa from Damietta to Mogadore; another to the coast of Europe from Venice to Gibraltar; a third to the Archipelago, Constantinople and Anatolia ; and a fourth through Syria. The charity of the Jews of London is appealed to from time to time; but the Jews of Gibraltar have the reputation of being more liberal than any others, and are stated to contribute from 4 to 5000 Spanish dollars annually. The Polish Jews settled at Tabaria, are supported almost entirely by their rich countrymen in Bohernia and Poland; apd the Syrian Jews are said to be very jealous of them. When a fresh pilgrim arrives, bringing a little money with him, the exorbitant demands which are made on him by his brethren, either for rent, or on soine other pretence, soon deprive him of it, and leave
* Mr. Buckingham says, that, according to the opinion of the best informed residents, the population does not exceed 2000 souls, of whom about half are Jews.
† Perhaps not the patriarch, but some great rabbin of that name. Burckhardt speaks of a great rabbin, who, he was informed, lies buried at Tiberias, with 14,000 of his scholars sound him!
him a pensioner on his nation. The missionaries generally realize some property, as they are allowed ten per cent. upon the alms they collect. But many of the Jews, who have been led to beg their way to Palestine by their delusive representations, are ill satisfied with the Land of Promise; and some few are fortunate enough to find their way home again. The greater number, however, console themselves with the inestimable advantage of laying their bones in the Holy Land.
The Jewish devotees pass the whole day in the schools or the synagogue, reciting the Old Testament and the Talmud, both of which many of them know entirely by heart. They all write Hebrew; but their learning, Burckhardt says, seems to be on a level with that of the Turks. He inentions some beautiful copies of the Pentateuch, written on a roll of leather, which he saw in the Syrian synagogue: no one could inforna him of their age or history. The libraries of the two schools are moderately stocked with Hebrew books, printed chiefly at Vienna and Venice. They observe here, he says, a singular custom in the public service.
• While the rabbin recites the psalms of David, or the prayers extracted from them, the congregation frequently imitate, by their voice or gesture, the meaning of some remarkable passages : for example, when the rabbin pronounces the words, 'Praise the Lord with the sound of the trumpet, they imitate the sound of the trumpet through their closed fists. When a horrible tempest' occurs, they puff and blow to represent a storm; or should be mention the cries of the righteous in distress, they all set up a loud screaming. And sometimes, we are told, these imitative accompaniments are carried on in a singular sort of fugue or concert; while some are blowing the storn, others having already begun the cries of the righteous!
The Jews marry at a very early age. It is not uncommon, Burckhardt affirms, to see fathers of thirteen years of age, and mothers of eleven. On the occasion of a wedding, they traverse the town in pompous procession, carrying before the bride the plate of almost the whole community; and they feast in the house of the bridegroom for seven successive days and nights. "The wedding feast of a man who has about 501. a-year, (and no Jew can live with his family on less,) will often cost more than 60%' Yet, few of them are rich, or carry on any merchandise. When Burckhardt was at Tiberias, there were only two Jew merchants resident there, who were men of property; and they were styled by the devotees, kafers, or unbelievers. The Rabbin of Tiberia& is under the great Rabbin of Szaffad (Saphet), who 'pronouncer final judgment on all contested points of law and religion.