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ABACUS (Gr. ajaš, a slab or board), a piece A-B-C SHOOTERS(Germ. ABC-Schützen), of school apparatus, used to facilitate the teach- pupils of those scholastic vagrants who, during ing of children to count, and perform other sim- a certain period of the middle ages,

and even ple arithmetical operations. Various forms of later, used to wander through many parts of Gerthe abacus are employed as counting or adding many, giving instruction to such pupils as they machines. Such a contrivance was much used could pick up, who accompanied them in their among the ancients; and in China, quite long journeyings. These itinerant teachers were called and difficult computations are perfornted by Bacchants, from their disorderly lives and their means of such an instrument, called swan-pan. disposition to indulge in wild revels. Their (See NUMERAL FRAME.)

pupils were often obliged to purloin food, fowls, ABBOT, Benjamin, LL. D., distinguished etc., to supply their masters' wants, and hence for his long connection with Phillips Academy, were called, partly in derision of their elementary Exeter, N. H., of which institution he was the knowledge, A-B-C Shooters shoot, in their principal for a period of fifty years, from 1788 parlance, being the slang word for steal.See to 1838. He was a graduate of Harvard College. SCHMID, Encyclopädie; and BARNARD, American He died at Exeter in 1849, at the advanced age Journal of Education, vol. v. of 86 years. Edward Everett delivered one of ABELARD, or Abailard, Pierre, one of his graceful and elegant speeches on the occasion the most famous teachers of philosophy and of the retirement of Dr. Abbot from the prin- theology in the middle ages, was born in cipalship of Phillips Exeter Academy. — See Nantes, in 1079, died April 21st, 1142, at St. Everert, Orations and Speeches.

Marcel, near Chalons-sur-Saône. A pupil of ABBOTT, Rev. Jacob, a distinguished cler- William of Champeaux in philosophy, and of gyman, teacher, and author, was born at Hallo- Anselm of Laon in theology, he became the well, Me., in 1803, and graduated at Bowdoin dreaded and hated rival of both, as they found College in 1820. He was professor of mathemat- themselves entirely eclipsed by the cosmopolitan ics and natural philosophy in Amherst College reputation of their pupil

, who for a time was refrom 1825 to 1829, and afterwards took charge garded in the Christian world as the foremost of of the Mount Vernon school for giris, in Boston. all living teachers. The tragic end of his love In connection with education, he is chiefly noted for his pupil Heloise, whom he had seduced, for his numerous books for the young, among closed to him the higher ecclesiastical dignities, which may be particularly mentioned the Rollo and drove him into the austerities and retirement Books, the Franconia Stories, the Harper Story of monastic life; but his theological and philoBooks, Science for the Young, and The Teucher. sophical writings continued to keep the Christian A full catalogue of his publications embraces world in a high state of excitement. His opinabout 200 titles. He has also edited many other ions were repeatedly condemned by councils educational works, and compiled a series of read- and synods as heretical, but he always preferred ing books. His brothers, Rev. Gorham D. and submission to the sentence of the Church rather Rev. John S. C., are also noted for their labors than open defiance. His influence on the schools in the field of educational and literary effort. of the middle ages was, without doubt, greater

A B C, the first three letters of the English than that of any of his contemporaries. He inalphabet, often used to denote the alphabet itself; troduced dialectics into theology, and thus, as as, “ To learn A B C is felt to be extremely irk- Cousin says, “contributed more than any other some by the infant.Taylor (See ALPHABET.) to the foundation of scholasticism."

A-B-C BOOK, a primer, or little book used A complete edition of the works of Abelard to learn the alphabet and its simplest combina- was published by Cousin (2 vols., Paris, 1849– tions, with the most rudimental lessons in read-1859), containing also valuable notes by the ing. (See Horn-Book.)

editor. Among the best biographical works on A-B-C METHOD. See ALPHABET METHOD. Abelard are those by Rémusat (Abélard, 2 vols.,

ABECEDARIAN. This word, formed from Paris, 1845), and Wilkens (Peter Abülard. the names of the first four letters of the alpha- Göttingen, 1855).-See also Schmidt, Geschichte bet, is generally used to denote a pupil who has der Pädagogik. not advanced beyond the most elementary stage ABERCROMBIE, John, M. D., was of school or book education, that is, who is born at Aberdeen, in 1781, and died in 1844. learning A B C, or the alphabet. The name In his profession as a physician he rose to great has been sometimes applied to one engaged in eminence, and was widely distinguished for his teaching the alphabet. (See Reading, and Word writings on medical subjects. In connection METHOD.)

with education, he is noted for his Inquiries con1




cerning the Intellectuul Powers, and The Philos- advantage, in the employment of their children, ophy of the Moral Feelings. These two works to the interests of the latter, in enjoying the benepossess great merit, and have been quite exten- fits of school instruction. sively used as school text-books. They were "Absenteeism" is also technically applied to a edited and adapted to the use of schools in this total neglect of school attendance by a part of the country by Jacob Abbott.

school population of any place. This is exhibited ABINGDON COLLEGE, at Abingdon, 11., by a comparison of the average attendance of under the control of the Disciples of Christ, was pupils with the census of children of school age. founded in April, 1853. The number of students (See ATTENDANCE.) in the institution in 1875 was about 180. It ABSTRACT AND CONCRETE. These has an endowment of $20,000. The college terms have a very important application in many building is a handsome edifice well supplied with departments of practical education. Abstract modern furniture and appliances. There are has reference to general ideas, or the ideas of about 1000 volumes in the library, besides which qualities considered apart from the things to the institution has a museum and laboratory. which they belong; concrete, to those which are The names of its successive presidents are Patrick only conceived as belonging to particular objects Murphy, J. W. Butler, and Oval Pirkey. The orsubstances. Thus, if we speak of a man, a horse, annual tuition fee is from $30 to $39.

a tree, etc., we use abstract or general ideas; ABSENTEEISM is opposed to regularity in for we are not thinking of any particular object the attendance of pupils belonging to a school; of the class, but only of the assemblage of qualthat is, the number of school sessions from which ities or characteristics that especially belong to a pupil was absent, as compared with the number all the members of the class. But when we at which he was present, during any particular mention such names as Cicero, Washington, John period, gives the absenteeism of the pupil for Smith, etc., we have in our mind a conception of that period. The average daily attendance of the characteristics that served to distinguish those pupils divided by the average daily enrollment persons from all other men. Thus, the expression the “average number belonging"-shows the per- fire pounds represents a concrete idea ; the word centage of attendance; and this subtracted from fire, an abstract one. 100 gives, of course,

the percentage of absentee The immature minds of young children emism. Within certain limits, this is a criterion ploy to a great extent concrete ideas, and hence of efficiency of management and instruction. the instruction addressed especially to them Class teachers who interest their pupils neces- should deal principally with these. As the mind sarily secure a more regular attendance than advances, it becomes more and more occupied those who fail in this respect; and principals of with abstract conceptions, which constitute the schools who keep a careful watch over all the material for all the higher forms of thought and pupils belonging to their schools, strictly and ratiocination. uniformly enforcing wholesome rules of disci ACADEMY (Gr. 'Akadýma or 'Akadhueta) was pline, and carefully notifying parents of the ab- originally the name of a pleasure ground near sence of their children, inquiring into the cause Athens, and was said to be so called after Acaof the same, and admonishing both parents and demu a local he at th time of the Trojan pupils of the need of strict regularity, will, of Its shady walks became a favorite resort course, succeed best in this regard. Where the for Plato: and, as he was accustomed to lecture basis for computing the degree of absenteeism is here to his pupils and friends, the school of phithe average enrollment, and where regularity of losophers which was founded by him was called attendance is made a test of efficient manage- the Academic School, or merely the Academy. inent, teachers will be more careful to keep the In the history of ancient philosophy, three difnumber of pupils on the rolls as little as possible ferent academies are distinguished, the Old Acadabove the average attendance. Hence, to render emy, formed by the immediate followers of this test reliable, a uniform rule should be follow- Plato, the Middle Academy, founded, about 244, ed in the discharging of pupils for non-attend- by Arcesilaus, and the New Academy, whose

Such a rule has been adopted in many founder was Carneades, about 160 B. C. Somecities of the Union, any pupil's name being in- times the philosophical schools founded by Philo variably dropped from the roll after a certain and Antiochus are called respectively the Fourth number of days of absence, however caused. and the Fifth Academy. Among the Romans, This is based on the principle that irregularity of Cicero, who regarded himself as an adherent of the attendance-being at school one day, one week, Academic philosophy. gave the name of Academy or one month, and absent the next-is not only of to the gymnasium at his villa near Tusculum, as no profit to the pupil concerned, but a positive well as to one of his villas in Campania, where he injury to the other pupils, and is a serious hin- wrote his Academicæ Quæstiones. During the drance and embarrassment to the teacher in the middle ages, the term was but little used for management of the school. To some extent, ab- learned institutions; but, after the revival of senteeism thus computed may indicate also the classical studies in the 15th century, it again beprevailing tone of the community in regard to came frequent. In a wider sense, it was someeducation the degree of appreciation of the times applied to higher institutions of learning benefits of education generally felt by the people, in general. Gradually, however, its use was, in as inducing parents to sacrifice their own personal most countries, restricted to special schools, as






academies of mining, of commerce, of forestry, and their influence on other educational instiof fine arts, and, especially, of music. In Eng- tutions has been considerable. The Académie land and the United States, the national high framçaise is the highest authority upon everyschools for the education of military and naval thing relating to the niceties of the French lanofficers are called academies. Thus, England has guage. to grammar. and the publication of the the Naval Academy at Portsmouth, and the French classics. The Académie des inscriptions Royal Military Academy at Woolwich; and the et belles lettres embraces among the objects of United States, the Military Academy at West its attention comparative philology. Like the Point and the Naval Academy at Annapolis. French Institute, the academies in the capitals of In the United States, the name has also been Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Russia, and other assumed by a large number of secondary schools, countries. have gradually become great national which are designed to prepare their pupils for ' centers for the promotion of science and art; colleges, or to impart a general knowledge of the but no such centralization has been effected in common and higher branches of education. As Italy, Germany, England, or the United States. they are, in nearly all cases, private institutions, In England, the learned corporations correspondindependent of any control by state boards, their ing to the continental academies of sciences have courses of instruction widely differ. ranging from generally the name society or association. Engthe lowc3t primary class to the highest classes of land proper has, however, a royal academy of arts grammar and high schools. They are usually (founded in 1765, reorganized in 1768) and a both boarding and day schools.

royal academy of music (established in 1822); The name aculemy is also employed to des- ' and in Edinburgh, there is a royal academy of ignate associations of learned men for the ad- yachting (founded in 1754). In Ireland, the name vancement of science and art. Some of these academy, according to its continental use, has associations are of an entirely private character, been adopted for the Royal Academy of Sciences others have been founded by the state. The at Dublin (founded in 1782). — In the United first academy of this kind was the Museum of States of America there are also a number of Alexandria, in Egypt, which was founded by learned societies to which the name academy, Ptolemy Soter. After its model, the Jews, to in the sense used on the continent of Europe, ward the close of the first century of the Christian has been applied. The following societies are era, began to establish academies for the develop- called academies: The American Academy of ment of Talmudic science. Later, the Arabian Arts and Sciences, at Boston (founded in 1780), caliphs established academies at their places of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences residence, to show their interest in the promotion (founded in 1799), the Academy of Natural of science. Efforts to establish ('hristian acad Science in Philadelphia (founded in 1818), the emies of this kind were made by Gregory the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts (established Great and Charlemagne, but both failed. It was in 1807), the National Academy of Design, at not until the middle of the fifteenth century, that New York (founded in 1828); the Medical Acadaw.ciations of this kind were formed in Italy for emy of New York. The National Academy of the purpose of fostering the free development of Sciences was incorporated by Congress, March science and art, in opposition to the rigid conser- 3d, 1863. In New York, Philadelphia, Brookvatism of the monastic and ecclesiastical schools. lyn, Chicago, and other large cities, the princiThey gave special attention to the cultivation of pal opera house is called the Academy of Music. the Italian language and literature. It was es ACCOMPLISHMENTS.

This term, as pecially the Accademia della Crusca, founded at contrasted with culture, refers to those educaFlorence by the poet Grazzini, to wbich the tional acquirements which fit a person for certain Italian language is indebted for its purification special activities, while culture has reference to and development. From Italy, these institutions the general improvement of the character or spread to the other countries of Europe ; and, as mental faculties. Hence the expression “external they became the centers of literary activity, they accomplishments,” or “ornamental accomplishexercised every-where a prominent influence ments,” such as skill in foreign languages, music, upon the intellectual progress of the several drawing, painting, dancing, etc. Involved in this countries, and, especially, upon the improvement application of the term, is the idea of display, or and regulation of the native tongue. Prominent the ability to please, or the power to awaken adamong these academies, was the Académie fran- miration in the beholder. Thus in the Spectator grise, instituted, in 1635, by Cardinal Riche- we find the expression “the visible graces of lieu. In 1795, it was united with three other speech and the dumb eloquence of motion," as French academies into the Institut national, indicating the accomplishments of a pleasing adthe name of which was changed by Louis XVI dress and a graceful carriage. into Institut de France. The Institute con-!

Accomplishments are either purely intellecsisted then of four academies: (1) l'Académie tual, as that of language, or partly or wholly française, (2) l'Académie des inscriptions et artistic

, such as music, drawing, dancing, etc. In belles lettres, (3) l'Académie des sciences, (4) the education of boys, fencing and boxing were ( Académie des beaux arts. A fifth academy, formerly considered as indispensable accomplishl' Acrulémie des sciences morales et politiques, ments; but of these, at the present time, rowing was added in 1832. These academies are among seems to take precedence, as contributing to a the most important of the kind in the world, healthy development of the physical system.




In many classes of schools, particularly in circumstances and in the time proposed, be acprivate seminaries, the acquisition of certain orna. complished so as to give the pupils who are to mental accomplishments constitutes the chief end pursue it, a thorough knowledge of the subject, of education. Were these accomplishments based as well as the ability to apply it to some pracon a solid culture of the intellectual and moral tical purpose. The peculiar talent, or bent of nature, they would be very proper and desirable; mind, of children should be regarded, in the atbut being merely showy and superficial, they tempt to bestow upon them ornamental acconstitute a perversion of the true end of edu- complishments, such as music and drawing, excation. Thus Hannah More remarks: “In train- cept such elementary portions of these arts as are ing our daughters, should we not carefully culti- within the capacity of all, and which constitute, vate intellect, implant religion, and cherish mod- not indeed special accomplishments, but a part esty? Then, whatever is engaging in manners of that general culture which the most elementwould be the natural result of whatever is just ary education should bestow. (See Culture.) in sentiment and correct in principle. Softness ACQUISITION. The acquisition of knowlwould grow out of humility, and external delicacy edge must be, to a certain extent, the


of would spring from purity of heart.” The folly every process of teaching: Sometimes it is the and wrong of giving this exclusive attention to primary object; but, in the earlier stages of edumere accomplishments have very frequently been cation, it is generally secondary, the educative a subject of satirical invective. Says Sydney value of the process taking precedence of the pracSmith : “A woman of accomplishments may tical importance of the knowledge communicated. entertain those who have the pleasure of knowing The acquisition of new ideas must always, more her for half an hour with great brilliancy; but a or less, improve the mind by affording additional mind full of ideas, and with that elastic spring material for the exercise of its various faculties ; which the love of knowledge only can convey, is but, in education, what particular faculties are a perpetual source of exhilaration and amuse- concerned in the study of any subject or branch ment to all that come within its reach. Therefore, of knowledge, is a matter of paramount iminstead of hanging the understanding of a woman portance, and therefore should never be lost upon walls, or hearing it vibrate upon strings, sight of by the teacher. Where this is disreinstead of seeing it in clouds, or hearing it in the garded, instruction is apt to degenerate into mere wind, we would make it the first spring and or- rote-teaching; and the teacher will often rest nament of society, by enriching it with attain- satisfied when his pupil can repeat the formulæ ments, upon which alone such power depends." of knowledge, without evincing the acquisition Goldsmith also inveighed severely against this of new ideas, on which alone the improvement of practice in his time. “ Another passion," he the mind depends. says, “ which the present age is apt to run into ACROAMATIC METHOD (Gr. åkpoauais, to make children learn all things,--the lan- Tekóc, to be heard, designed for hearing only), a guages, the sciences, music, the exercises, and name originally applied to the esoteric teachings painting. Thus the child soon becomes a talker of Aristotle and other Greek philosophers, to in all, but a master in none. He thus acquires designate such as were confined to their immea superficial fondness for everything, and only diate hearers, and not committed to writing. shows his ignorance, when he attempts to exhibit Later, the term has been applied to a system of his skill.” The tendency of the present time, in instruction in which the teacher speaks and the what is called fashionable education, is equally pupil only listens. A method of this kind, of subject to the same unfavorable criticism. Ac- course, presupposes scholars of a certain maturity complishments, in the first stages of education, of age and of considerable progress in intellectual are to be regarded as secondary to the solid im- culture. It forms the basis of the lecture system. provement of the mind. Those rudimentary at- (See LECTURE.) tainments which constitute the basis of all school ADAM, Alexander, LL. D., was born in education, and are indispensable to any further Scotland, in 1741, and died in 1809. He atprogress, namely, reading, spelling, writing, and tained a high distinction as a teacher while Rector arithmetic, must of course be made; to which of the High School at Edinburgh (1768-1808). should be added the ability to use one's own lan. He was also the author of several educational guage, in speaking and writing, with tolerable text-books, among which his Roman Antiquities ease and propriety. A common-school educa- (1791) has been very extensively used in this tion should give great prominence to these, as country and in Great Britain. not ouly constituting the acquirements most ADAMS, John, LL. D., was born in Cangenerally needed for success in life, but as placing terbury, Ct., in 1772, and died in Jacksonville, in the hands of the pupils the keys to future I., in 1863. He was noted both as a teacher progress in learning.

and a philanthropist. After graduating at Yale Accomplishment, being derived from the College, in 1795, he taught the academy in French accomplir, to finish or complete, may be his native town, and subsequently other schools, contrasted with smattering, a mere superficial till

, in 1810, he became principal of Phillips acquirement of some of the prominent or rudi- Academy, Andover, Mass., in which position he mental parts of any subject. No educational continued for twenty-three years. In 1833, he scheme should admit of the study of any branch removed to Illinois, and was very active in effectof knowledge which cannot, under the given ing improvements in the school system of that




State. His labors in connection with various and girls to the 16th or 18th year of age. Sevbenevolent institutions in both States, were nu- eral states made attendance at these schools obmerous and important. Through his efforts, a ligatory for all boys and girls who had left the large number of Sunday schools were established elementary school and not entered any higher in his adopted State. Many essays and other school. Special attention has been given to publications on education attest the intelligence schools of this class in Austria, where the govand ability with which he devoted himself to the ernment has established “reviewing schools” training of the young.

(Wiederholungsschulen.) (See AUSTRIA.) As the ADRIAN COLLEGE, at Adrian, Mich., ordinary Sunday or reviewing school was found was founded in 1859, by the Methodists. The to be insufficient, especially for young menumber of students is about 200, males and chanics, special classes or schools were organized females, about one fourth of whom belong to the in which particularly instruction in drawing collegiate department. It has a classical and was given. The attendance at these schools is scientific course of instruction, a school of theol- always voluntary ; in most of them the scholars ogy, a school of music, and a normal class. Its have to pay moderate fees; instruction is gencorps of instructors numbers twelve, and it has erally given on Sunday mornings, and, in most one endowed professorship. The imber of schools, is confined to writing, arithmetic, and volumes in its library is about 1000; its endow- drawing. In some of the German states, espement is $100,000. Rev. G. B McElroy, D. D., is cially in Würtemberg, an evening school on the president of the Institution (1876). The week-days has been added to the Sunday school ; tuition fee is very small.

and thus a great impulse has been given for the ADULTS, Schools for. The

proper time further development of industrial schools for to obtain instruction is during the periods of adults. (See INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.) The Schools boyhood or girlhood, and youth. (See AGE IN for Adults established in other European countries EDUCATION.) It is in the interest of states as are nostly evening industrial schools. In the well as of families and individuals, that, as much | United States. evening schools have been very exas possible, every child, not prevented by physical tensively introduced, to give to all adults an opdisabilities, should have its share in the instruc-portunity of obtaining the same education as tion provided by public legislation and private children receive during the day; and some of effort. The majority of states have even deemed the larger cities afford in these evening high it a duty to make education compulsory, in order schools instruction in the studies of a higher to render it universal. (See COMPULSORY EDC- grade. (See EVENING SCHOOLS.) CATION.) It is also the general tendency of edu ADVENTISTS. This is the name of several cational legislation to extend the legal school organizations of American Christians, the disage to the utmost, in order to make the educa tinctive doctrine of whom is the belief in the tion of the school population as thorough as pos- speedy second advent of Christ, and the end of the sible. (See SCHOOL AGE.) Still, though boy- world. In 1875, there were four different organhood and youth are the proper ages for in- izations: (1) The Advent Christian Association ; struction, the need of special schools for adults (2) The American Millennial Association (Evangelhas always been deeply felt. Though modern ical Adventists): (3) The Life and Advent Union; legislation has succeeded in some countries in (4) The Seventh Day Adventists. The churches almost wholly extinguishing illiteracy (see IllIt- of this denomination were formerly almost wholly ERACY), the number of adults whose education, independent, and had fewer church boards for during the proper age, has either been entire common interests than most of the other religious ly insufficient, or who find themselves on en- denominations of the United States. The greattering life, without the requisite amount of est advance in point of organization has been information specially needed in their several made by the Seventh Day Adventists. The subavocations, remains as great as ever, and is even ject of education and the founding of a denomilikely to increase, as the standard of popular national school was brought to the attention of education becoines more elevated. Systematic the members of this denomination by Elder reading, instruction by private teachers, and, James White and wife, in the early part of 1872. more recently, popular lectures, are among the The matter was referred to a General Comprincipal agencies for supplementing the de- mittee, who, during the summer and autumn ficiencies of school education. Efforts have, how- of 1873, solicited subscriptions to this enterprise, ever, not been wanting in many states to establish obtaining pledges for over $54.000. On the 16th schools for adults for the special purpose of of March, 1874, an association was formed, under giving to those who have left the public schools the law of Michigan. "for the incorporation of and entered into practical life, a suitable oppor- institutions of learning ;” and a school edifice, tunity to supply the deficiency of their school capable of accommodating between four and five education. Many German states began in the hundred students, was finished in 1875. — See 18th century to establish Sunday schools in Annual Cyclopedia, 1875, art. Adlrentists; also which, besides religious education, a review of Seventh Day Adventists; a brief sketch of the instruction given in the elementary school their Origin, Progress, and Principles (Battle was provided for. As the school age, in the Creek, 1874). German states, only extended to the 14th year, a

ÆSTHETIC CULTURE. See ESTHETIC Sunday school was specially provided for boys CULTURE.

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