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fully justify this principle : In proportion as I ileges ; (20) farın accounts ; (21) the manufactthe structure of a government gives force to ure, preservation, and application of farm mapublic opinion, it is essential that public opinion nures; (22) the rotation of crops ; (23) farm mashould be enlightened."
chinery and tools ; (24) rural law. The subjects Course of Study.— The full course of four of instruction, as far as possible, are illustrated years in agriculture comprises the following sub- by diagrams, cuts, and models. The lectures jects: (In some cases, a few are omitted or a few are supplemented by field practice, varying from added ; but those mentioned will serve to show 5 to 15 hours per week, and sometimes even what studies are now generally considered appli- more. Visits are frequently made to adjoining cable and necessary in this course)—(1) algebra ; farms and herds. The lectures and practice (2) solid, plane, and analytical geometry, trigo- usually extend through at least one year. The nometry, and the calculus; (3) rhetoric and foregoing statement shows conclusively that there composition, declamation and English literature; has been an earnest, systematic, and successful (4) drawing, free-hand and linear; (5) surveying effort to promote the education of the rural clasand mapping ; (6) book-keeping, especially applied ses; and it may be truthfully said, that, within to farm accounts; (7) botany, general and agricult- the last ten years, no other department of educaural ; (8) horticulture, floriculture, and general, tion has made an equal degree of advancement. market, and landscape gardening ; (9) history, The first agricultural school in Europe was which may comprise one or more of the follow-founded, in 1804, by Fellenberg, at Hotwyl in ing: American, English, Roman, French, agricult- Switzerland. It flourished for more than 30 ural, and history of civilization ; (10) physiology, years under the excellent direction of Wehrli, hygiene, and comparative anatomy, (11) zo and educated nearly 3,000 pupils. The success of ölogy and entomology; (12) veterinary anatomy, Hofwyl led to the establishment of other schools physiology, medicine, and surgery ; (13) chem- of the same character; and, at present, such istry, general and agricultural; (14) French and schools are found in every country of Europe. German, usually extending through not less They are very numerous in Germany and Austhan two or three terms (when both languages tria, and are divided into two classes,-a lower, are not required, German is usually preferred); called Ackerbuuschule, intended chiefly to give (15) physics, geology, mineralogy, and meteo- practical instruction in agriculture, and a higher, rology (16) constitutional and municipal law called Landwirthschuftsschule, in which the and political economy ; (17) mechanics applied whole science of agriculture, with all its auxilto agriculture; (18) strength and preservation of iary sciences, is taught. The most celebrated materials; (19) rural architecture. The subjects among the schools of a higher class are those at treated of under the head of applied or practical | Hohenheim (established in 1818), Schleisheim agriculture—with slight changes-are as follows: (1822), Jena (1826), Eldena (1835), Wiesbaden (1) stock-breeding, including the laws of likeness (1836), Tharand (1829), Regenwalde (1842). or similarity, variation and atavism; the influence Poppelsdorf (1846), Proskau (1847), Ungarischon the subsequent progeny of the dam, by the Altenburg (1818). Special chairs of agriculture first fruitful connection, in-and-in and miscel- have been established at the universities of Berlaneous breeding, the government of sex, the lin, Halle, Gættingen, Munich, Leipsic, Giessen, relative influence of sire and dam on the prog- and Jena ; and instruction in agriculture is also eny, pedigrees and their value, the history, forma- given in the polytechnic schools. England has tion, and characteristics of breeds and families ; à Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester, (2) the selection, breeding, feeding, and general founded in 1849; and in Scotland, the Unimanagement of domestic animals, each species versity of Edinburgh has a chair of agriculture, and race being treated of separately ; (3) annual and special lectures are given in a college at nutrition ; (4) the education, shoeing, driving, Aberdeen. Ireland has two agricultural schools and care of the horse ; (5) drains,—their material of a higher grade.--one at Templemoyle, founded and construction, and the effect of drainage on in 1827; and the other at Glasnevin, founded health. soil, climate, and plants; (6) soils,—their in 1838. France has three higher agricultural classification, character, mechanical division, and schools and one school of forestry. In Italy, preparation for the cereals and grasses ; (7) the there are two agricultural schools of a higher preparation and selection of seed ; (8) sowing, grade, at Milan and Portici. Russia, beside planting, cultivating, and harvesting ; (9) the a large number of schools of agriculture and nutrition of plants; (10) insect enemies and forestry of a lower grade, has an Agricultural fungi; (11) the culture of roots and their value Institute at Gorygorezk, founded in 1836, an as food for man and beast ; (12) forage plants. -- Institute of Agriculture and Forestry at New their culture, use, and value; (133) weeds -- Alexandria, and an Academy of Agriculture their habit of growth, time of seeding, and mode and Forestry at Petrovskoi. See LOEBE, Die of era.lication ; (14) the effects of air, water, heat, landwirthschuftlichen Lehranstalten Europa's and light. on the fertility of the soil and the (Stuttgart, 1849); Schulz, Die theoretisch-prakgrowth of plants; (15) the care, cultivation, and tische Ackerbauschule (Jena, 1869). use of natural and artificial forests; (16) fields, In the following tabular exhibit, will be found
their number, shape, and size ; (17) fences, a full statement of the location, condition, re- their material, construction, and durability; sources, etc., of all the agricultural colleges and (18) farm yards and buildings; (19) water priv- | departments in the United States.
Ark. Indus. University:} N. P. Gates, A. M., 42... 10
Masbe Age: College, Oe- }
Agr. & Mechan. Coll. of
Rev. I. F. Tichenor,
5 Alabama, March 1872. D.D., 49....
Univ. of California, Fall California ...... Oakland..
Yale Coll. - Sheffield Rev. Noah Porter, D.D.,
35 Delaware Newark,
Delaware College... Wm. H. Purnell, A. M.. 10
Florida State Agr. Coll. (Not yet organized.)
Univ. of į Coll. of Agr.
Rev. A. Lipscomb, D.D. 11
Ill. Îndus. University, John M. Gregory, LL.D.,
29 March 1868...
regent Perdue Univ., Septem
A. M. Shortridge,
Iowa State Agr. Coll. '68 A. 8. Welch, LL.D., 53.. 13
Rev. Joseph Denison,
Agr. & Mechan. Coll. of J. B. Bowman, LL. D., Kentucky .... Lexington
13 Kentucky, 1866...... regent... Louisiana
Not yet organized.)
Waine State Coll, of Agr.
Rev. C. F. Allen, D.D., 59 8
& Mech. Arts, 1869...
34 Massachusetts. | Amherst
W. S. Clark, LL. D., 50.. 10 tober 2d, 1867..
Mich. State Agr. Coll., Michigan Lansing..
T. C. Abbot, LL. D.. 13
Rev. J. N. Waddel, D.D.,
Univ. of Mo., 1840.
D. R. Sessions, Prin-
Rev. Asa D. Smith, D.D.,
Rev. W. H. Campbell,
Cornell University, 1868 A. D. White, LL. D., 43, 23
Edward Orton, A. M... 10
Corvallis College, Au-
B. L. Arnold, A. M., 38.. 5
nsylv pia State Col Pennsylvania .. State College.
Jas. Calder, D.D., 50... 11 lege, February 1859..}
Rev. E. G. Robinson, D. Rhode Island... Providence.. Brown University..
D., LL.D... South Carolina. Orangeburg
(Claflin University State
Rev. E.Cooke, A.M., M.D.
Agr. Coll. & Mech. Ins.
Rev. T. W. Humes, S. T.
Not yet organized.)
Univ. of Vermont and
M. D. Buckham, A.M., 43 7
Univ. of Wisconsin, 1868
D., 48 * No distinct degree for these departments. Graduated as Ph. B. ** No Report.
AHN, Johann Franz, a German teacher, of the New England states; was the superior, noted for his method of teaching foreign lan- in the school room, of even Massachusetts; and guages, was born in 1796, and died in 1865. He was almost the peer of New York and Pennsylgave instruction for many years in the Real- vania." In 1856, county superintendents were schule at Neuss, and published several manuals substituted for the county boards of school comfor teaching the German and other languages; missioners previously existing. Under this sysbut his chief work was his Practical Method for tem, township trustees had complete control of the rapid amd easy Learning of the French the school funds, and could aid schools already Linguage (Praktischer Lehrgang zur schnel established according to their discretion. In len und leichten Erlernung der französischen 1860, according to the census of that year, there Sprache). This work, between 1834 and 1875, were in the state 1.903 public schools, with 61,751 passed through 190 editions. He was also the pupils, and 17 colleges, attended by 2,120 stuauthor of several works in general literature. Ilis dents, besides 206 academies and other schools, elementary books on the study of foreign lan- with 10,778 pupils. The income for the support guages have been translated into all the languages of common schools was $489,474, of which nearof the civilized world, and have every where found ly $200,000 was derived from public funds. The an immense circulation. The fame thus acquired progress madle during the previous decade is inby Ahn's method of studying foreign languages, dicated by the fact that, in 1850, there were rehas led to numerous imitations, not a few of ported 127,390 children in the state, of whom which are utterly unworthy of the just reputa- only 35,039 were attending school. The constition of the original author. The method of Ahn tution of the state, ratified Feb. 4., 1868, exwas, to a large extent, founded on the works of Dr. pressly provided that all children between the Seidensticker, and combines both the analytical ages of 5 and 21 years should be educated free and the synthetical method. The principle on of charge; and in accordance with its provisions, which it is based is, that the mode of learning a new system was adopted the same year, which a foreign language should, as closely as possible, placed the schools under the supervision and correspond to the manner in which a child control of a board of education, and gave to acquires a knowledge of his native tongue. county superintendents much of the power be
AINSWORTH, Robert, an English teacher fore committed to township trustees. In 1871, and scholar of considerable eminence, was born the school law was again changed, the control of in 1660, and died in 1743. He taught private the schools being entrusted to a state superinschools for some years, but having soon obtained tendent, district superintendents, and township a competency, he was enabled to relinquish the trustees, all elected by the people. The state business of teaching. From 1714 to 1736, he was board of education was abolished, its duties beengaged in compiling the Latin dictionary which ing discharged by the legislature, which, in the has made him famous. This work was extensively words of the law, “ shall designate, in advance, use lin schools both in England and in the United such days as they may deem best (during the States, but has for some years been superseded session of the general assembly) for the considerby works of greater accuracy.
ation of measures relating to the educational inALABAMA, one of the southern states of terests of the state ; on which days the state the American Union, was originally a part of superintendent shall be entitled to a seat in the Georgia, except the south-western portion, which house then considering educational measures, belonged to Florida. It was set off from Georgia, and shall have, and may exercise, all of the rights in 1798, as a portion of the Territory of Missis- and privileges of a member of such house, but sippi. From 1817 to 1819, it was known as the have no vote." In 1872, -3, and -4, various Territory of Alabama, in the latter year, being changes were made in the school law; but the admitted into the Union as a state. Its area is new constitution of the state, which took effect 50,722 sq. m.; and its population, in 1870, was December 6., 1875, supersedes all laws previous996,992, of whom 521,384 were whites; 475,510, ly passed, and confirms that portion of the act colored persons; and 98, Indians.
proposed in 1871, which relates to the adminEducational History.—The first constitution istration of the schools. of the state declared that "schools and the means State Superintendents. — The office of state of education should be forever encouraged,” and superintendent was first filled by General W. F. gave directions for the preservation of all land Perry, his title being Superintendent of Educagrants received for this purpose from the general cation. He was elected by the legislature in government, and the seminary lands for a “state 1854. His successor, in 1854, was G. B. Du Val, university for the promotion of the arts, litera- who died in office, his successor being J. B. Taylor, ture, and science.” Attempts were made, in who was appointed to fill the vacancy in 1865. 1823, and at various times thereafter, to organize John Ryan was elected to the office in 1866, and an efficient public school system; but little was served till 1867, when the cffice was merged in accomplishe I til! 1854, when a general system that of state comptroller, its duties being perwas established under which, according to the formed by M. A. Chisholm, from November, report of the superintendent of education, the 1867. to July, 1868. In that year, the title of state, in 1857, was “in proportion to her white the office was changed to that of Superintendent tax-paying and school-attending population, far of Public Instruction, N. B. Cloud being the ahead of nearly all the southern states, and most first incumbent. His successors were J. Hodg.
son (1870—72); J. H. Speed (1872—4); and sembly shall provide by taxation or otherwise." J. M. McKleroy (1874 to the present time). On It is, also, made the duty of the assembly to the expiration of the term of the present incum- increase, from time to time, the public-school bent, the title of the office will again be, accord- fund, as the condition of the treasury and the ing to the new constitution, Superintendent of resources of the state will admit.” In addition Education.
to this, each county may raise, by annual taxaSchool System.--The state superintendent of tion, an amount not exceeding 10 cents on each education is the highest educational officer of | $100 of taxable property. Ninety-six per cent the state. The length of his term of office is not of the money raised or appropriated must be fixed by the constitution; but the general as used for the payment of teachers unless othersembly, it is thought, will make it four years. wise directed by a vote of two-thirds of each IIe is elected by the people. Discharging as he i branch of the legislature. Schools for whites and does the duties of state superintendent and state blacks must be separate. Sectarian or denominaboard of education, his powers are greater than tional schools are not entitled to any share of the those usually devolving on state superintendents. public-school money. The school age is from 7 his time and care being entirely devoted to the to 21 years. schools. He is required to give bonds in the sum Educational Condition. -- The number of of $20,000, and to have his office at the state school-districts in the state, in 1875, was 1,696, capitol, where he must be in constant attendance | the area of each being six miles square except in unless absent on official duties. He makes annu- the case of fractional townships. In each of these ally a detailed report to the governor, not only districts, there must be, at least, one school for of the condition of the schools, but of the sums each race,-
-white and colored. The school reveexpended for their support. County superintend- nue, at that time, was as follows: ents are electel biennially by the people. Their Interest on 16th section find... . $146,983.32 duties are, to see that one free school in which
" the surplus revenue
fund. elementary English branches shall be taught, is
One-fifth of the state revenue of maintained in each school-district-townships the previous year..
209,887.44 and school-districts being co-extensive; to visit Poll-tax collecied in 1872--3.... $0,486.66 the schools once a year; to pay teachers ; to hold
73,555.30 teachers' institutes ; and to take charge of all
$564,439.66 school moneys, and disburse them according to law. County directors, two in number, are
This state has received from the Peabody fund, chosen at the same time, and for the same term, since 1868. $59,550. The amount received in
1875 was $4,300. as the county superintendent. With him, they
(See PEABODY Fund.) constitute a county board for the examining and The expenditures were as follows: licensing of teachers and maintaining a general | Poll-tax disbursed by superintendoversight of the schools and school property.
Apportioned counties Three township trustees are elected biennially
..476,332.29 who have the immediate control of the schools, | Apportioned to normal schools... 10,000.00 subject to supervision by the county superintend- Incidental expenses..
2,550.00 ent. In several of the cities, special school laws
.$562,437.59 are in force, by which the immediate management of the schools is entrusted to city boards of
The other principal items of school statistics commissioners, subject either to the supervision
are the following: of the county superintendent, or of city super- No. of children of school age : white, 233,733
colored, 172,537 intendents. Four grades of schools are comprehended in the operation of the law-primary,
..406,270 intermediate, grammar, and high schools. In the No. of children enrolled: white, 91,202 first, spelling, reading, and the elements of arith
colored, 54,595 metic and of geography are taught ; in the
.145,797 second, these studies are continued, with the ad
white, 67,024 dition of grammar and writing; in the third,
colored, 43,229 etymology, composition, history, and elocution are added; and in the fourth, the higher branches
.110,253 common to schools of this grade are pursued. No. of teachers: white, male, 1,669 The school fund is composed of “the income
colored, male, 1,002 from the 16th section trust fund, the surplus
female, revenue fund, until it is called for by the United States government;" the proceeds of “all lands
3,961 or other property given by individuals or ap- Average monthly salary, white teachers. propriated by the state for educational purposes,
. $27.87 and all estates of deceased persons who die with Normal Instruction. - Three state normal out leaving a will or heir;" an annual poll tax. schools are in existence, the expenditure for not to exceed one dollar and fifty cents on each which, during the year 1875, was $10,000. The poll ;" with such other moneys,“ to be not less first, at Florence, organized in 1873, is designed than $100,000 per annum, as the general as for the education of white teachers of both sexes.