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EAR, Cultivation of the. Recent physi- | office, since language, the most efficient means of ological researches appear to leave but little rea- all education, depends upon its exercise. Moral son to doubt that, at birth and for months after- education, no doubt, also begins with the genial ward, the organs of the special senses exist in accents of the maternal voice, both in speech and only a rudimentary form, and that they owe song, as heard by the infant ; so that even the their gradual development entirely to the ex- lullabies which soothe it to slumber constitute ternal influences exerted upon them by nature an agency in its development. While, therefore, and society. It is, therefore, not only probable. loud and explosive noises may injure the physical but experimentally demonstrable, that the edu- organization of the ear of the child, harsh and cation of the senses is more or less efficient ac- angry tones may affect injuriously the developcording to the time at which it begins after birth. ment of its affections and sentiments. All disagreeIn the light of modern experience, it is con- able sensuous impressions are deeper and more sidered by some extremely doubtful whether there durable than those of an opposite character; and, is really any case of actual congenital blindness hence, when often repeated, they tend to destroy or deafness. The tendency to these defects, the capacity of the ear for the appreciation of doubtless, often exists as an hereditary imper- | beautiful sounds. Otherwise, variety of sound fection, but is scarcely ever of such a nature as is not detrimental to the infant's ear, but on the to be incurable, if discovered and treated properly contrary, beneficial, especially when the source of soon after birth. Hence, except when an organic each sound is. at the same time, presented to the malformation exists, it follows that a systematic sight, or touch, or both these senses. From the and judicious training of the senses, from the time the infant begins to understand simple lanearliest infancy, may remedy most, if not all. guage, -usually after the fourth month, especases of such defects as color-blindness, weakness cially if the words are accompanied with mimicry of sight and hearing, etc. Such indeed is the or gesticulation, care should be taken to articulate conclusion derived from the experience gained distinctly. In families in which there is a negliin infant asylums, kindergartens, and intelligent gence in this respect, it will be found that the families. This is an important fact, since it children either never, or with very great difficulserves to correct the notion, so generally enter- ty, acquire a distinct articulation. It is a great tained, that good speakers and singers must be error, quite common in some families and comborn such, and that there are but few persons munities, to repress the natural vociferations of thus naturally endowed. There is, without doubt, children, and to insist on the constant use of low considerable diversity in the sensuous endow- tones in speech. Nature dictates a great deal of ments of different individuals ; but, at the same crying, shouting, etc., in order that the lungs time, it is impossible to fix a limit to the im- and vocal organs may be fully developed; but, provement of which every organ of sense is sus- of course, all excess should be restrained, since ceptible by continuous and proper education, and the habit of yelling and shouting in the open air particularly by a cultivation carried on through will not only injure the delicate organs of the several successive generations. As regards the voice, but will have a bad effect upon the moral the ear, this may be considered as historically development of the child, besides incapacitating established ; since, but three centuries ago, there him for the perception and appreciation of those were but an exceptional few persons who showed delicate distinctions of sound upon which musical an ability to appreciate, and a still smaller num- harmony and melody depend. To what an exber who were able to reproduce, musical melody tent this nice perception and discrimination of and harmony. Of all the ancient nations, the sound may be cultivated, appears from the fact Greeks alone seem to have been able to enjoy the that, in good kindergartens, a child will learn to diatonic scale (but not the chromatic), and to distinguish blindfolded the voice of any one of a give it expression in their music, other nations' hundred comrades, to tell by what means any never baving any other than the scale of five one of a hundred different noises is produced, notes (barbaric scale). The progress of musical and to estimate with tolerable accuracy the disart among modern civilized nations and partic-'tance of the source of any well-known sound. ularly the diffusion of musical taste among the Very young children may also, by suitable exerpeople are striking illustrations of ear culture, cises, readily acquire the ability to distinguish since this progress could not be effected without the intervals of musical notes, and their position an organic as well as an esthetic improvement. in the scale. By similar kindergarten exercises,

The sense of hearing is the earliest to be devel- even cases of constitutional difficulty in hearing oped in infancy, and, at the approach of death,' may be considerably alleviated. Thus such a seems to be the last to be extinguished; it is also child may be shown how, by closing the mouth the last to be overcome by sleep, and the first to and nostrils

, the air may be forced into the be aroused on awakenin In reaching objects Eustachian tubes, until the well-known explosive at a distance, its power is next to that of sight. sound of each tympanum follows. After every In the earliest stages of intellectual development, such exertion, the hearing will be found to bethe sense of hearing performs a most important come somewhat better, until, by frequent repeti

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tion, its improvement will be quite decided ; be- been recently commenced, and are constantly cause the fine blood vessels of the organ, in which receiving accessions. A chemical laboratory has the circulation had become stagnant, are ren- been established. The value of the grounds, builddered active ; provided. of course, there is no mal-'ings, and apparatus is $150,000; the amount formation or incurable physical defect in the of productive funds, $396,000. organ itself. (See Senses, EDUCATION OF.) paratory and a collegiate departinent. The col

EARLHAM COLLEGE, at Richmond, legiate studies extend over a period of four acaInd., is controlled by a board of managers ap- demic years, of ten months each, and comprise pointed by the Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends three distinct courses. as follows: (1) The agri(orthodox). It was chartered in 1857; but a cultural course, in which prominence is given to boarding-school for instruction in the higher the sciences pertaining to agriculture ; (2) The branches had been in operation in the same' mechanical course, in which the principal studbuilding for several years previous. The college ies are those which relate to the mechanic arts; is supported by the income from an endowment (3) The classical course, in which the Latin and of $55,000, by tuition, and by the proceeds of a Greek languages are taught. Students completing, farm. There is a classical and a scientific course, with credit, the classical course, receive the deeach of four years. The preparatory school has a gree of Bachelor of Arts; those completing the course of two years. Students may pursue selected agricultural or mechanical course, that of Bachstudies at the discretion of the faculty, but no elor of Science. The students are organized into degree is given except on the completion of one a battalion ; and military drill and inspections, or the other of the regular courses. The degrees under the direction of the professor of military are, A. B. for the classical and B. S. for the tactics, take place daily. The whole college is scientific course. Gravluates may receive the under military discipline. All able-bodied stusecond degree (A. M. or M. S. according to the dents must perform a small amount of labor ; previous course) either on continuing one year but this is principally required of the freshman at the college in the satisfactory prosecution of and sophomore classes. Those who wish addipost-graduate studies, or, in regular course, at tional labor, are, to a limited extent, furnished the end of three years on passing successful with work, for which they are remunerated. examination in some selected studies, or on the ! The cost of tuition is $36 a year in the college, presentation of a satisfactory thesis. The college and $30 in the preparatory departinent. Free has libraries containing over 4,000 volumes ; an tuition is given to students nominated by memobservatory supplied with an equatorial telescope, bers of the state legislature, each senator having a transit instrument, and an astronomical clock;, the right to nominate two, and each represenand a museum of zoology, comparative anatomy, tative three. Free tuition is also given to young geology, archæology, etc. There are from ten to men who intend to prepare for the ministry, twelve instructors, including six professors and a and who bring a certificate to that effect from principal of the preparatory department. The some church organization. In 1874–5, there number of students at present (1876) ranges from were 18 instructors, and 101 collegiate and 214 220 to 230 per year, about one-third of whom are preparatory students. The Rev. Thomas William college students. The number of gra luates, in Ilumes, S. T. D., is (1876) the president. 1875, was 79. The first president, Prof. Barnabas EAST TENNESSEE WESLEYAN C. Hobbes, was appointed in 1865; he held the UNIVERSITY, at Athens, Tenn., under the office two years and was succeeded by the present control of the Methodist Episcopal Church, incumbent, Joseph Moore, A. M.

was chartered, in the winter of 1866–7, as the EAST TENNESSEE UNIVERSITY East Tennessee Wesleyan College. The name and State Industrial College, at Knoxville, was changed at the next session of the legislaTenn., non-sectarian, was chartered in 1807. It ture. It was opened in September, 1867. The received a grant of land from the United States main college building is a substantial brick structhrough the state legislature, from which about ture, 70 by 50 feet, and three stories high. The $40,000 was derived; and a further endowment libraries contain about 1,500 volumes. There was obtained from the property of Blount Col is an academic, a preparatory, and a collegiate lege, which was merged in it on condition of its department, the last having a classical and a scienestablishment at Knoxville. It was suspended tific course. There are two terms in the year, and during the civil war, and the college property the cost of tuition varies from $6 to $22 per term, was occupied by the United States army, and according to the department. Deductions are greatly damaged. Exercises were resumed, in made in favor of ministers of the Methodist 1866, in the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb. In Episcopal Church. In 1874—5, there were 7 in1869, the institution received the Congressional structors, 16 collegiate students, 35 preparatory, land grant to the state for the establishment of 30 academic, and 12 music scholars, making a an agricultural and mechanical college, and the total, deducting repetitions, of 86; the number State Industrial College was organized. New of alumni, up to that time, was 27. The Rev. college buildings have been erected, which stand John F. Spence, A. M., is (1876) the president. on an eminence near the city. The college farm ECONOMY School. See SCHOOL ECONOMY. of 260 acres is about a mile from the buildings. ECUADOR, a republic of South America, The libraries contain about 4,000 volumes. The having an area of 248,400 sq. m., and a populacabinets of geology, mineralogy, and zoology have tion estimated, in 1875, at 1,850,000. Of these,

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55 per cent were whites ; 42 per cent Indians; the ature, Latin, Greek, law, medicine, etc. Special remainder, negroes and half-breeds. The inhabit- instruction is imparted in the following schools : ants speak the Spanish language and belong to schools of art and industry with 22 professors ; a the Roman Catholic Church, the form of worship polytechnic school, with 13 professors and 59 of which is the only one tolerated in public. students; a military academy, with 5 professors After the conquest of the empire of the Incas, the and 23 cadets ; seven seminaries supported by kingdom of Quito was made a presidency of the the clergy, with 47 professors und 227 students ; viceroyalty of Peru. It remained under Spanish an academy of fine arts, with 2 professors and 22 rule up to 1822, when it became a part of the re- students, and a conservatory of music, with 8 public of Colombia; and, in 1831, became an in- professors and 39 students. In 1872, a prodependent republic under the name of Ecuador. spectus was issued for a school of obstetrics, and Since then, it has been the scene of numerous also for one of sculpture, to be opened in Quito, revolutions and wars with the neighboring re- under the direction of European professors. An publics. The schools of all grades have been and academy of arts and sciences was also to be still are under the control of the church, which, in opened in Quito, and the advantages of the this republic, has generally wielded a greater Guayaquil Normal School were to be extended power than in any other part of South America. to Indian children.—See Schmid, Encyclopädie, It was especially the aim of the conservative pres- vol. 1x., art. Südamerika ; WAPPÆUS, Handbuch ident Moreno (died 1875) to place the entire de- der Geographie und Statistik, vol. 1; Report of partment of instruction under the immediate di- U. S. Commissioner of Education for 1873. rection of the church. In 1864, it was resolved to EDGEWORTH, Maria, a gifted English erect a number of new schools, to be conducted by authoress, noted for her educational writings, was the Brothers of Christian Doctrine. The district born at Hare Hatch, near Reading, England, in councilors were empowered to raise in advance 1767, and died at Edgeworthstown, Ireland, in a part of the taxes for the support of these 1849. She was the daughter of Richard Lovell schools

. At the same time, an agreement was Edgeworth, who was quite celebrated both as an entered into between the government and the , inventor and an author, and, to some extent, Society of Jesus, according to which the latter also as an educationist. He was the author, assumed the direction of a number of colegios. jointly with his daughter, of Practical EducaHow little education is valued, may be seen tion (1798), and published Essays on Profesfrom the fact that the expenditure for public edu- sional Education (1809), and a continuation of cation, according to the annual budget, amounts Early Lessons (1815), published originally by to only about 20,000 pesos (1 peso=$0.96.5). his daughter in 1810. In 1822, Maria Edgeworth

Primary Instruction.— The schools are at- published Rosamond, a sequel to Early Lessons, tended almost exclusively by the whites, the half- which was followed by Harry and Lucy, the breeds, and the mulattoes; while the Indians, who Parents' Assistant (a series of juvenile tales), compose the laboring classes in the cities, do not and Frank ; subsequently also Orlandino, which enjoy the advantage of any education at all. The appeared in Chambers's Library for Young number of public schools, in 1873, was 244, of People. It was, however, as a writer of fiction private schools, 176; and the number of schools that Miss Edgeworth gained her greatest fame. supported by corporations was 11, making the Her novels acquired a high degree of popularity, total number of primary schools 431. The num- which, to a considerable extent, they still retain ; ber of pupils in the public schools was 17,661, the and they were widely circulated both in England number in private schools 3,966, and in schools and in the United States. They were greatly supported by corporations 837, making the total admired by her illustrious contemporaries Scott, number of pupils 22,464. The course of instruc- Macaway, and Jeffrey. The latter said, “ It is tion in the public schools comprises reading, impossible to read ten pages in any of her writwriting, arithmetic, and religion.

ings, without feeling, that not only as a whole, Secondary, Superior, and Special Instruction. but that, in every part, they were intended to do - There were, in 1873, six colleges (colegios na- good.” “ She is the author," said Edward Everett, cionales) with 59 professors and 757 students, “ of works never to be forgotten; of works which and one female college with 4 professors and 153 can never lose their standard value as English students. The University of Quito comprises Classics." In 1820, she completed a Memoir of four colegios, the Colegio de San Gregorio, her father (commenced by him), who died in founded in 1586 by the Society of Jesus, and 1817. There are several editions of her works, invested with the privileges of Salamanca in which still continue to be reprinted. 1621 ; the Colegio de Santo Tomas de Aquino, EDINBURGH, University of. See Scorbelonging to the Dominicans ; the Colegio Mayor LAND. with which a seminary is connected, and the Co EDUCATION (Lat. educatio), a general and legio de San Fernando. The revenue of the uni- comprehensive term, including in its signification versity amounts to from 4,000 to 5,000 pesos, and every thing that pertains to the bringing up of the salaries of the professors to 3,950 pesos. In children, and the operation of influences and the colegios, the course of study embraces Latin, agencies designed to stimulate and direct the deand sometimes Greek, in addition to the branches velopment of the faculties of youth by training taught in the primary schools. The university and instruction, and thus to control the formacourse comprises the Spanish language and liter- tion of their character. Hence, education has

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been divided into several departments, according the growth and development of mind and body, to the class of faculties to the development and and which especially constitute the theory of improvement of which it is directed, including education, or pedagogics, as sometimes called. (1) Physical Education (q. v.), or the education This article will embrace only the general conof the bodily powers; (2) Intellectual Education sideration of (I) the history of education, and (q. v.), that of the mind'or intellect ; (3) Moral (II) the theory of education, with a reference to Education (q. v.),—of the propensities, senti- sub-titles for fuller information in regard to subments, will, and conscience; (4) Esthetic Ethucu- ordinate topics. tion, ---of the taste, musical, artistic, or literary, I. History of Education.The history of eduthat is, comprehending the sphere of the imagi- cation is the history of the institutions, prinnation (see EstuETIC CULTURE); and (5) Religious ciples, and methods by means of which children or Spiritual Education, of the religious and youth of both sexes have been educated, sentiments, the spiritual instincts ; that is, those from the earliest period of historic times to the which concern only the soul as a spiritual and present day. It embraces within its scope an immortal essence, and its relations to the Creator, account of the peculiar character which eluthe Infinite Spirit. (See Religious EDUCATION.) cation has assumed among the several nations of

Education is also distinguished into home or the globe, of the rise and development of the domestic education (q. v.), and public or common- different methods of instruction, of the systems school education (see Public SCHOOLS), or, con- and labors of prominent educators, of the divisidered as a means for the general enlightenment sions and classes of schools, and of the rival and of the people, popular education ; also into pri- frequently conflicting claims of the family, the vate eclucation, that is, supported by private church, and the state to a share in the regulation funds, and national education,-provided for by of public instruction. Each of these subjects is the state. (See NationAL EDUCATION.)

treated of in this work under special titles; School education, generally called instruction, and the object of this general article can, thereon account of the more limited character of its fore, only be to present a brief general view, in scope and the sphere of its operations, is distin- outline, of the subject, so as to show more clearly guished, according to its grade, into (1) primary the relation of its several departments and topics. instruction, that is, the instruction given in ele The earliest schools which have any claim to a mentary schools (such as the common schools, place in a history of education are met with in the primary schools of cities representing only a Egypt, China, India, and Persia. In all these lower subdivision of primary instruction); (2) sec- countries, it was the aim of the instructor to train ondary instruction, as given in aca lemies, the young so that they might become homogeneous high schools (middle schools); (3) superior in- members of the community to which they bestruction, as given in colleges and universities; longed, the institutions of which were to be pre(4) special instruction,-as of the blind, the deaf served and continued by them unchanged. The and dumb, and the imbecile ; (5) professional claims of individuality were, at that early period, and technical instruction, -as in art schools, law unknown; and the principle of blind and slavish schools, medical schools, military, naval or nau submission to the constituted authorities was the tical schools, theological seminaries, schools of basis of all education. There are, however, some architecture, etc., for information in regard to marked points of difference. In China, the diswhich see the respective titles.

tinctive features of education characterize it as Education is to be carefully clistinguished from family education, in India as caste education, in instruction, the latter being only a subordinate Persia as state education, and in Egypt as priestpart of the great scheme of controlling and ly education. In China, every child is reared in guiding the development of a human being. To absolute obedience to the head of the family, this department of education the term didactics and every family submits as a child to the com(from the Greek word dedãokeiv, to teach) is often mon father of all, the Emperor. The excessive applied. (See Didactics and INSTRUCTION.) In- veneration of ancestry makes the character of struction is addressed to the intellect or under the people essentially stationary, and education standing; while education comprehends the whole assumes pre-eminently the character of mechanical nature of man and the various agencies by means training. In India, every child belongs by his of which, in its formative state, it may be affected. birth to one particular caste; and the foremost Its primary object is to form the character either aim of the instruction given is to teach him the by stimulating its development in the normal rights and duties of the caste. The leading prindirection, or correcting tendencies to morbid ciple of Indian education is habit. In Persia, growth. In respect to the scientific principles by every kind of power and authority centers in the which its practical operations should be guided, king; the children belong more to the state than education is a science; in relation to the proper to their parents, and the germs of a strictly namode of performing those operations so as to ren- tional education may, therefore, be found in the der them as effective as possible, it is an art. The institutions of that country. In Egypt, the science of education is a very complex one, inas- priest is the chief representative of education much as its principles must be drawn from many and the only teacher. (See CHina, Egypt, INDIA, different departments of science; superadded to and PERSIA.) which, as its own peculiar sphere of investigation, The classic nations of the ancient world, there is the great body of truths which concern | Greece and Rome, began a new period in the

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history of education. While the oriental child | tions of conquered Greece revealed to the Rowas taught to become a docile member of the mans a progress in art, science, and literature, family. the caste, the state, or the religion, Greece which they as yet had not even conceived, and and Rome conceived the idea of individual educa- thus awakened a thirst for higher literary culture, for the place which the family, the caste, the state, ' had already entered upon the period of its deor religion assigned to him, but he was to choose cline. Higher instruction, often imparted by his own vocation, and by aspiring to the highest despised slaves, was an inadequate compensation place of honor in political life, in art, or in sci- for the decline of home education ; and scientific ence, to advance beyond his ancestors. Mechan- and literary culture proved utterly unable to arical training failed to satisfy those who interested rest the flood of corruption which finally overthemselves in the cause of education ; the first whelmed the free institutions of Rome. The theories of education were developed, and the lines of Horace, so often quoted, have thus an harmonious development of the body and the impressive significance : mind was held up to the young as the worthiest Græcia capta ferum victorem cepit, et artes aim of their youthful ambition. Lycurgus and Intulit agresti Latio. Solon as lawgivers, Pythagoras and Socrates as Under the empire, the old landmarks of napractical educators, and Plato and Aristotle as tional education were entirely swept away. writers on education, propounded and brought in- Greek tutors, and Greek high schools, at Athens to circulation a number of new ideas, with which and Constantinople, were expected to supply the not only did the older nations of the ancient highest instruction; but the enervated Roman world have nothing to compare, but which have was no longer able to grasp the ideal of a uniremained among the most potent agencies in the versal higher education, and the Roman Empire progressive education of mankind. A beauti- of the West was destroyed by the barbarians ful individuality was, to the Greek, the aim of without having developed any systems or forms life, and the ideal of education was expressed by of education. As Roman education, from the the word ko'roka; avia, the beautiful and the foundation of the city to the downfall of the good. The Spartan system of eclucation con empire, was of a predominantly utilitarian charstituted, to a considerable degree, an exception to acter, Rome never produced any writers on eduthis general characteristic of Greek education. cation like Aristotle and Plato; yet the works The Roman's attention, from his early childhood, of Cicero, and especially of Seneca and Quinwas directed to the affairs of a commonwealth tilian, contain many suggestions of great pracwhich was constantly engaged in war, and those tical value. who reared him naturally designed to make him A peculiar position is occupied by the a practical man. The development of a practical Hebrews, the only theocratic people of antiquity. individuality became the aim of Roman educa. Their children were to be educated, not for the tion. Less time was found for, and less interest family or caste, not for the state or for personal felt in, the study of science and art ; but there distinction in art and literature, but to be the was a notable progress in the appreciation of obedient servants of the God of Israel. As Jehome education, involving a higher regard for hovah was represented to the people as their marriage and for a more dignified and freer po- sovereign, so he was their only teacher. Educasition of woman in society. In every family, tion was a corollary of religion. The head of a the mother was to begin and the father to con- family was both its teacher and priest, and gave tinue the work of education, which came to be to the children a religious instruction ; reading looked upon as a part of parental duty. Both and writing were learned only by the children of parents co-operated in nursing, in the minds of the wealthy. The first organized schools were their children, the feeling of patriotism ; and a the schools of the prophets for training expoundpart of the education which the young Roman ers of the law of Jehovah ; after the exile, the received under the parental roof was the desire rabbis organized a number of schools, to which to become a useful, honest, and illustrious citizen children from their 5th year could be sent. The of the commonwealth. Under these influences, instruction was for a long time entirely oral, the will was more developed than either the and at first also limited to the tenets of the Jewemotional nature or the intellect. The only sci- ish religion ; but gradually the course of instrucences which interested the Romans were almost tion was enlarged, and, during the middle ages, exclusively those of a strongly utilitarian charac- many Jewish schools obtained a high reputation ter,—rhetoric, Roman history, and military sci- for the number of scholars whom they educated. ence; since every noble and talented youth The advent of Christianity was a great turnaspired to become a leading politician or a great 'ing-point in the history of education, no less general. The characteristic virtue of the ancient than in the general history of mankind. For a Romans. before the decline of the Republic, was considerable length of time this was far from stern and inflexible integrity in political life; being recognized. To the educated and wealthy but all their intellectual and moral aspirations Romans, especially to those holding a high rank were circumscribed by the narrow horizon of in scholarship and literature, the Christians aptheir own nationality, and a due regard for those peared as a humble, insignificant, and despised outside of it appears to have been unknown to sect. The energies of the Christians themselves them. When an acquaintance with the institu- , were so greatly absorbed in the effort to live up

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