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frame, is used. This is constructed like a black- ago from funds contributed for the purpose by board with horizontal grooves, in which the let- W. F. Stearns, son of the president. This inters can be placed so as to slide along to any stitution occupies twelve public buildings, besides required position. By the use of assorted letters, the presidents house, including an edifice for scithe teacher can construct any word or sentence, entific instruction, and the college church. There building it up letter by letter, as types are set. are also a gallery of art, a cabinet of natural Many interesting exercises in reading and spelling history, containing about 100,000 specimens, and may be given by means of such an apparatus, the an astronomical observatory. The department children being required to construct words and for physical training is very efficient. It comsentences themselves, as well as to read those prises an extensive and well appointed gymnaformed by the teacher. The A B C Method of sium ; and, at a certain hour, each class is reteaching the elements of reading has now, quite quired to attend, and engage in exercise under the generally, been superseded by the Word Method. direction of the professor, who is a thoroughly
See CURRIE, Early and Infant School Edu- qualified physician. The faculty includes twentycation, and Principles and Practice of Common three instructors, and there are several endowed School Education; WICKERSHAM, Methods of professorships. The number of students in 1874 Instruction. (See WORD METHOD.)
was about 340. The college library contains ALUMNEUM, or Alumnat (Lat., from more than 30,000 volumes; and those of the alere, to feed, to nourish), the name given in societies, about 10,000. There is a scientific as Germany to an institution of learning which af-: well as a classical course; also a post-graduate fords to its pupils board, lodging, and instruc- course, established in 1874, in history and polittion. The first institutions of this kind arose in ical science, with especial reference to a “science the middle ages in connection with the convents. of statesmanship;" while any graduate may Among the most celebrated are those founded by arrange to pursue a course of study in any deMaurice of Saxony, in the 16th century, at Pforta, 'partment additional to the college course. The Meissen, and Grimma. When the pupils were tuition fee is $90 per annum. received and instructed gratuitously, they were ANALYSIS, Grammatical, or Sentenexpected to perform various services for the tial.-By the analysis of a sentence is meant a school and church, such as singing in the choir. decomposition of it into its logical elements. The pupils of these schools were called alumni. Every sentence must either be a single proposi(See ALUMNUS.)
tion, or be composed of propositions more or ALUMNUS, pl. Alumni (Lat., from alere, less intimately related ; and every proposition to feed, to nourish) originally the name of a must contain a subject and a predicate, the forstudent who was supported and educated at the mer expressing that of which we speak, and the expense of a learned institution (see ALUMNECM), latter, what we say of it. The entire or logical now generally applied to a graduate of a college ' subject must contain a noun or pronoun, either or similar institution. The graduates of higher alone or with related words called modifiers or seminaries or colleges for females are sometimes adjuncts, or it may be a phrase or a clause. The called alumne.
entire or logical predicate, in the same manner, AMHERST COLLEGE, at Amherst, Mass., must consist of a verb with or without adjuncts. is one of the chief seats of learning in the These constitute all the parts, and all the relations, United States. It was founded in 1821 by the involved in the construction of a sentence. A few Orthodox Congregationalists, especially for the words, such as interjections, may be used indeeducation of young men for the ministry; but pendently of them. Grammar has been defined its charter was not obtained till 1825. Its first as the art of speaking and writing correctly," president was the Rev. Zephaniah S. Moore, who or as the “practical science which teaches the in 1823 was succeeded by the Rev. Ileman right use of language"; and for general purHumphrey, to whose strenuous and prudent poses this account is, perhaps, sufficiently exefforts the college owed much of its success. He plicit. It does not, however, truly distinguish continued in office till 18-45, when he was suc- grammar from the other arts concerned in teachceeded by the Rev. Edward Hitchcock; and, ing the “ right use of language," and hence does on the resignation of the latter, in 1854, the not cor tly point out its peculiar province. present incumbent, the Rev. William A. Stearns, From a want of precision in defining the limitaD.D., was elected. This institution has been the tions of any art or science, there must necessarily recipient of very large donations from private follow a corresponding inaccuracy and looseness persons, and appropriations from the State in its treatment; since, before we can reason amounting to upward) of $50,000. The college properly as to the best methods of attaining any funus amount in the aggregate to more than object, we must clearly conceive what that object $650,000. Its charity fund for the gratuitous is, and carefully distinguish it from all others. education of clergymen amounts to about $70,000; The special province of grammar does not exand its fund for free scholarships is at least tend beyond the construction of sentences ; but $100,000. The names of the principal donors it is quite obvious that to use language correctly, to the institution are Dr. William J. Walker, those principles and rules must be understood to the extent of $240,000 ; Samuel A. Hitch- which underlie the proper method of combining cock, $175,000; Samuel Williston, $150,000 ; sentences so that they may constitute elegant and and a college church was erected a short time logical discourse. A person may be sufficiently
familiar with grammatical rules to construct sen- | laid for the intelligent study of all other gramtences with perfect correctness, but may so ar- matical terms and distinctions ; and this being range them as to express only nonsense ; and the foundation, should, of course, be the first such a person could scarcely be considered as un- thing done. Those who oppose the analytical derstanding the “ right use of language.” The method assert that words are the real elements of sentence being the peculiar province of grammar, a sentence, and that any consideration of these it follows that the only subjects of investigation involves, therefore, an exhaustive analysis of the embraced within it are words, their orthography, sentence itself. With the same propriety might inflectional forms, and pronunciation, and their it be said that pieces of iron of various shapes arrangement in sentences. All grammatical de are the elements of the steam-engine. They infinitions and rules are founded upon the relations deed compose the machine, and it can ultimately of the parts of a sentence to each other; and, be resolved into them ; but could its structure therefore, these relations should be first taught and workings be explained by taking these fragIt is with reference to these relations, that words ments of metal in a hap-hazard way, and noticing are classified into parts of speech, or, as they how they are related to others in immediate juxmight properly be called, parts of the sentence. taposition, without regard to the general structTo define or explain these parts of speech before ure of the machine, and the dependence of its giving any definition of a sentence, is, therefore, operation upon a few elementary or primary parts, clearly illogical ; yet this has been the method of as the cylinder, piston, condenser, etc.? Words many grammarians, words being explained and are not necessarily the real elements of a senparsed as if they had only individual properties. tence. These are the subject and predicate and It is in this that the distinction between parsing their adjuncts; and, unless these component parts and grammatical analysis consists. Both are, in of the general structure be first observed, the fact, only different kinds of analysis, and are relations of the separate words cannot be underbased on precisely the same relations,—those in stood. Hence, we find that those writers who which the words stand to each other as parts of have ignored a definite consideration of these a sentence.
logical elements, have fallen into many errors Parsing, as uniformly employed by gram- and inconsistencies. marians, is a minute examination of the in The various systems of analysis in use differ dividual words of a sentence, with the view to in no essential respect, the chief variation being determine whether the rules of grammar, proper in the nomenclature employed to designate the to the particular language in which the sentence elements of the sentence. The name generally is written, have been observed or violated. Anal- applied to a proposition forming a part of a senysis, on the other hand, deals with the relations tence is a clause, and any group of related words upon which those rules are based, and which not making a proposition is called a phrase. The are common to all languages. Thus, in parsing, modifying elements are by some called adjective the pupil is obliged to scrutinize all the inflec- or adverbial, according as they perform the functional forms in which the words composing the tions of adjectives or adverbs. Instead of the sentence are used; and, in order to determine term uljectire, adnominal is sometimes employed. whether they are proper or not, must not only The term adjunct is generally employed to desknow the rules of syntax, but the relations of the ignate an element subordinate to either subject words to each other. so as to be able to apply or predicate. Such adjuncts may be moulifying, those rules. The relations are invariable in all descriptive, or appositional. A modifying adlanguages, but the rules which refer to the in- junct changes the meaning of the element to flections are founded on particular usage, and which it is applied, generally, by making it more hence are in no two languages exactly alike. On specific, or by restricting the class to which it bethis account, since the general logically precedes lungs. Thus animal is a more general term than the special, the treatment of sentential analysis four-footed animul ; hence, four-footed is a modishould precede any exercises in parsing. Other-fying adjunct. But the term mım is no more wise, how, for example, could a pupil be required general than man that is born of a woman, or to distinguish the cases of nouns and pronouns, mortal man; the acljuncts, that is born of a womand the person and number of verbs, before be am anıl mortul being only descriptive, not modiing taught the relations of the words to each other? fying. Appositional adjuncts only explain ;
By means of the analytical method, when rightly as: Hle, the chieftain of them all, in which the applied, the study of grammar is made clear, phrase, the chieftain, etc., is only explanatory, or logical and easy from the very beginning. The appositional. Adjuncts may be single words, pupil is first taught the nature of the sentence, phrases or clauses; and one of the chief adlits essential parts, and their relations to each vantages of sentential analysis is to show the other, and is shown how to analyze sentences of pupil that groups of words are often used so as a simple character. He is troubled with but to perform the same office as single words. In little phraseology ; for all the terms that are es- teaching this subject, a proper gradation of topics sential to the complete distinction and designa- should be observed ; and much caution exercised tion of the parts of a sentence are subject, verb to avoid the perplexing of the young pupil by or predicate, object, altribute, and adjuncts. These presenting to his mind distinctions too nice to be being defined, and the pupil taught how to dis- discerned by his undeveloped powers of analysis. tinguish them,
a complete foundation has been Various methods have been devised in order to
present to the eye of the student the analyzed or subtract fractions by finding a common de sentence, so as to show clearly the relation of its nominator. If the object of the instruction given parts; and, in the rudimental stages of the in- were, exclusively, to make the pupil expert in struction, these are, without doubt, of consider- adding and subtracting fractions, the synthetic able utility; but they should not be carried so method would perhaps have some advantage over far as to present to the student a confused mass the analytic; but, since an important part of of loops, lines, curves, or disjointed phrases, far this object is to train the mind, the analytic methmore difficult to disentangle than to analyze, with- od is greatly to be preferred; for (1) it stimuout any such aid, the most involved sentence. lates the mind to greater activity, (2) it teaches All such devices, it must be remembered, are it how to investigate for itself, and to discover only auxiliaries to the mind's natural operations, truth, and (3) it gives it a much clearer knowland cannot at all supersede them. Veither edge of the fundamental principles involved in should the exercise of analyzing sentences be al- the subject taught. Whether the analytic methlowed to degenerate into the mechanical applica-od should be employed and to what extent, is tion of its most simple requirements. As the to be determined by a consideration of the nature student advances, he will be able to omit more of the subject taught, and the degree of advanceand more of the routine, until he reaches a stage ment of the student. In the higher stages of of progress, at which the general structure of education, much time would be lost by rigorously the sentence—its component clauses and their re- following this method; and if, in the more lations, will be all that he need observe or state. elementary stages, the pupil's mind has been When judiciously and rationally employed, sen- thoroughly trained in this way, it will not be tential analysis must engender a very important necessary to adhere to it when he comes to study quality of mind, and greatly conduce to clear the higher branches. At every stage, and in every thinking, intelligent, critical reading, and accurate, branch of instruction, however, there will be oċterse expression. See MULLIGAN, Grammatical casion for the use of both analysis and synthesis ; Structure of the English Language (N. Y., 1852); and the skill and judgment of the teacher must GOOLD Brown, Grammar of English Gram- be exercised, at every step, to determine which is mars, and Institutes of English Grammar, the appropriate method to be employed. - See with Kiddle's Analysis ; WELCH, Analysis of Palmer. The Teacher's Manual (Boston, 1840). the English Sentence; GREENE, Analysis of the ANDREÆ, Johann Valentin, a German English Language; CLARK, Normal Grammar clergyman and educator, was born at Herrenof the English Language; CRUTTENDEN, Phi- berg, in Würtemberg, in 1586, and died in losophy of Sentential Language; March, Pars- Stuttgart, in 1654. After filling several eccleing and Analysis ; ANDREWS and STODDARD, siastical positions in the Lutheran church of Latin Grammar.
his country, he became, in 1650, Superintendent ANALYSIS, Mathematical. See Matu- General at Babenhausen, and in 1754 at Adel
berg. He was stern and influential opponent ANALYTIC METHOD OF TEACH. of the principles which the Lutheran orthodoxy, ING. This is the method used by the teacher i at that time, endeavored to carry out in eduwhen he presents to his pupils composite cation. Ile denounced, in particular. the metruths or facts, and by means of analysis chanical method of teaching Latin, which then shows the principles involved, or leads the prevailed, as well as the equally mechanical mind of the pupil to an analysis of them for method of catechetical instruction in the pubhimself. In this way he teaches principles lic schools; and he is known, in the history of which the pupil is to apply to the elucida- German erlucation, by the reforms which he intion of many diverse problems. In the synthetic tro luced in these studies. He insisted that no method, the teacher begins with principles, ex- orders should be given to the pupils in a foreign plains their meaning, and shows how they are to language, that they should not be required to be applied. Thus, suppose the pupil is to be learn anything which they did not understand, taught how to add and subtract fractions. Ac- and that no explanations should be given to them cording to the analytic method, the fractions to exceeding their comprehension, or not enlisting be operated upon are presented to the pupil's their interest. His views on pedagogical and mind, and he is shown, first the difficulty in- didactical reform are fully developed in the volved, and secondly, how to surmount this diffi- work Reipublicop Christimme Descriptio (1619), culty, by (1) finding a common denominator, which sketches the constitution of an ideal and (2) by changing the numerator so that the Christian republic, giving due prominence to the fractions with the common denominator may organization of education. Another work, writhave the same value as the given fractions. Then ten in his youth, Idea Bona Institutionis, is no the method of addition or subtraction becomes longer extant. Andreæ was an intimate friend of obvious. In this way learning the principle him- Amos Comenius, whose work. Didactica Magna, self by analysis, the pupil is enabled to construct he earnestly recommended. The autobiography a general rule, and apply it to any given case. In of Andreæ in Latin has been published by Rheinthe synthetic method, the pupil would be taught wald (Berlin 1849). See Schmidt, Geschichte in the first place the nature and use of a common der Pädagogik, ÍII, 338; Hossbach, Andreæ denominator, then the method of reducing frac- und sein Zeitalter (Berlin, 1830); HENKE in tions to a common denominator, and then to add | Deutsche Algemeine Biographie, art. Andrer.
ANGLO-SAXON is the current name for as in Latin and Greek. The uses of the modes the mother-tongue of the modern English lan- . are also a matter of great nicety. The body of guage. During the 5th and 6th centuries, tribes rules for the use of the subjunctive rivals that from the shores of the North Sea, – Angles, for the Latin subjunctive. Most of the diffiSaxons, Jutes, and others, made conquests and culties of English syntax find their solution in the settlements in England. They spoke Low German fact that they are relics of idioms which were gendialects, and after they were converted to Chris- eral, and are easily understood, in Anglo-Saxon. tianity, Roman alphabetic writing was intro- The laws of sound, including prosody, are noteduced, and a single literary language came into worthy. The vowel sounds are very susceptible use through the whole nation. This language to the influence of adjacent letters. A root a they commonly called Anglise, or Englisc, i. e. will change to ae, ea, e, o, as one or another English, but since the 17th century it has been letter follows it; and so with the other vowels. It called Anglo-Suro. Its best period was the is in this way that the plural of mim comes to be reign of Alfred the Great, A. D. 871 901. I men, from muini. And, in general, the changes In the careful study of its literary remains, it is of the original letters of an English word in innecessary to distinguish three dialects, the North- flection are to be explained from the phonetic umbrian, the West Saxon, and the Kentish; and laws of Anglo-Saxon. The verse, like that of three periods, the early, the middle, and the late; the other early Teutonic nations, is accentual, but in this article, our attention will be mainly and marks off the lines by alliteration. The art directed to classic Anglo-Saxon, which is West of poetry was higlily cultivated; the scóp, or Saxon of the middle period. This literary lan- poet, was highly honored, and it was a disgrace guage was cultivated mainly by rewriting in it, to any man not to be able to sing in his turn at for the use of the people, the best Latin works the feasts. We have specimens of the old ballad of the time on religion, history, and philosophy. epic reaching far back into heathen antiquity, King Alfred and his learned assistants thus pre- the Iliad and Odyssey of the North. There is pared Gregory's Pastorale; the General History also a body of Christian poetry in similar verse of Orosius, the Ecclesiastical History of Bede, the and in somewhat similar style. Consolations of Philosophy of Boethius; and From this sketch of the language and its these were followed by many other translations literature it will appear, that whatever disciplinin prose and verse. The language in this way ary advantages are to be gained from the study attained accuracy and ease in following Latin of an inflected tongue as such, or of a literature compositions, and a higher general cultivation introducing us to a new world of thought and than any other Teutonic tongue of the time. manners, are to be gained as well from the It is a very pure Low German speech, closely study of Anglo-Saxon as of Latin or Greek. It akin to the Frisic, Old Saxon, and Dutch. These has, however, additional and more intimate uses Low German tongues are most nearly related on to those who speak and write English, and have the one side, to High German, and on the other English for their foster-mother in literature. It is to Scandinavian; and more remotely to Latin, the mother of our mother-tongue, and the knowlGreek, Slavic, Sanskrit, and the other Indo- edge of it helps us at every step in our study of European or Aryan languages.
nglo- | English grammar and literature, and is essential Saxon is to be classed with the older inflected or to any really advanced scholarly knowledge of synthetic languages, like the Latin, Greek, and either. We may, therefore, find a place for Sanskrit, rather than with the analytic, or little- | Anglo-Saxon in all grades of schools in which inflected, like French and English. The noun language and literature are studied, using it in has five cases, and three genders; and four de- different ways at different stages of progress. clensions growing out of differences in the stems.
The study of language must always occupy a The adjective is declined as in German, in a' chief place in any comprehensive educational definite and an indefinite declension, with two scheme. It has two great divisions : (1) as the numbers, three genders, and five cases. The study of the art of communication, (2) as the personal pronouns are also fully declined in study of the record of human thought. Withthree numbers, having special forms for the dual out the art of communication, man cannot live; number in the first and second persons. There without access to the accumulated thought of the are two great classes of verbs, one of which race, any generation would be savages; without forms the past tense by reduplication, and the an introduction to the emotions and ileals of other by composition with dide, did. In the the great and noble which are embodied in litfirst class are five conjugations, arranged accord- erature, any generation would lapse toward ing to their root vowels, and from these come moral idiocy. most of what are called the irregular verbs of Common Schools. — The Anglo-Saxon is no modern English; our regular verbs come from the longer spoken, and it would be hardly worth sixth conjugation. Our suffixes of derivation, while to learn to speak it; but in learning to our prepositions, and conjunctions are also in speak and write English we need to know much great part Anglo-Saxon. The syntax is of of it. The power to speak well is founded on course that of a highly inflected language. Some familiarity with choice idioms and synonyms. verbs govern an accusative, some a dative or in- | These are learned in connection with the history strumental, some a genitive, some two accusa-, of the formation and meanings of words, and tives, some an accusative and dative, and so on especially in English, of our Anglo-Saxon words.
There are several school etymologies which afford study. A lesson a day during the last school manuals of practice in the study and use of the term skillfully directed to the most frequent exAnglo-Saxon elements of our speech, among amples in which this knowledge comes into use, which
may be mentioned: Hand-Book of Anglo- would perhaps answer the most pressing necessiSaxon Root-Words (New York); Hand-Book of ties of the common school teacher. Twice that Anglo-Saxon Derivatives (New York); Gibbs's time would be a meager allowance to lay the
Teutonic Etymology, (New Haven); SARGENT's foundation of the education of an accomplished School Manual of English Etymology (Phila.). high-school teacher in this department. For this In these books the pupil is told the meanings of study may be used March's Comparative Gramcertain Anglo-Saxon words, prefixes, and suffixes, mar of the Anglo-Sa.con Language (New York); and of English words which are derived from this contains a full syntax ; R. Morris's Histhem; and exercises are arranged in which to torical Outlines of English Accidence (London); acquire skill in the ready use of this knowledge. HADLEY's Brief History of the English LanThey are intended for the Common School. guage, in Webster's Dictionary (1865). HALDEMAN's Affices (Phila.) is a treasury of this Colleges and Universities. — The earliest imbranch of learning.
portant use of Anglo-Saxon in our schools was In the High School or Academy, Anglo-Saxon that introduced by President Jefferson into the is to be read and studied not only as explanatory University of Virginia, in 1825. He thought of English, but for its own structure and liter- that it was a rude form of colloquial English disature, just as Latin, Greek, and German are guised by bad spelling, and that the whole gramstudied. Manuals for this study in its simplest matical system as given in the text-books was a form contain brief grammars, selections for read- series of " aberrations into which our great Angloing, notes, and vocabulary. Such books are S. Saxon leader, Dr. Hickes, has been seduced by M. Suure's Anglo-Saxon Manual (N. Y.); Bar- too much regard to the structure of the Greek NES's Anglo-Sacon Delectus (London); VERNON's and Latin languages.” “Remove,” he says," the Guide to the Anglo-Suxon Tongue (London); obstacles of uncouth spelling and unfamiliar CARPENTER'S Introduction to the study of the character, and there would be little more diffiAnglo-Sacon Language (Boston). Similar to culty in understanding an Anglo-Saxon writer these, but containing more apparatus for a than Burns' poems." He proposed to have textcomparative study of the language and philo- books prepared, in which the original Anglological notes, are March's Introduction to the Saxon should be accompanied by a parallel Anglo-Sa.con Language (N. Y.); Morris's Ele- column containing the same matter respelt into mentary Lessons in Historical English Gram- modern English or forms like the modern Enmar, containing Accidence and Word Forma- glish, and by explanations of the meaning of tion (London).
unusual words. These he thought would be few, Normal Schools.—There are no persons to whom so that the whole tongue might be mastered this study is more important, than to teachers of with great ease and rapidity. These views of the English grammar. The explanations of the forms language are all wrong; the best Anglo-Saxon of words are all to be sought in it. The origin and manuscripts are really spelt on a more careful meaning of the possessive ending 's, of the plural and more scientific system than our modern endings, of the endings for gender, of the tense English. The language, really, is an inflected forms and other forms of the verb, the adverbial language, like Latin and Greek, having its caseendings, the prepositions, may at any time be de- endings and other inflective forms from the manded of the teacher. Pupils will ask him same original as those sister-speeches. Of course, whether John's book is a contraction of John his no one has carried out Mr. Jefferson's plan literbook; how comes geese to be the plural of goose, ally. One of its suggestions has, however, been and men the plural of man; how comes lady embodied in March's Introduction to Angloto be the feminine of lord; how comes I have Saxon (New York). An early division of the loved to express the perfect tense; what does the prose is prepared 'in parallel pages of Angloto mean when you say to be, or not to be, that is Saxon, and a sort of English made by giving for the question, and so on without end. But such each Anglo-Saxon word the corresponding Enquestions cannot be answered without knowing glish word to which it has given rise, if there be Anglo-Saxon. It is the same with questions of any, or a kindred English word. The following syntax. Almost all difficulties grow out of is a specimen: Anglo-Saxon idioms, or find their solution in Se leornere segeth : Wê cildru biddath thè, the forms of that speech. Teachers who know eâlâ làreów, thaet thû tâece ûs sprecan on Ledené nothing of the history of the language puzzle gereordè rihte, fortham ungelâerede wê sindon, themselves infinitely with subtle reasonings to and gewemmedlice wè sprecath. prove that expressions must be parsed in one (The learner saith: We childer) bid 2 thee, O-lo way or another, when a glance at an Anglo- lore-master, that thou teach us to-speak in Latin Saxon grammar would settle the matter in a i-rerd 3 right, for-that 4 un-i-lered o we are, and moment. No teacher can safely pronounce on i-wemmedly 6 we speak.) any such mooted questions of our language without knowing the Anglo-Saxon forms. No normal school ought to send out graduates from its
1 children (Chaucer). 2 pray. slanguage (Halliwell).
4 because. 5 unlearned (Stratmann). 6 corruptly, from grammar department wholly ignorant of this wem, a spot.