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An extract from the poetry of Caedmon is and substance, as thorough and scientitic study is prepared in the same manner. It will be seen given in this way to a portion of the Anglo that this affords an easy introduction to a gen-Saxon as can be given to Greek or Latin with eral knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, the ordinary college text-books. The study is and is a grateful means of enabling beginners pursued in this way at several of the American who wish only to read in an off-hand fashion, to colleges. In others, rapid reading for literary get a fair knowledge of the contents of Anglo- purposes prevails. The text - books used are Saxon books, especially of simple prose, and March's Grammar and Reader, as above, in makes a good beginning for grammatical and which are also bibliographical notes, and a sketch philological study.
of the literature; SHUTE's Anglo-Saxon Manual; There has been a great increase of Anglo-Saxon KLIPSTEIN's Anglo-Saxon Grammar(New York); study in our colleges within the last ten years. Corson's Anglo-Sacon and Early English From being almost unknown, and wholly unpro- | (New York); THORPE's Analecta Anglo-Saxonica vided with any suitable apparatus, it has become (London); CARPENTER's Introduction to Angloa common study, and a number of manuals have Sacon (Boston). been published for beginners in it, both in America Nowhere else is this study pursued as in and Europe. There is a difference of opinion America. It is almost wholly neglected in the among our educators as to whether it should be English universities. Nine German universities studied early in the college course and in connec- announced lectures on it for the winter semester tion with English simply, or later and in connec- 1 of 1874–5. tion with Latin, Greek, and German; whether it Dictionaries of Anglo-Saxon are Bosworth's should be mainly a literary study, for reading and (London); ETTMUELLER's Lexicon Anglo-sa.conithe vocabulary, or chiefly a grammatical and cum (Quedlinburg & Leipsic, 1851),–
,-an etymo philological study. The earliest of the later text- logical dictionary. Other valuable works of books announced for publication was a Compara- reference or for further reading are THORPE's tive Grummar by F. A. MARCH, Prof. of the Beowulf, with translation, notes, and glosEnglish Language and Comparative Philology in sary (London); Gren's Beowulf, with GerLafayette College. This was primarily intended man glossary (Cassel, 1867); Heyne's Beovulf, for the use of a Junior Class in college, who with German notes and glossary (Paderborn, have already studied Latin, Greek, French, 1873); THORPE's Gospels (London); Bosworth's and German, according to a progressive plan by Four Versions of the Gospels (London); E. which each language is compared with the others MÆTZNER's Englische Grammatik (Berlin, 1860 in its grammatical forms and analogous words, so —65); C. F. Kocu's Historische Grammatik that when beginning Anglo-Saxon, the students der englischen Sprache (Weimar, 1863—71); are good comparative grammarians within the Marsh's English Language, and ils Early range of the above languages. It is the plan of Literature (New York, 1862); Morley's English this grammar to compare the Anglo-Saxon with Writers (London, 1867); Wrigur's Biog. Brit
. Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Literaria (London, 1842); ETTMUELLER'S Scôpas Frisic, Icelandic, and Old High German. Gen- and Bóceras (Qued. & Leips., 1850); C. W. M. eral principles of phonology, enough to cover Grein's Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Poesie all the changes of sound, are first laid down, (Cassel & Göttingen, 1857–1864); Grein's Biand then parallel paradigms of the inflection bliothek der angelsächsischen Prosa (Cassel, forms in these languages are given, and the 1872); Gren's Sprachschatz der angelsächsiAnglo-Saxon explained under their guidance. A schen Dichter (Cassel & Göttingen. 1864); and comparative syntax is also given. The author articles in APPLETON'S New American Cyin this way introduces the student to the clopeedia, and Johnson's New Universal Cymethods of the modern science of language in clopædia. connection with the study of Anglo-Saxon, so ANSELM, of Canterbury, a saint and that our mother-tongue may share the honors doctor of the Roman Catholic Church, is reof this new science. This grammar was followed garded as one of the founders of scholasticism. by a Reader, which is prepared with notes (See SCHOLASTICISM.) He was born at Aosta, in adapted to lead to and aid in the study of the Piedmont, about 1033, entered, after a dissolute grammar
. These books have been since studied youth, the Benedictine order in 1060, succeeded, at Lafayette College in the manner here sug-in 1063, Lanfranc as prior of the monastery of gested. A class goes slowly on with the reader Bec in Normandy, and, in 1079, became abbot. and grammar together, studying, word by word, He was, in 1093, consecrated archbishop of Canletter by letter, the relations of the forms to terbury, and died in 1109. The school of Bec those of other languages, and the laws of change became, through him, the most famous of the which govern their history, and trying to ground age. He endeavored to show the entire harmony all in the laws of the mind and of the organs of between faith and science, and was the first to speech. Besides this grammatical study, how- develop what is called the ontological argument ever, the substance of the selections is carefully to prove the existence of God. He was a destudied, including choice extracts from the termined and effective opponent of the discipline Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Beda giving the which at that time prevailed in the monasteries, noticeable events of history, Anglo-Saxon laws, and which even allowed abbots to cudgel disand extracts from the great poets. In method obedient monks.“ A fine education,” he once
replied to an abbot, who complained of the in- \ is an instinctive dislike. Such a feeling is apt efficiency of his educational efforts, “ which edu- to exist on a first acquaintance only, and is often cates man to animals! Because they receive from dismissed subsequently as a prejudice. No peryou no mark of love and kindness, they mistrust son can succeed in teaching children, who posyou, suspect you of malignity and hatred, and sesses an unfortunate temperament or mental concan only face you with lowered looks and averted stitution of this kind, and such a one should seek eyes." An edition of Anselm's complete works, other employment; since all real success in pracalso containing his life, by his friend and com- tical education, depending as it does upon inpanion Eadmer, was published, in 1744, in Ve spiring the minds of pupils with love, esteem, and nice (Opera Omnia, 2 vols.).—See MEHLER, An- confidence, must be founded upon the opposite selm's Leben und Schriften ( Trib. Qurtulschrift, quality, sympathy. (See SYMPATHY.) 1826, 1827); Hasse, Anselm von Canterbury APHORISMS, Educational. The expres(2 vols., 1843–1852 ; an abridged English trans- sion of general truths in the form of aphorisms lation by TURNER, London, 1860); CH. DE RÉMU- has some advantages over more extended stateSAT, St. Anselme ile Cantorbéry (Paris, 1852). ments, particularly in their brevity, pithiness,
ANTIOCH COLLEGE, at Yellow Springs, and point. The understanding grasps them Green Co., Ohio, was incorporated in 1852. Its as the keys to practical rules, and as guides in buildings, which were erected at a cost of conduct; and the memory more readily retains $150,000, have a pleasant and healthful situa- them. It is not, however, to the uninformed, tion. This institution is designed to afford the untrained mind, that such expressions are of the means of a useful education, at small expense, to greatest use, but to those who, having already acboth sexes.
Its charter forbids the teaching of quired by experience and reflection a good store sectarian dogmas; but the instruction is given of facts and ideas upon the subject treated, are in consonance with the spirit of liberal Chris- glad to find them concentrated, as it were, in tianity. Its first president was Horace Mann these small and convenient verbal repositories. (1853–59). He was succeeded by Thomas No subject is richer in such aphorisms than Hill, D. Þ. (1859–62), George W. Hosmer, education ; and to no one will their study and D.D. (1866–72); and since then, the college has , acquisition prove more serviceable than to the been under the direction of Prof. Edward Orton practical teacher, eager to avail himself of the and Samuel C. Derby, A. M., acting presidents. treasured experience of others. In these scintilIts endowment is upward of $120,000. It has a lations of wisdom, struck out from the minds of preparatory and collegiate department; and stu- | ancient and modern sages, philosophers, and edudents are permitted to select any studies from its cators, will be found an illumination sufficient percurriculum which they are able to pursue with haps to guide the humble explorer in the field of advantage, and receive a certificate for the same, pedagogical lore, to the true path to professional after passing a satisfactory examination. In this success, as well as to the temple of speculative respect, the institution affords the advantages of and practical truth. The few here given have the best acadlemies. It has a musical institute been selected not only for their appositeness, but under the supervision of the faculty, and a li- for their value as the exponents to correct educabrary of 5000 volumes. The number of students tion and teaching. Their arrangement by topics in 1874 was about 100. The co-education of the will not only serve to divest them collectively sexes has been very successful in this institution. of their fragmentary character, but render them The annual tuition fee is $37.
easy of reference and application. In regard to the ANTIPATHY. This term, the opposite of value of aphorisms in general, Coleridge remarks: sympathy, denotes the instinctive dislike which Exclusively of the abstract sciences, the laris felt towards some persons on account of cer- gest and worthiest portion of our knowledge tain peculiarities of temperament, disposition, consists of aphorisms; and the greatest and best
The natural characteristics of dif- of men is but an aphorism." ferent persons show remarkable diversities in
I. Value of Education. Some seem to exert a kind of magnetic influence, which attracts and engages for his study than education and all that per
Man cannot propose a higher or holier object others, and by means of which they immediately tains to education.-PLATO. gain the good-will and affection of those with
Man becomes what he is principally by eduwhom they are brought into communication. cation, which pertains to the whole of life. -- PLATO. Others, on the contrary, appear to repel, as it Man becomes what he is by nature, habit, instrucwere, all who approach them, and are obliged, tion; the last two together constitute education, and therefore, to make special effort to secure the con must always accompany each other. -- ARISTOTLE. fidence and good-will of their associates. Frank There is within every mind a divine ideal, the ness and candor tend to inspire confidence; while type after which he was created, the germs of a an exhibition of reserve and shyness produces perfect person ; and it is the office of education to aversion and distrust. Shy, secretive
favor and direct these germs --KANT.
persons strive to avoid others, and are instinctively avoided.
Man is the product of his education.
HELVETIUS. They naturally produce antipathy. Ilatred is
A right-directed system of education is a moral engendered in the mind towards those
power in the mind, second only to that creating mit positive acts of injury, wrong, or crime; but energy that formed and sustains in existence its this is to be distinguished from antipathy, which material frame-work. --A. R. CRAIG.
Of all the men we meet with, nine parts out of It is the teacher's character that determines the ten are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, character of the school; not what he does so by their education. - LOCKE.
much as what he is. The maxim is a true one: Education is to inspire the love of truth, as the As is the teacher, so is the school. --J. CURRIE. supreme good, and to clarify the vision of the Teachers should observe the following rules:intellect to discern it. --H. MANN.
1. Never to correct a child in anger. Education is the one living fountain which 2. Never to deprive a child of anything must water every part of the social garden, or its without returning it. beauty withers, and fades away.-E. EVERETT. 3. Never to break a promise. II. Scope of Education.
4. Never to overlook a fault. The object of education is not external show 5. In all things, to set before the child an and splendor, but inward development. --SENECA. example worthy of imitation.-WILDERSPIN. A good education consists in giving to the body
It matters not how learned the teacher's own and the soul all the perfection of which they are mind may be, and how well replenished with susceptible. – PLATO.
ideas, and how widely soever he sees them, there Education can improve nature, but not com- is a power beyond this necessary, to produce pletely change it.-ARISTOTLE.
copies of these ideas on the minds of others. --The object of the science of education is to
A. R. CRAIG. render the mind the fittest possible instrument for
Those studies should be regarded as primary, discovering, applying, or obeying the laws under that teach young persons to know what they are which God has placed the universe. — WAYLAND. seeing, and to see what they otherwise would fail
The first principle of human culture, the to see.-J. S. BLACKIE. foundation-stone of all but false, imaginary cul Long discourses and philosophical reasonings, ture, is, that men must, before every other thing, at best, amaze and confound, but do not instruct be trained to do somewhat. Thus, and thus only, children.-LOCKE. the living force of a new man can be awakened, It is as important hor children learn, as what enkindled, and purified into victorious clear- they learn.-Dr. Mayo. ness. —CARLYLE.
A skillful master who has a child placed under The object of education ought to be to develop his care, will begin by sounding well the character in the individual all the perfection of which he is of his genius and natural parts.-QUINTILIAN. capable.-KANT.
Rules should not be set before examples. I call that education which embraces the cul
COMENIUS. ture of the whole man, with all his faculties-sub Actual intuition is better than demonstration. jecting his senses, his understanding, and his pas
COMENIUS. sions to reason and to conscience. — FELLENBERG. At first it is no great matter how much you
I call a complete and generous education that learn, but how well you learn it.--ERASMUS. which fits a man to perform justly, skillfully, Study is the bane of childhood, the aliment of magnanimously, all the offices, both private and youth, the indulgence of manhood, and the public, of peace and war.-MILTON.
restoration of age.-W. S. LANDOR. All true education is a growth; the mind is not
A teacher ought to know of every thing much a mere capacity to be filled like a granary ; it is a
more than the learner can be expected to acquire. power to be developed. --J. P. WICKERSHAM. He must know things in a masterly way, curious
The object of education is rather to form a per- ly, nicely, and in their reasons.-E. EVERETT. fect character, than to qualify for any particular The teacher should create an interest in study, station or office.-A. POTTER.
incite curiosity, promote inquiry, prompt investiThe educator should not so much form and gation, inspire self-confidence, give hints, make instill, as develop and call out.-MICHAELIS. suggestions, and tempt pupils on to try their The school is a manufactory of humanity.- strength and test their skill. ---J. P. WICKERSHAM.
There is frequently more to be learned from the III. Teacher and Pupil.
unexpected questions of a child, than from the Nature without instruction is blind; instruc- discourse of men who talk in a road, according tion without nature is faulty ; practice without to the notions they have borrowed, and the preeither of them is imperfect.-PLUTARCH.
judices of their education.---LOCKE. The fittest time for children to learn anything, From every thing noble the mind receives is when their minds are in tune, and well-dispos- seeds, which are vivified by admonition and ined to it.-LOCKE.
struction, as a light breath kindles up the spark Let the tutor make his pupil examine and in the ashes.-SENECA. thoroughly sift every thing he reads, and lodge Curiosity in children is but an appetite after nothing in his head upon simple authority and knowledge ; and, therefore, ought to be encouraged upon trust.--MONTAIGNE.
in them, not only as a sign, but as the great inLet the child learn what is appropriate for his strument nature has provided to remove that years, and not precociously what he ought to ignorance they were born with. -LOCKE. learn afterwards. -ROUSSEAU.
Clearness of ideas must be cultivated by exerTo learn is to proceed from something that is cising the intuition, and the pupil must be eduknown to the knowledge of something unknown. cated to independent activity in the use of his
COMENIUS. own understanding.--SENECA. Perverseness in the pupil is often the effect of Ideas before words ; principles before rules ; frowardness in the teacher. ---LOCKE.
the judgment before the memory; incidental inThe great skill of a teacher is to get and keep formation before systematic ; reading before the attention of his scholar ; whilst he has that, spelling; the sounds of the letters before their he is sure to advance as fast as the learner's ability names ; and, on the whole, nature before art.will carry him.-LOCKE.
A. R. CRAIG.
The school should cautiously beware of making The power of reflection, it is well known, is sacrifice to the arrogant requirements of the the last of our intellectual faculties that unfolds spirit of the age; which, when it takes a wrong itself; and, in by far the greater number of indirection, promotes nonsense, and desires to study dividuals, it never unfolds itself in any considerby steam.-Stoy.
able degree.-D. STEWART. Arouse in the child the all-powerful sense of Clearness of ideas must be cultivated by exerthe universe, and the man will raise himself above cising the intuition, and the pupil must be eduthe world ; the eternal over the changeable. – cated to independent activity in the use of his
RICHTER. own understanding.-NIEMEYER. The process of enlightening the mind should The laws which govern the growth and operanot be like lightning in the night, giving a tions of the human mind are as definite, and as strong light for a moment, but only blinding by general in their application, as those which apit, and then leaving every thing dark again ; but ply to the material universe ; and a true system like daybreak, which renders every thing gradu of education must be based upon a knowledge ally light.-J. A. FISCHER.
and application of these laws.-J. HENRY. Human perfection is the grand aim of all well Knowledge begins with perception by the directed education: the teacher should have ever senses; and this iş, by the power of conception, present with him his ideal man whose perfections impressed upon the memory. Then the underhe would realize in the children committed to standing, by an induction from these single conhis care, as the sculptor would realize the pure ceptions, forms general truths, or ideas; and forms of his imagination on the rough marble that lastly, certain knowledge arises from the result of lies unchiseled before him.-J. P. WICKERSHAM. judgments upon what is thoroughly under
stood.- COMENIUS. IV. Training and Habit.
The mind may be as much drawn into a habit Train up a child in the way he should go, and of observation and reflection from a well-directed when he is old he will not depart from it. - lesson on a pin, as from the science of astron
omy.-A. R. CRAIG. Training is developing according to an idea. During early childhood enough is done if
mental vivacity be maintained.-I. TAYLOR. No teaching or lecturing will suffice without
The conceptive faculty is the earliest developtraining or doing. -Srow.
ed, and the first to reach its maturity; it moreYou cannot by all the lecturing in the world over supplies materials and a basis for every enable a man to make a shoe.-DR. JOHNSON.
other mental operation.—I. TAYLOR. Nature develops all the human faculties by practice, and their growth depends upon their
VI. Language. exercise. - PESTALOZZI.
Things and words should be studied together, The intellect is perfected not by knowledge, but things especially, as being the object both of but by activity.--ARISTOTLE.
the understanding and of language. ---COMENIUS. The end of philosophy is not knowledge, but He who has no knowledge of things will not the energy conversant about knowledge. —ARIS- | be helped by a knowledge of words. --LUTHER. The great thing to be minded in education is, ' ciated with thought itself, that the study of lan
The signs of thought are so intimately assowhat habits you settle.—LOCKE.
Infinite good comes from good habits ; which guage, in its highest form, is the study of the must result from the common influence of exam
processes of pure intellect.-E. EVERETT. ple, intercourse, knowledge, and actual experience: equal steps. ---COMENIUS.
Speech and knowledge should proceed with morality taught by good morals. —PLATO. It is habit which gives men the real possession part of what we actually think, but only a few
We cannot express in words the thousandth of the wisdom which they have acquired, and points of the rapid stream of thought, trom the gives enduring strength in it.-PYTHAGORAS. A man is not educated until he has the ability
crests of its highest waves. -ZSCHOKKE. to summon, on an emergency, his mental powers sword of the mind; the casket in which we pre
Language is the sheath in which is kept the in vigorous exercise, to effect his proposed object.-D. WEBSTER.
serve our jewel ; the vessel in which we secure
our drink ; the store-house where we lay up our The great result of schooling is a mind with
food.-LUTHER. just vision to discern, with free force to do; the grand schoolmaster is Practice. ---CARLYLE.
Thinking is aided by language, and, to a great Habit is a power which it is not left to our op- instrument and auxiliary.-N. PORTER.
extent, is dependent upon it as its most efficient tion to call into existence or not; it is given to us to use or abuse, but we cannot prevent its
VII. Self-Eduoation. working.-J. CURRIE.
The primary principle of education is the de The mind, impressible and soft, with ease Imbibes and copies what she hears and sees,
termination of the pupil to self-activity-the doAnd through life's labyrinth holds fast the clew
ing nothing for him which he is able to do for That education gave her, false or true.-COWPER.
himself.—Sir W. HAMILTON. V. Development of the Faculties.
The peculiar importance of the education of
childhood lies in the consideration, that it preAll our knowledge originates with the senses, pares the way for the subsequent self-education proceeds thence to the understanding, and ends of manhood.-J. CURRIE. with the reason, which is subordinate to no Self-activity is the indispensable condition of higher authority in us, in working up intuitions, improvement ; and education is only educationand bringing them within the highest unity of that is, accomplishes its purposes, only by affordthought. —KANT.
ing objects and supplying materials to this spon
taneous exertion. Strictly speaking, every man No father inflicts his severest punishment, unmust educate himself.-Sir W. HAMILTON.
til he has tried all other means. -SENECA. The child learns more by his fourth year, than A principal point in education is discipline, the philosopher at any subsequent period of his which is intended to break the self-will of chillife; he learns to affix an intelligible sign to every dren, in order to the rooting out of their natural ontward object and inward emotion, by a gentle im- low tendencies.-HEGEL. pnlse imparted by his lips to the air. ---E. EVERETT. There is one, and but one fault, for which
If all the means of education which are scatter- children should be beaten ; and that is obstinacy ed over the world, and if all the philosophers and or rebellion.-LOCKE. teachers of ancient and modern times, were to be Beating is the worst, and, therefore, the last collected together, and made to bring their com means to be used in the correction of children.bined efforts to bear upon an individual, all they
LOCKE. could do would be to afford the opportunity of The shame of the whipping, and not the pain, improvement.-- DEGERANDO.
should be the greatest part of the punishment.
LOCKE. VIII. Moral Education.
No frighted water-fowl, whose plumage the The best-trained head along with a corrupt bullet of the sportsman has just grazed, dives heart, is like a temple built over a den of rob- quicker beneath the surface, than a child's spirit bers.-TEGNÉR.
darts from your eye when you have filled it with Head and heart constitute together the being the sentiment of fear.-H. Mann. of man, and he who is sound in one only is a A school can be governed only by patient, encripple. - Stoy.
lightened, Christian love, the master principle of It holds as a rule in mental as well as in moral our natures. It softens the ferocity of the savage; education, that the learner should be habituated it melts the felon in his cell. In the management to what is right before he is exercised in judging of children it is the great source of influence ; what is wrong.-J. CURRIE.
and the teacher of youth, though his mind be a If you can get into children a love of credit, store-house of knowledge, is ignorant of the first and an apprehension of shame and disgrace, you principle of his art, if he has not embraced this have put into them the true principle, which will as an elemental maxim.-E. EVERETT. constantly work, and incline them to the right. -- Angry feelings in a teacher beget angry feelings
LOCKE. in a pupil; and if they are repeated day after day, Man may be said originally to be inclined to they will at last rise to obstinacy, to obduracy all vices ; for he has desires and instincts which and incorrigibleness.-H. MANN. influence him, although his reason impels him The evil of corporal punishment is less than in an opposite direction.-KANT.
the evil of insubordination or disobedience. In my opinion, the first lesson which should
H. MANN. quicken the understanding of the young, should It is the teacher's duty to establish authority ; be intended to form their morals and their peaceably, indeed, if he may,--forcibly if he perceptions ; to teach them to know themselves, must.-”. P. PAGE. to live well and to die well.-MONTAIGNE.
There are usually easier avenues to the heart, Direct teaching on moral ideas and principles than that which is found through the integuments is an important part of instruction. -HEGEL.
of the body.-D. P. PAGE. Faith in God is the source of all wisdom and all blessings, and is nature's road to the pure may be found in Barnard's American Journal
Several collections of educational aphorisms education of man. - PESTALOZZI.
He that will have his son have a respect for him of Education (passim).-See also Wohlfarth, and his orders, must have a great reverence for his Pedagogical Treasure- Casket (Pädagogisches son. “Maxima debetur pueris reverentia." -LOCKE. Schatzkästlein, Gotha, 1857), translated in Bar
A properly conducted school is a sort of moral Nard's Journal; also the same, republished gymnasium, preparatory to the great struggle on from Barnard's Journal, entitled Educational the arena of life.-A. R. CRAIG.
Aphorisms and SuggestionsAncient and Morality is in infancy founded on the authority Modern. of the parent, acting with the support of habit and association; what he commands is law; the virtue
APPARATUS, School. The work of inof childhood is summed up in obedience. -CURRIE. struction in school is very greatly facilitated by
In man, the ideal is older than the actual. The sufficient and appropriate apparatus, such as loftly lies nearer the child than the debased. We blackboards, slates, globes, maps, charts, etc. measure time by the stars, and reckon by the This is especially required in the teaching of clock of the sun, before we do by the city clock. children in classes, as in common schools. By
RICHTER. this means, the sense of sight being addressed, Love awakens love; and a cold and heartless the impressions made are clearer and more dueducation usually produces a pupil of the same rable. Besides, the concrete is made to take the character.-J. A. FISCHER. Children should live in their paradise, as did our paratus ; and, in the first stages of education, the
place of the abstract, by the use of suitable apfirst parents, those truly first children. —Rousseau. former is almost exclusively to be employed, since
IX. Discipline and Government. abstract principles or truths are not compreCorrect thy son, and he shall give thee rest ;
hended by the young mind, except upon a suffipea, he shall give delight unto thy soul.-SOLOMOx ciently extensive basis of concrete facts. Thus,
He that spareth his rod hateth his son ; but he by means of the numeral frame, the various rudithat loveth him chasteneth him betimes.-SOLO- mental combinations of numbers are presented
to the mind of the young pupil, in connection