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school law was amended, constituting the system the petition of a majority of a township, the as it now exists.

county commissioner should sell the sixteenth School System. - The governor of the terri- section, in forty-acre tracts, to the highest bidder, tory is ex officio superintendent of public in- one-fourth of the purchase money being payable struction, and apportions the school fund among in cash, and the balance, within eight years, in the several counties, according to their respective installments. The second was, that the county school population, consisting of children be- commissioner should loan the school moneys in tween the ages of six and twenty-one years. It his hands to parties who would give satisfactory is made his duty to visit and inspect the schools notes to secure their payment with interest. The as often as once in each year. The probate practical operation of the law was as follows : A, judges of the several counties are ex officio super- B, and C purchased a sixteenth section, say Januintendents of public schools for the same. They ary Ist; A and B being security for C's notes are appointed by the governor, and hold their for deferred payments, B and C for A's notes, respective offices for two years. A tax of 35 cents and A and C for B's notes. Each party paid the on each $100 is levied in the several counties for school commissioner, say five hundred dollars, as the maintenance of schools, and a tax of 15 cents his first payment, and took his receipt. The same on $100 for the whole territory. The money is day, they each borrowed five hundred dollars divided in proportion to the school attendance from the school fund of the county, thereby virEach district may levy additional taxes by a vote tually borrowing from the school commissioner of two thirds of the district. Education is made the money to make the first payment on the compulsory; that is, parents or guardians can be lands. The notes given were made payable in compelled to send their children sixteen weeks “ lawful money of the United States”; but, after during the year to some school, when within two the secession of the state, payments were made miles of their residence, or have them instructed in confederate money, and purchasers of school at home.

lands were not slow to complete their payments Educational Condition. The schools of Ari- in that currency at par. During this period, the zona are all of a primary grade; and teachers state auditor was the chief executive school ofreceive from $100 to $125 a month, males and ficer, and made his report to the governor. The females receiving an equal salary. According to last school report, under the ancien régime, was the report of Gen. Safford, of Dec. 21st, 1875, made by William R. Miller, state auditor, to there were in the territory 2,508 children be- Governor Rector, who held office at the time of tween the ages of six and twenty-one, of whom the secession of the state. In its printed form, 598 attended public schools. The receipts for it consisted of one leaf of a book about as large the preceding year were $28,759.92, and the dis- as Webster's Spelling Book, and states that there bursements were $24.151.96.

were then but two public schools in the state. This report stated that, under the existing Evidence from other sources shows that, by the school law, the free school system had been made peculiar system of financiering described above, a success, and that ample means were afforded by by loss in confederate money and Arkansas war which every child in the territory might obtain bonds, and from the usual casualties incident to the rudiments of an education.

a state of civil war, a very large proportion of ARKANSAS. This state was originally a the sixteenth-section and other school lands of portion of the territory of Louisiana, purchased the state was squandered, without creating any from the French government in 1803. It re- considerable permanent school fund. Of that mained a part of that territory until 1812, when which was created, the sum of $8,000, the last Louisiana being admitted as a state, it became a remnant, was invested in the purchase of medipart of the Missouri territory, which was or- cines for the confederate troops ; and the mediganized in that year; and so continued till 1819, cines were lost on a steamer which was wrecked when it was organized as a separate territory. It on Brazos river, in Texas. was admitted into the Union as a state in 1836. Two provisions of the Constitution of 1868

Educational History. The constitution of related to public schools. Section I. of Article VI. 1836 contained a declaration in favor of educa- provided that “The executive department of tion to the effect that “ as knowledge and learn- this state shall consist of a governor, etc., and ing, generally diffused through the community, a superintendent of public instruction, all of are essential to the preservation of free govern- whom shall hold their several offices for a term ment," it should be the duty of the general as- of four years." Article XI. related to education, sembly to provide for the sale of lands donated and its several sections provided, (1) that the to the state by the general government for edu- general assembly should establish and maintain cational purposes, and to apply the money re a system of free schools for the gratuitous inceived therefrom, to the establishment and sup-struction of all persons between the ages of five port of schools. In accordance with this pro- and twenty-one years; (2) that the supervision vision of the constitution, the legislature passed of such schools should be intrusted to a superincertain acts prescribing the manner of disposing tendent of public instruction ; (3) that a state of the school lands, which acts are, substantially, university should be established; (4) that a still in force. Two provisions of this law are school fund should be created from the sales of worthy of special notice, on account of their dis- school lands, escheats, estrays, grants, gifts, one astrous consequences. The first was, that, upon dollar capitation tax, etc.; (5) that no part of the.

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school fund should be invested in the bonds of $45,000 of outstanding notes, to the solicitorany state, city, county, or town; (6) that the general for collection. In all, the claims of the distribution of the school fund should be limited state for school lands sold and moneys loaned, to such districts as had kept a school for at least with accrued interest, amounted to about three three months in the year for which the distribu- quarters of a million of dollars. The several tion was made; and that each child should be re- amounts of the school fund on hand at the bequired to attend school at least three years; (7) ginning and end of the period embraced in that, in every district in which the school fund Superintendent Smith's first biennial report, were should be insufficient to support a school for at as follows:least three months in the year, the general as

Oct. 1, 1868. U. S. Currency. .$ 2,691.98 sembly should provide by law for levying a tax ;

State Scrip.. 56,302.97 (8) that all lands, moneys, etc., held in the va

Total.

$58,954.95 rious counties for school purposes, should be re Oct. 1, 1870. U. S. Currency. $22,201.37 duced into the general school fund; and (9) that

State Scrip...

12,991.12 the general assembly should be empowered to

Total..

$35.192.49 raise money by taxation for building school

During this period, the school revenues were houses. In addition to these provisions, a section subject to depletion from three causes : (1) The of the article on finance, etc., made the purchase taxes on sixteenth-section lands were merged inmoney for school lands payable into the state to the general revenue of the state; (2) The treasury, and obligated the state to pay interest at " fines, penalties, and forfeitures," levied by the the rate of six per cent per annum, upon the same. various courts, were loosely handled by the col

This constitution was adopted in February, lecting officers ; (3) In many cases, the electors of 1868; and, upon the 13th day of March suc- the various school districts refused to authorize ceeding, an election for state officers was held, the levying of the local tax for school-houses ; General Powell Clayton being elected governor, and (4) by an act approved March 2d, 1869, and Hon. Thomas Smith, superintendent of public school-taxes were made payable in interest-bearinstruction. On the 2d day of April ensuing, ing certificates issued by the state treasurer. the first legislature under the new constitution Notwithstanding all these obstacles, the school met, and, in due time (July 23d), enacted the system was able to present, in 1870, considerable school law, which with certain modifications, few in number but very important in character, has progress since the preceding year, as will be seen

from the following statistics : ever since been in force in the state.

1870 1869 This law provided for the appointment of cir

180,274 176,910 cuit superintendents, one in each of the ten judi- Number of children of school age.

attending school 107,908 67,412 cial districts of the state, whose duties in their

6 schools

2,537 1,489 several circuits were analogous to those of the

“ teachers.

2,302 1,335 state superintendent, in supervising, making re

“ teachers' institutes.. ports, etc. A school trustee was appointed in Amount of money paid teachers.. $405,745 $188,397 each school district, with the same duties as those The whole number of school-houses built prior already specified. The reports of the school trus- to 1868, was 632 ; in 1869 and 1870, it was 657. tees were made annually to the circuit super- The apportionment of the state fund for 1868 intendents, who transmitted the information to -1869 was $377,919.94, and the district tax,

In addition to these evidences of the state superintendent, to be used in his bien- $215,348.79. nial report. Under many difficulties and embar- progress should be mentioned the organization of rassments, Superintendent Smith organized his the State Teachers' Association, July 22, 1869 ; department in August, 1868; and in December and the commencement of the Arkansas Journal following, the trustees of the various districts of Education, Jan. 1st, 1870. The institutions were elected. In September, 1869, a special ses for the blind and for deaf-mutes were also resion of the state board of education-composed organized during the period referred to, and of the state and circuit superintendents

handsome buildings erected for their accommoheld. At this time the only free schools existing dation. in the state were a few for persons of color, Superintendent Smith's second report, for the established by the United States, through the two years ending September 30th, 1872, presents agency of the Freedmen's Bureau. The resources striking evidence of the decadence of the newly of the school department consisted of (1) saline established school system. Many of the school lands, about 20,000 acres ; (2) seminary lands, districts had become deeply involved in debt, and about 1,000 acres; (3) si.cteenth-section lands, had levied exorbitant taxes to remove the inabout 841,000 acres. The original quantities of cumbrance; the depreciated paper was destroythese lands, which were donated by the United ing the schools and driving the best teachers from States government for common school purposes, the state ; and the circuit superintendents were were two sections, each of the first two classes, neglecting the schools. The following was the and 928,000 acres of the third class. Of the condition of the school fund : saline and seminary land funds, about $12,000 United States Currency.

.$14 510.84 5.20 Bonds.

24,186.25 in specie, war-bonds, confederate money, etc., had

State Scrip..

56,804.22 been transferred, after March 6th, 1861, to the general revenue fund of the state ; and about

Total...

$95,501.31

66

66

41

12

was

48

ARKANSAS

ARKANSAS UNIVERSITY

1872

1871

25

31

302

The amount of money distributed since Oct. Ist, transferred to the secretary of state, “until other1870, was as follows:

wise provided by law." United States Currency.

.$ 33,688.03 Elementary Instruction. — The only common State Scrip......

454, 407.76 schools in the state at present (Nov. 1875) are

those of the city of Little Rock, which were Total.

$188,095.79

opened September 13th, 1875. The sole reliance The balance on hand at the above date was of the mass of the citizens for educational advan$39,876.75, of which nearly the whole was in tages is, therefore, upon private schools, of which state scrip. The following general summary of a large number were opened at the beginning statistics shows a decrease in nearly every item of the school year. No school report has been as compared with those of 1870:

rendered since that of Superintendent Corbin, in 1873, as the necessary duties of the secretary

of state have rendered an active supervision of No, of children of school age. 134,314 196,237

attending school 32,863 69,927 the schools impossible, and the returns from the * teachers..

2,035 2,128 local officers are very imperfect. teachers' institutes.

Normal Instruction. The chief provision Amount paid teachers $353,624.90 $424,443,90 for the training of teachers in the state is the No. of school-houses erected.. 187)

normal department of the State Industrial UniAlmost the only encouraging feature of the versity. A course of two years and one of three period covered by Superintendent Smith's second years have been arranged, the former embracing report, was the opening of the Arkansas Indus- all the studies likely to be taught in any of the trial University (Jan. 22d, 1872), in the town

common schools, and the latter, those of the high of Fayetteville: Mr. Smith was succeeded in schools. Male applicants for admission are rethe office of superintendent by Joseph C. Corbin, quired to be 16 years of age, and females 14. A who entered upon the duties of his office in 1872; training school is operated in connection with and the only report which he issued was for the this school. Besides this, Quitman College, in year ending September 30th, 1873. Prior to

Van Buren county, is a normal school for the this, the general assembly passed a new revenue training of colored teachers. There is also a law, which was construed to repeal the provision state teachers' association. of the former law appropriating two mills on

Superior Instruction.—The most prominent the dollar out of the ordinary revenue of the of the higher educational institutions of the state state for school purposes. This reduced the are the Arkansas Industrial University, at amount of the semi-annual apportionment from Fayetteville (q. v.), and St. John's College, at $210,000 to $55,000, all of which was in state Little Rock (q. v.); the latter of which is under scrip, worth at the time about 35 per cent. The the control of the masonic fraternity. same legislature abolished the office of circuit

Special Instruction. — The Arkansas Deafsuperintendent, and substituted that of county Mute Institute and the Arkansas Institute for superintendent. It also limited the local tax to the Education of the Blind, both at Little Rock, a maximum of five mills; and a decision of the are the only institutions for special instruction. supreme court made even this tax payable in The former was incorporated as a state institustate scrip. The following are the principal tion in 1868. The latter, the same year, was reitems of the school statistics for the year 1873 : moved from Arkadelphia to Little Rock. The Attendance of pupils..

59,587 financial embarrassments of the state have greatNumber of teachers,

1,481 Number of school-houses.

1,035

ly impeded the progress and efficient operation Number of teachers' institutes.

of these institutions. Amount paid teachers...

. $259,747.08 Erlucational Journal, etc.— The last educational Revenue raised for school purposes... $258,456.09 journal published in the state was the Arkisas Amount of expenditures..

- $318,997.77 Journal of Education, which suspended publicaA new constitution was adopted in 1874,0f which tion in 1872 ; and the only works on the schools the following are the chief provisions in regard of the state are the three educational reports of to education :-(1) That the state shall ever the state superintendents. maintain a general, suitable, and efficient system While the present educational condition of of free schools, whereby all persons in the state, Arkansas is by no means cheering, it is not quite between the ages of six and twenty-one years, may hopeless. The decadence of the school system, receive gratuitous instruction;" (2) That no which a short time ago was so promising. is the school money or property shall be used for any result of financial, political, and social evils and other purpose ; (3) That the general assembly misfortunes that have afflicted the state from its shall provide for the support of common schools earliest history. Many of these evils, however. by a tax, not to exceed the rate of two mills on are already things of the past, of which only the the dollar, on the taxable property of the state; effects remain. Under the present administraa capitation tax of one dollar, and a local tax not tion, much has been done towards developing the to exceed five mills on the dollar ; (4) That the natural resources of the state; and there is no supervision of the schools shall be vested in “such doubt that, in a few years, its educational prosofficers as may be provided for by the general perity will be restored assembly.” Under this last provision, the duties ARKANSAS INDUSTRIAL UNIVERof superintendent of public instruction were SITY, at Fayetteville, Arkansas, was provided

26

IRMY SCHOOLS

ARNOLD

49

rooms.

for by an act of the state legislature in 1868, | of man. The work of these three great powers but was not opened until January 22., 1872. is conditioned by the bodily and spiritual developThe law regulating the institution provides for ment of the pupil

. In childhood, it is chiefly 327 beneficiaries who are entitled to four years' the power of love, represented by the mother, free tuition. The value of the grounds, build- which moulds the young mind, and instills into it ings, etc. is $180,000. The buildings will accom- the first notions of God, man, and life. The modate four hundred students, and consist of a power of necessity must curb and discipline the brick edifice five stories high, 214 feet in length, vehemence of boyhood, and teach the habit of with a depth in the wings of 122 feet, with five diligence. At last, in the age of ripe youth, love large and several small halls, and thirty class- and necessity coalesce into the spirit of freedom,

The report of the university for 1874 or self-control, which is the completion of every showed an attendance of 321 students, in its harmonious education. A few years later, Arndt various departments, under the instruction of gave an exposition of the same principles, with seven professors and three other instructors. The special reference to the education of princes, in institution includes a preparatory and a normal his work Entwurf der Erziehung und Unterdepartment, a college of engineering, and a college weisung eines Fürsten (Berlin, 1813). These of general science and literature. A college of educational works of Arndt exercised far less inagriculture and a college of natural science, with fluence upon the rising generation of Germany a school of military science, and a school of com- than his fairy tales, and especially his patriotic merce, are also provided for ; and an experimental songs, many of which are to be found in most farm for the agricultural college has been secured. German reading-books and thus have contributed The university library is as yet quite small

. very much toward shaping the German mind of Gen. Albert W. Bishop is the president of the the nineteenth century. In his autobiography, institution.

Erinnerungen aus dem äusseren Leben (LeipARMY SCHOOLS. SEE MILITARY SCHOOLS. sic, 2. ed., 1840), Arndt treats fully of his own

ARNDT, Ernst Moritz, a German patriot education. Biographies of Arndt have been and author, was born Dec. 26., 1769, at Schoritz on written by EUGEN LABES (1860), H. REHBEin and Rügen, and died Jan. 29., 1860, at Bonn. He R. Keil (1861), and D. SCHENKEL (1866).-See was appointed, in 1805, professor at the university also G. FREYTAG, in Deutsche Allgemeine Bioof Greifswalde ; but he wrote violently against graphie, art. Arndt. Napoleon and, therefore, fled, after the battle at ARNOLD, Thomas, D. D., the illustrious Jena, in 1806, to Sweden. In 1899, he returned, English teacher and historian, was born at West and henceforth took a prominent part in the na Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, in 1795. He was tional movement in Germany which led to the educated at Winchester College and Oxford wars of liberation (1813 to 1815), and the over- University, from the latter of which he obtained throw of the French rule in Germany. In 1818, a first-class degree in 1814. He attained his he was appointed professor of history at the uni- greatest fame as head-master of Rugby School, versity of Bonn ; but, in the next year he was to which position he was elected in 1828, and in retired in consequence of his liberal sentiments. which he continued till his death. In the course In 1840, he was re-instated by the new king of instruction of this school, he introduced many Frederick William IV.; and, in 1848, he was improvements; but it was the system of moral a member of the National Assembly of Frankfort, teaching and training which he established, that which attempted the reconstruction of a united gave to him and to the school their greatest distincGermany. Arndt is chiefly famous in Germany tion. He preserved among the boys the highest as one of the foremost promoters of patriotism. tone of moral and religious sentiment; and, with One of his songs, Was ist des Deutschen Vater- consummate tact, habituated them to the practice land? was long regarded as the most popular of the principles which he taught, making himnational hymn ; but was superseded in popular self both feared and loved. His chief reliance favor, during the Franco-German war, by Die was upon guiding the public opinion of the Wacht am Rhein. Some of Arndt's numerous school, as the most powerful element of control works are of a pedagogical character, the most in every community. For the practice of “fagimportant of which is Fragmente über Menschen- ging" previously in vogue in the school, he instibildung (Altona, 1805), which explains the prin- tuted a system of responsible supervision by the ciples of a rational education of man in accor- pupils of the highest class over the younger dance with the dictates of his nature. In boys, thus giving full opportunity for the active opposition to the ideas of Rousseau, he insisted exercise of those virtues which they had been that the essence of man must not be sought in taught. Rugby, however, by no means occupied the sensuous nature of the isolated individual. all his time and attention. For some time he but in his spiritual part, and in his rela- held a place in the senate of the London Unitions to parents, family, society, and his native versity, and a short time before his death, accountry, From this point of view, Ardt con- cepted the appointment of Regius Professor of tends, with Pestalozzi, that the mother should be Modern History at Oxford, where he delivered the first teacher of the child, and that her in- some introductory lectures. To this position he struction should proceed from the concrete. He intended to devote his whole energies, retiring represents love, necessity, and freedom as the from Rugby; but his plans were frustrated by three powers which co-operate in the education his sudden death, in 1842. His greatest literary

50

ARNOLD

ART-EDUCATION

ous.

age.”

work is the History of Rome, which he publish- The genius of Phidias and Praxiteles must have ed in three volumes (1838 - 1840 – 1842), owed its development to the results of many brought down to the end of the Second Punic centuries of previous culture. The Parthenon War. This work he did not live to complete.' was the noblest achievement of the loftiest genius Flis miscellaneous writings are varied and numer-, making use of the agencies and results of the

Dr. Arnold's purity and elevation of char- most complete culture and education in art. We acter, his conscientious zeal and wise efforts as a have, however, no history of that education in practical educator, his learning and literary skill, detail. Instruction in the art of design (ypaqıký) and the excellent example which he presented in was quite general at Athens and in some of the all the relations of life, entitle him to be con- other Grecian states ; and Aristotle, in his scheme sidered“ one of the brightest ornaments of his of education, attributes to it great importance as

See STANLEY, Arnold's Life and Cor- a means of cultivating the sense of the beautiful. respondence (London, 1845); also Tom Brown's The establishment of art-schools and schools of School-Days at Rugby (London and Boston, design for the masses is, however, of modern 1857).

origin, and is due to a consideration, based upon ARNOLD, Thomas Kerchever, an En- experience, of the great value of general artistic glish clergyman, was born in 1800 and died in skill in increasing the sources of national wealth. 1853. He is chiefly noted for his school man- This will be fully shown as we proceed ; but as uals for elementary instruction in Greek, Latin, immediately relevant to it we quote the followFrench, German, and some other languages. ing statement of the French imperial commisThese books have been extensively used in this sion, in its summary of the inquiry on profescountry as well as in England. They are based sional education : "Among all the branches of upon a thorough system of practical drill in all instruction which, in different degrees, from the the peculiarities of the language to be taught. highest to the lowest grade, can contribute to the Mr. Arnold also prepared a series of school technical education of either sex, drawing, in all classics, and published articles on various relig- its forms and applications, has been almost unanious and ecclesiastical questions. His manuals imously regarded as the one which it is most for classical study are based on a system similar important to make common.” Heretofore, in to that of Ollendorff.

the struggle and conflict of nations for supremaART-EDUCATION. Every complete sys- cy and power, it was believed they could depend tem of education must provide for the cult- exclusively upon armed men and heavy guns ; ure of all the varied faculties of the human but to-day the great nations of Europe rely on mind, physical and intellectual, moral and spir- industrial education, and the general culture of itual, esthetic and emotional ; and must, be the people. The World's Fair held at London, in sides, supply the means necessary for the develop- 1851, revealed plainly to England that she was ment of those practical capacities upon which far behind her great rival France in the producthe social and national progress of every civilized tion of articles requiring skilled labor and taste, people depends. Among the agencies required indeed, below all the other civilized nations exfor this purpose, art-education claims profound cept the United States. Convinced of her inferiattention. The element of beauty, which exists ority, she went vigorously to work to give general in the human mind, when made the subject of instruction in the fine and industrial arts, by progressive cultivation, and applied to the vari- establishing schools for special training, free of ous industries of social life, becomes a thing of cost, to those whom the science and art departpecuniary as well as esthetic value. The train- ment of the government had selected for arting of the hand and eye, which is obtained by masters. Art-schools were founded for instrucdrawing, is proved by experience to be of very tion in drawing, modeling, and design, in many great advantage to the operative in every branch of the large cities and towns throughout the kingof industry ; indeed, in many occupations, draw- dom. The British official report for 1872 shows ing is indispensable to success. But the value is that there were, at that time, in England 122 instill greater if to this simple training, the culture dustrial art-schools ; besides which there were of the perception and conception of forms and 194,549 children receiving instruction in drawtheir combinations is added, leading to skill in ing in the schools for the poor." Up to that designing-a branch of art of the highest value time, there had been established one well-apin very many departments of manufacturing in- pointed art-school of 190 students for every dustry. "Arteducation”, says an eminent author- 210,000 of the population ; so rapidly was inity,“ embraces all those appliances and methods struction in art as applied to industry provided of training by which the sense of form and pro- for and diffused among the industrial classes of portion is developed. It is successful when the Great Britain. But the results had, previous to this student unerringly discriminates between what is time, been already definitely shown. At the Paris ugly and what is beautiful, and expresses his Exposition of 1867, England stood in the first rank ideas of form in drawing as readily as ideas of of artistic nations, and even surpassed some of other sorts on the written page."

those who previously had carried off the highest Art culture among the ancients must have honors. This great advance made by the English been carried to the highest degree of perfection, from 1851 to 1867 alarmed the French. They saw as is obvious on an inspection of Egyptian, As- they could no longer rely on that prestige which syrian, and more especially Grecian antiquities. I had always placed them at the head; and they,

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