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NORTH CAROLINA, one of the thirteen 'mounting them. In 1836, the board was changed original states of the American Union, having so as to consist of the governor and three other an area of 50,704 sq. m., and a population, in members appointed by him biennially. In 1837, 1870, of 1,071,361, of whom 678,470 were whites, the legislature made it their duty to prepare a 391,650 colored persons, and 1,241 Indians. plan for common schools, suited to the resources

E lucational History.—The constitution of and condition of the state. In obedience to this 1776 provided that “a school or schools shall be act, the board, in 1838, submitted an exhaustive established by the legislature for the convenient report, in which, after comparing the educational instruction of youth, with such salaries to the condition of the state with that of others, and masters, paid by the public, as may enable thein of the countries in Europe most advanced in to instruct at low prices; and that all useful this respect, they proposed to divide the state learning shall be encouraged in one or more into 1,250 school districts, and to erect in each a universities.” This is believed to be the first school-house of the best materials, and according declaration made by the authorities of the state to the most approved method in regard to size, in the interest of education. Nineteen years after, plan, and location. According to the condition the state university was organized; but no action of the school fund at that time, it was estimated was taken for the establishinent of public schools that each of these schools would receive about till 1816, when the general assembly, at the in- $240 annually. With the scanty means at the stance of the governor, took measures to pro- disposal of the people, they could hope only to vide a general system of public instruction. For lay the foundation of a system, trusting to after this purpose, a committee of three was charged years to establish also schools and colleges for with the duty of devising such a system, in ac more advanced instruction. In January, 1839, cor lance with the recommendations of the gov- the legislature took positive action upon the reernor and the assembly, previously made. The port, directing that counties should be divided result of their action is best discussed under the into school-districts six miles square, and that an three following heads : (1) The establishing of election should be held in each county to ascertain schools ; (II) The mode of maintaining them; the wishes of the people in regard to the schools. (III) The mode of supervising them.

Nearly every county voted in favor of their I. The plan proposed by the committee was establishment. In all such counties, the county thorough, beginning with the establishment of court was directed to levy a tax for the building primary schools, to be followed by aca lemies of a school-house in each district, large enough which should prepare the way for admission into to accommodate at least fifty pupils. It was the university already established. In their de- also made the duty of the court to choose not liberations, they considered the organization of less than five superintendents for the county, the schools, their discipline and government, the whose duty it should be to make the division into course of studies to be pursued, the mole of in school-districts according to the plan already struction, the creation of a permanent school mentioned, and to appoint not less than three fund, and the constitution of a board for its school-committee men in each, “to assist the management. Their report was favorably con- superintendents in all matters pertaining to the sidered by the assembly, and passed to its first establishment of schools in their respective reading, but, unfortunately, went no further, districts.”—In 1840, a school law was passed owing to the difficulty of raising the money which substantially continued in force till 1865. needed to make the proposed system effective. By an act passed in 1844, county superintendNothing further was done till 1825, when a fund ents were permitted to lay out school-districts of was created for the establishment and support of such form and size, for one school each, as they “common and convenient schools for the instruc- might deem most convenient for the inhabitants tion of youth in the several counties of the state." of the county. As the money appropriated by the For this purpose, the second section of the act of state was to be divided equally among the disthat year constitutes the governor, the chief tricts, the effect was to increase greatly their justice of the supreme court, the speakers of the number. The result was, that about $250.000 senate and house of commons, and the treasurer was annually divided among the districts, the of the state, a board, “for the promotion of learn- number of which had increased to 3,000, but ing, and the instruction of youth". Under the without accomplishing the best results. name of The President and Directors of the II. There have been two principal sources for Literary Fund. they were empowered to hold the maintenance of the schools: (1) the income real and personal property, and to sell, dispose of, of permanent funds; and (2) taxes. and improve the same. In 1832, Joseph Cald (1) The Income of Permanent Funds.-In well, the president of the university, aroused the 1825, the legislature created a fund for the supattention of the state to the need of public port of schools, to consist of the dividends reschools, by the publication of a pamphlet con

ceived from stock, then held or afterwards acsisting of eleven letters which had been furnished quired by the state, in banks and works of interby him to a local paper. In these letters, he nal improvement; the liquor tax; the unexpended called attention to the progress made by the com- balance of the agricultural fund; money paid to mon schools of other states and countries, enumer- ' the state for entries of vacant lands; money deated the difficulties in the way of such progress rived from the sale of swamp lands; and such in North Carolina, and suggested means for sur sums as the legislature might, from time to time,

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appropriate. In 1837, the state received, by the i School System.--The general supervision of removal of its deposits from the United States the schools of the state is vested in a state board treasury, the sum of $1,433,757.39. This, with of education, which consists of the governor, the the exception of $300,000, was transferred to the superintendent of public instruction, the secreliterary board, to be set apart as a permanent tary of state, the treasurer, the auditor, and the fund for the maintenance of the schools

, the in- ' attorney-general. Of this board, the governor is come thence derived, with the amounts received the president, and the state superintendent, the from sources above specified, constituting the an- secretary. The immediate control of the schools nual school fund of the state. The revenue from is committed to the state superintendent, who is this source, in 1838, amounted to $100,000. In elected by the people for four years. County 1840, the permanent fund was $2,000,000, yield- commissioners are also chosen. who are charged ing an annual income of $120,000. The present with “a general supervision and control of the permanent fund amounts to $2,190,564.65. schools in their respective counties”. Their duties

(2) Taxes.- In the report made to the legis- relate chiefly to the financial management of the lature in 1838, by the literary board, the insuf- schools ; though, in other respects, they have ficiency of the income of the permanent fund considerable discretionary power. Their efficiency, for school purposes was plainly pointed out. In ! however, is impaired by the fact that their duties 1840, a tax was levied in each district sufficient are confined entirely to office business, there to build a school-house; and, in 1844, each county being no visiting of the schools on their part, as was required to levy a tax equal to one half of the in other states. In each township, a school comamount annually received from the literary fund. ' mittee of three is elected biennially. This comIn 1868, the constitution of the state directed that mittee is empowered to purchase and hold real "the general assembly, at its first session under estate and personal property, to receive any gift, this constitution, shall provide, by taxation and grant, or donation made for the use of any school otherwise, for a general and uniform system of within its jurisdiction, and to sell or transfer the public schools." The following year, the school same for school purposes. It is required to make, law provided that, in case any township should for the use of the county board, an annual census fail, at the annual meeting, to provide for schools of all children of school age, designating race and to be taught four months in the year, the school sex, of all public schools, and the number of committee should immediately forward to the children who do not attend school. It is also recounty commissioners an estimate of the neces- quired to divide the township into suitable dissary expenses; and a tax equal to the amount of tricts, and to establish separate schools for white such estimate should be levied on the township by and colored children. This committee, also, has the county commissioners at the same time that the power to employ and to dismiss teachers, and the county taxes were levied. The act of 1871—2 to regulate their salaries, subject to certain rerequired that a tax of 63 cents on the $100, and strictions as to grade. Public schools must be 20 cents special tax, should be levied; and this, maintained not less than four months each year. with 75 per cent of the state and county poll tax, The school age is from 6 to 21 years. The choice and all other public school funds, should be paid of text-books rests partly with the teachers and at the rate of 50 cents per month, for each partly with the state board; but no sectarian or pupil attending the public schools. The present political text-books are permitted. law, enacted in 1872—3, levies an annual tax of Educational Condition. — The number of 8} cents on the $100, and a special poll-tax of schools in the state, as reported in 1874, was 25 cents; and this, with 75 per cent of the state 4,020, of which 2,820 were for white, and 1.200 and county poll-tax and all other school money, for colored children. The support of the schools is distributed among the school-districts according was derived from the following sources : to the number of children of school age in each. From the state treasury. .$ 36,230.67 III. The report of the president and directors From poll-tax....

149.609.92 of the literary fund to the legislature, in 1838, Balance from previous year... 202,129.70

109.434.94 called attention to the fact that no supervision of


$496,405.23 the schools was maintained by the intelligent por

The expenditures were as follows: tion of the community, on account of their want For salaries of teachers of of pecuniary responsibility, and suggested that white schools....

$182,646.53 the portion of the literary fund due each county For salaries of teachers of colshould not be distributed till the county court For county examiners.


2,854.55 should have levied and collected twice the amount For school-houses..

22,676.46 due from the fund to the county. They recom For county treasurers' commended a thorough organization and supervision


11.802.06 of the schools. In 1852, Rev. Calvin H. Wiley


$297.594.85 was appointed superintendent of schools, and re

In addition to this amount, $12,450 was distained the position till 1865. At that time the tributed among 30 public schools from the public schools were closed for want of funds, and Peabody educational fund. remained so till 1870. successors have been The principal items of school statistics were S. S. Ashley, till 1872; Alexander McIver, till

the following:

242,768 1875; and Stephen D. Pool, the present incum- No. of children of school age, white,

colored, 127,192 Total. .....

bent (1876).





No. of children attending school, white, 119,083

Besides these, there are several institutions for colored, 56,000

the higher education of women. Of these, 6 reTotal.. : 175,083 ported, in 1874, to the U. S. Bureau of EducaNo. of teachers employed, white male, 1,495

tion, 70 instructors and 580 students. white female, 613

Scientific and Professional Instruction.-ConTotal white..

2,108 colored male,

nected with the state university, there are schools

515 colored female, 252

of natural science, including chemistry, physics, Total colored..

and engineering, and a school of agriculture, enWhole number of teachers employed..


dowed with the congressional land grant. Shaw

University has a theological department; Trinity Normal Instruction.—In the pamphlet pub- College, a theological and a law department; and lished by the president of the state university, Rutherford College, a law school. referred to above, special attention was called to

Special Instruction. The institution for the the need of qualified teachers, and a plan was instruction of the deaf and dumb, and blind, was proposed for supplying this deficiency: No im- founded at Raleigh in 1847. It had, in 1875, a mediate action, however, was taken. The report corps of 12 instructors, and 208 pupils, of whom of the president and directors of the literary 132 were deaf-mutes, and 76 were blind. Special fund, in 1838, also called attention to the subject, attention is given to music, and there is a mechanand urgently recommended the establishment of ical department, in which practical instruction normal schools for the education of teachers, and is given in several industrial branches. The eduadvised, also, the establishment of a normal de cation of colored children of this class was first partment in the state university: The Ashboro' undertaken in this institution. The Oxford OrNormal School was organized, in 1873, by the phans' Home, at Oxford, under the care of the Randolph County Educational Association, and Marion Fraternity, affords an asylum for 115 was conducted by the superintendent of the as- orphans. It is sustained by voluntary contribusociation, one month in 1873, and one in 1874. tions. There is a branch asylum at Mars Hill. In the former year, 100 teachers received in

NORTH CAROLINA, University of, at struction ; in the latter, 75. The Lexington Chapel Hill, N. C., was chartered in 1787, and Normal School was organized by the Davidson organized in 1795. Exercises were resumed, County board of education, under a special act of after a period of suspension, in Sept., 1875. It the legislature, in August, 1874, and continued comprises six colleges ; namely, of mathematics, in session 25 days, under the direction of the of literature (including the schools of Greek, chairman of the county board of examiners. In Latin, and modern languages), of philosophy this scho I, separate instruction was given to 36 (schools of metaphysics, and of history and white teachers, and 35 colored teachers. The political science), of natural science (schools of normal department of Shaw University, at Ra- chemistry, applied chemistry, and physics), of leigh, in 1874, had 3 resident instructors engineering, and of agriculture (endowed with and 60 pupils, of whom 40 were males, and the congressional land grant, and including 20 females. Besides these, teachers' institutes are

schools of natural history, chemistry, and miliheld in various parts of the state. The Williston tary tactics). Three regular courses have been Academy and Normal School, at Raleigh, also established: the classical (4 years), leading to affords special instruction to teachers. It is sup- the degree of Bachelor of Arts; the scientific ported by the American Missionary Association. (3 years), leading to the degree of Bachelor of

-The State Educational Association was estab- Science; and the course in agriculture (3 years), lished July 11., 1873.

leading to the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. Secondary Instruction. Of institutions of The university has an extensive collection of this gradle, there were reported, in 1875, to the geological and mineralogical specimens, and a U.S. Bureau of Education, 27, with 84 teachers library of about 5,000 volumes and 2,000 paniand 1,638 pupils, of whom 478 were in classical phlets; the libraries of the two literary societies studies, 201 in modern languages, 217 preparing contain about 7,000 volumes each. The cost of for a classical course in college, and 53 for a tuition is $60 a year. In 1876—7, there were scientific course. There are also preparatory de- 9 instructors and 100 students (45 classical, 31 partments in several of the colleges, which, in scientific, 7 agricultural, and 17 optional). Kemp 1875, reported 426 students.

P. Battle is (1876) the president. Superior Instruction.—The institutions which NORTHERN ILLINOIS COLLEGE, at furnish instruction of this grade are included in Fulton, Ill., was first opened, in 1861, as the Westhe following table.

tern Union College and Military Institute. In

1866, it was chartered and opened as the Illinois When Religious Soldiers' College for the education of disabled

soldiers and sailors of the state. The name was

changed in 1873, when the college was thrown Davidson College..... Dav. Coll.

open to both sexes. It is supported by tuition Rutherford College.. Excelsior

fees and the income of an endowment of about Trinity College.. Trinity

1853 M. Epis. $20,000. The college building originally cost Univ. of N. Carolina.. Chapel Hill Wake Forest College. Wake Forest

1834 Bap.

$100,000. The library consists of over 1000 volWilson College..

umes; the cabinet is well furnished with spec



found- denomina



North Carolina Coll.. Mt. Pleasant

1837 Presb.
1859 Luth.
1870 Non-sect.

1795 Non-sect.


1872 Non-sect.




imens in geology, mineralogy, and palæontology; ' departments, or colleges : (1) literature and and the laboratory has a valuable set of philo- science; (2) technology ; (3) literature and art sophical and chemical apparatus. The regular (Woman's College) ; (4) conservatory of music; tuition fees vary from $27 to $324 per year. The ! (5) college of theology (Garret Biblical Insticollege has a preparatory collegiate course, an tute); (6) law (Union College of Law of the academic course (designed especially for those University of Chicago and the Northwestern preparing themselves for teaching or business), University); (7) medicine (Chicago Medical Coland a regular graduating course of four years, lege); (8) preparatory school. Departments (6) and which seems to be similar to the courses of the (7) are located in Chicago. The university has higher female seminaries. Female students who a library of about 25,000 volumes, including complete the full course, or its equivalent, receive pamphlets, and valuable apparatus and cabinets. the degree of Mistress of Liberal Arts (M.L.A.); The value of its buildings, library, and apparatus those completing the English studies of the is $400,000 ; of other unproductive property, course, that of Mistress of English Literature $500,000; productive property, $440,000. In (M. E. L.); and male students completing the the theological department, tuition is free; in course, the degree of Bachelor of Science (B.S.). the first three departments enumerated above, In 1875—6, there were 10 instructors and 111 the cost is $45 per annum. There are six paralstudents (66 males and 45 females). The pres- lel courses of four years each, three in the colidents have been, Leander H. Potter, A. M., 1866 lege of literature and science (classical, Latin, -73; William D. F. Lummis, A. M., 1873–5; and scientific, and a course in modern lanand the Rev. Joseph W. Hubbard, A. M., the guages), and three in the college of technology present incumbent, appointed in 1875.

(a course in chemistry, a course in engineering, NORTH WESTERN CHRISTIAN UNI- and a course in natural history). The courses VERSITY, at Irvington, Ind., founded in 1853, in the Woman's College are the same as those in is under the control of the Christian denomina- the colleges of literature and science, and of techtion. It was removed from Indianapolis to its nology. In 1873–4, the number of instructors, present site, about four miles east of that city, in all the departments, was 62; and of students

, in 1875. It has a fine new building and a cam 866. The presidents of the university have been pus of 25 acres, situated in a natural grove of as follows: the Rev. Dr. Clark T. Hinman, forest trees. It is supported by the interest on 1853–6; the Rev. Dr. R. S. Foster, 1856–60; an endowment of $300,000, the tuition fees be- Prof. Henry S. Noyes (vice-president), 1860—67; ing merely nominal. The endowment property the Rev. Dr. E. (. Haven, 1869–72; and the of the institution amounts to nearly $1,000,000. Rev. Dr. Charles H. Fowler, since 1872. The university is open to all without distinction NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, at of sex, race, or color. It comprises a college of Watertown, Wis., chartered in 1864, is under literature (classical), a college of sciences, a col- the control of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod lege of the Bible (theological), and a college of of Wisconsin. It comprises a collegiate, a prebusiness, with classes preparatory to the classical paratory, and an academic department. The and scientific departments. In 1875—6, the stu- library contains about 2,000 volumes. The cost dents were as follows: college of literature, 25; | of tuition is $30 per annum. In 1874—5. there college of science, 12 ; preparatory, 48; college / were 6 instructors and 180 students: collegiate, of the Bible, 23; college of business, 44 ; total, 22; preparatory, 61 ; academic, 97. The Rer. deducting repetitions, 129. There were 11 in- i A. F. Ernst, A. M., is (1876) the president. structors. The presidents of the university have NORWAY. See SWEDEN. been as follows: John Young, LL.D., 1875—7; NORWEGIAN LUTHER COLLEGE, S. K. Hoshour, D.D., 1858–61; A. R. Benton, at Decorah, Iowa, founded in 1861, is under LL. D., 1861–8; Otis A. Burgess, D. D., LL. D., Lutheran control. It is supported by collections 1868–70 ; W. F. Black, A. M., 1870—73; and in the congregations of the Norwegian Lutheran Otis A. Burgess again, since 1873.

Synod of America. It contains 7 classes or NORTH WESTERN COLLEGE, at Na- grades, of one year each. Instruction is free, perville, III., organized in 1861, and chartered in except in the two lower classes, where, since 1865, is under the control of the Evangelical As- Sept. 1., 1876, $30 a year is paid for tuition. sociation. It admits both sexes. The productive The value of buildings, grounds, and apparatus is funds amount to $85,000; the value of its grounds, $120,000; the libraries contain about 4,000 volbuildings, and apparatus is $50,000. The in- umes. In 1875—6, there were 8 instructors stitution has a German course, an English-Ger- and 200 students, the greater part in the preman course, a commercial department, and an paratory department. The Rev. Laur Larsen art department, in addition to the usual classical has been the president from the organization of and scientific courses. In 1873–4, there were the college. 11 instructors and 405 students, including 42 of NORWICH UNIVERSITY, a military collegiate grade. The Rev. A. A. Smith, A. M., college, at Northfield, Vt., founded in 1834, is is (1876) the president.

under Protestant Episcopal control. It has a NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, at preparatory, a business, and a collegiate departEvanston, Ill., under Methodist Episcopal con- ment, with a classical and a scientific course, of trol, was chartered in 1851, organized in 1853, four years each, and a philosophical course of and opened in 1855. It consists of the following three years, leading, respectively, to the degræs




of B. A., B. S., and B. Ph. Drawing and military | cil also makes regulations for the expenditure of science are pursued throughout the three courses. the school grants, for the location, construction, The charge for tuition, board, etc., is $300 per and control of county academies, and the classiyear. In 1874—5, there were 8 instructors and fication of teachers ; appoints four provincial 49 students. The Rev. Josiah Swett, D. D., is examiners for teachers' licenses; determines ap(1876) the president.

peals from trustees, and may take such action NOTRE DAME DU LAC, University as any special exigencies require. The superof, a Roman Catholic institution at Notre Dame, intendent has, subject to the council, the superInd., was founded by the Congregation of the vision of the inspectors, the normal and the Holy Cross in 1842, and chartered in 1844. It common schools, and the county academies, also has commodious buildings finely situated. The the enforcement of the law. He inspects the libraries contain nearly 30,000 volumes. The reg- academies, and, if directed, other schools; holds ular charge for board, tuition, etc., is $300 per year. meetings and teachers' institutes ; reports on The university has a classical, a scientific, a civil school management and teachers' qualifications ; engineering, a law, and a commercial department, furnishes printed regulations and instructions to with preparatory and post-graduate courses. In school offi rs, and makes an annual report with 1875—6, there were 38 instructors and 324 stu- suggestions. The lieutenant-governor appoints dents. The Very Rev. Edward F. Sorin, the for the several districts, corresponding to the civil founder of the institution, was its president for counties, a board of seven commissioners. The twenty-two years. The Rev. Patrick J. Colovin, commissioners are required to name a day when C. S. C., is (1876) the president.

all semi-annual school returns will be received at NOTT, Eliphalet, an American educator, the inspector's office, and to endorse on each of born at Ashford, Ct., June 25., 1773; died at such returns their approval or disapproval, and Schenectady, N. Y., Jan. 29., 1866. He studied they may authorize, on the inspector's recomtheology, and was sent, as teacher and missionary, mendation, the payment of a grant to a licensed to central New York, locating himself at Cher- teacher of a poor section. The commissioners ry Valley. He was soon after called to the may settle disputes in regard to teachers' salapastorate of the Presbyterian Church in Albany, ries, and may appoint trustees in certain cases. where his sermon on the death of Hamilton They may, upon the inspector's report, declare made him celebrated. In 1804, he was chosen school premises to be unfit for use ; and in such president of Union College, at Schenectady, a case, the provincial aid to the section is withwhich position he held till his death. During held unless the necessary improvement is prothis long period, nearly 4,000 students were vided. They may cancel or suspend the license graduated. Dr. Nott's principal works are Coun- of a teacher for sufficient cause ; but in the case sels to Young Men (1810), often republished, of incapacity or negligence, they must notify the and Lectures on Temperance (1847), besides trustees and the superintendent. The inspector many addresses, discourses, and sermons. Physical is required to inspect semi-annually each school science, also, received a large share of his atten- and academy in his district, and report thereon tion, about 30 patents for inventions having been to the superintendent. He must also give such obtained by him.

information to trustees and teachers as may be NOVA SCOTIA, a British province of required, and assist in improving the methods North America, forming a part of the Dominion of school management. He must make an annual of Canada. It has an area of 21,731 sq. m.; and report to the superintendent on the 1st of Deits population, in 1871, was 387,800. It was cember, specifying the work performed and its first settled, in 1605, by the French under De results. Every section has a board of three trustMonts, at Port Royal (now Annapolis); but, ees, one elected each year, from among the qualin 1621, the country being claimed as a part ified voters at the annual meeting. If a section of Virginia, James I. granted it to Sir William fails to elect a trustee, or a trustee refuses or fails Alexander, under the title of Nova Scotia. It, to serve for twenty days, the commissioners are however, continued in the possession of France required to fill such vacancy. If a person elected until 1713, when it was formally ceded to the a trustee, refuses or fails to serve, he is liable to English by the treaty of Utrecht. The island fine of $20, which is applied to aid the erecof Cape Breton was annexed to it in 1763, and tion of school-houses. The school year consists the province of New Brunswick separated from of two terms: the winter term, from Nov. 1. to it in 1784. In 1867, it became a member of the April 30., and the summer term, from May 1. to Dominion of Canada.

Oct. 31. The school time, holidays, and vacaEducational History. The highest school tions are regulated by the council. Trustees must authority in the province, is the council of public employ a licensed teacher, and, if necessary, an instruction, composed of the members of the assistant, for not less than five months, or in a executive council

. The superintendent, who is poor section, three months in a year. No teacher also a member, and the secretary of the council can establish a school without an agreement with are appointed by the lieutenant-governor. The the section trustees. The annual grant from the council appoints an inspector for each county, provincial treasury for the public schools is upon the recommendation of the superintendent, $117.000, of which the city of Halifax receives and with his concurrence prescribes text-books, $7,500. This grant is divided according to the library books, and school-house plans. The coun- | total days' attendance of registered pupils at the

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