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common schools, the distribution for each term | fax; St. Mary's College (Roman Catholic), Halibeing made for the corresponding term of the fax; Acadia college (Baptist), Wolfville ; St. preceding year. Halifax constitutes one school Francis College (Roman Catholic), Antigonish; section, with a board of thirteen commissioners, and King's College and University (Church of who form a corporation, and of whom seven are England), Windsor. Of these, King's Colleye and appointed by the government, and six by the city Dalhousie College are the largest. The former council. The governor may appoint principals originated in a recommendation made by a comof the normal and model schools, who with the mittee of the House of Assembly, in 1787. It approval of the council, may appoint their assist was founded by an act of parliament, in 1788, ants. The general control of the normal school and received a royal charter from George III., is in the hands of the superintendent. An an- in 1802. Connected with it, is a school of civil nual grant of $600 is made to each county acad- engineering, a library of 6,000 volumes, and a emy. The normal school has but one term, museum containing fine collections in the various commencing on the first Wednesday in Novem- departments of natural history. A collegiate ber, and closing on the Friday preceding the school, which is also connected with it, prepares annual provincial examinations, in July. Before boys for the college. It had, in 1875,5 professors entering, every student must declare his or her and an endowment fund of $106,891. Dalhousie intention to teach three years in the schools of college had, in 1875, 6 professors and an endowthe province; otherwise, a fee of $20 is charged. ment fund of $99.233. There is a medical faculThe chief town of each county is entitled to a ty in connection with the college, in which, in grant for an academy, on complying with certain 1875, there were 11 professors. See MARLING, conditions. The first or highest department is Canada Educational Yearbook for 1876; open, free of charge, to all children of the county LOVELL’s Gazetteer of British North America. who are able to pass the required examination. NOVELS. See Fiction. Whenever the chief town fails to obtain the NUMBER is here considered as a branch of grant, or to maintain an efficient academy, the elementary or object instruction. Great imporcouncil reserves the right to treat with any other tance should be placed on the means by which section in the county for the establishment and children acquire their first ideas of number. proper maintenance of such academy.—The an- Since a child's knowledge of this subject begins nual examination of teachers takes place on the with counting, the first exercises for teaching it first Tuesday after July 15. All licenses are should be the counting of objects. The child valid in any part of the province until revoked may first be taught to count as far as ten by usfor cause ; but nobody under 15 years of age is ing the numeral frame (q. v.), or buttons. pencils, allowed to teach unless with the express approval the fingers, sticks, marks, or other objects. Next of the inspector. A system of evening schools he should be taught to count groups of balls, is authorized for persons over 13 years of age. buttons, sticks, or other objects, used to repreThe number of teachers, in 1874, was 686. The sent the several numbers, one, two, three, four, number of pupils enrolled during the year was five, etc. By using the groups of objects thus 93,512; and the number present, of each 100 counted as illustrations of the several numbers, registered, was, in the winter, 52.9; and in the figures may readily be taught. Let the pupil summer, 57.1. The normal school had 118 pu- count one ball on the numeral frame, one pencil, pils under instruction and training, of whom 80 one finger, one mark, and then show him the received licenses to teach. The total number of figure I to represent the number of each object
. teachers examined was 1,198, of whom 594 were Next let him count, in groups, two balls on licensed. Tie expenditure for the public schools the numeral frame, two pencils, tuo fingers, was $552,221, of which the government grant two marks, etc.; then show the figure 2 as a was $157,481; and for the normal and model symbol of the number of objects in each group. schools, $4,733, all of which expense was borne Afterward, require the pupil to count balls
, penby the government. In 1875, there were 10 cils, and other objects in groups of three, and county academies, with 43 teachers and 2,614 then show the figure 3 as the representative of pupils. There are also a number of special acad- the number counted in each group. In a similar emies, of which the Horton Collegiate School, manner, the several figures from 2 to 9 may
be with 145 pupils, and the Picton Academy, with associated, and their value learned by means of 120 pupils, in 1875, are the largest. The latter counting. In order to teach children the value institution was founded, in 1816, on the plan of of the several figures by personal experience, let a Scotch college, but without the power of con- them count in groups tico balls, or buttons, etc., ferring degrees. In addition to these academies, and observe that each group contains two ones, there is a high school at New Glasgow, founded that two is equal to one and one more, or two in 1860. The Institution for the Deaf and Dumb ones. After the pupils have counted several is almost entirely free; in 1875, it had 5 teachers kinds of objects in groups of three, lead them to and 42 students. The University of Dalhousie notice that one and one and one, or three ones, now virtually fills the place for many years oc- make three, also that two and one make three. cupied by the academy; and the latter is now Proceeding in the same manner to count in groups organized as the highest or academic grade of the four objects, let the pupils observe that four ones, schools of the town. There were, in 1875, five or two and one and one, or three and one, or to colleges : Dalhousie College and University, Hali- and two, or two times two, make four. By means
of similar exercises, the value of each number tion of it by the numeral frame; not, at least, from two to nine may be thoroughly learned by until the pupils have acquired a definite under-children. As additional exercises, or a review standing of the relation between the value of of previous lessons, let the pupils count as many single figures, and their values as dependent upon balls on the numeral frame, or hold up as many their relative positions in regard to other figures. fingers, as the given figure represents. By this The most important uses of the numeral frame means, all the figures from 1 to 9 may be learned are, to teach a class of pupils to count, and to as symbols of numbers. In subsequent lessons, illustrate the value of numbers and figures; also for teaching figures as representatives of num- to teach the first steps in adding, subtracting, bers greater than nine, let the figures be arranged multiplying, and dividing. For the first steps in in groups as follows:
the pupils add balls on the numeral First group, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 frame, by ones as far as ten. When they can do Second group, 10,11,12,13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 this readily, let them add on the blackboard a Third group, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 column composed of ls; then let them add a like
column of figures on their slates. Subsequently, and so on to 99. Requiring the pupils to count teach them to add balls on the numeral frame by as many balls, or other objects, to represent in twos; then to add a column of figure 2s on the order the numbers symbolized by each of these blackboard ; and then on their slates. When the groups, will lead them to understand the value adding of ls and 2s has thus been learned, proof the numbers that are expressed with two ceed in the same manner with threes, fours, etc. figures. This part of the instruction may be After the pupils have learned to add threes as greatly facilitated by giving the pupil several above, they may be taught by these three steps small sticks, like matches, and requiring him to to add ls and 2s in the same column; then to count and tie in bundles as many sticks as each add ls, 2s, and 3s in the same column. In this of the figures from 1 to 9 represents
. Then to manner the pupils may be taught to add readily furnish the pupil with favorable opportunities and rapidly single columns composed of such of learning, by personal observation and experi- figures as 6, 7, 8, 9. To give children an idea of ence, that each number represented by two fig- subtraction, teach them to count backward on ures in the second group is composed of one the numeral frame from ten; thus, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, bundle of ten ones, and one or more single ones 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0. Subsequently, call on a pupil to added, let him count and tie in a bundle ten hold the numeral frame, to take one ball from sticks to represent the number 10; and then tie two balls, and tell how many remain; then one ten sticks in a bundle and add to it one single ball from three balls, etc. Proceed in a similar stick to represent the number 11, and so on to 19. manner with other numbers, taking care to arTwo bundles of ten sticks each may be made for range the exercises so as to give the pupils as the number 20, and two similar bundles and a much actual practice as possible in taking balls single stick for 21; and so on to 29. In this or other objects from a larger number of obmanner, children may be taught to comprehend jects. To illustrate the first ideas of multiplicathe value of all the simple numbers to 100. The tion to a class of young pupils, arrange the balls knowledge obtained by means of the exercises on the nuineral frame in groups of tuos, threes, described above will prepare the pupils to learn etc. Place on one wire two groups of two each, readily and intelligently both the value and the and lead the pupils to perceive that they may form of writing numbers through hundreds, and say that, "two and two make four;" or that thereby to understand the principles of numera- “two twos make four"; also that “two times tion and notation. See Currie, Principles and two make four. Place on another wire Practice of Early and Infant School Education three groups of two each, and let the pupils (Edin. and Lond.); N. A. ČAlkins, New Primary observe that “two and two and two make Object Lessons (New York, 1871).
six ;" or that “three twos make six," also that NUMERAL FRAME. This simple appa-three times two are six.”. Proceed in a similar ratus has been in use for many centuries. In manner with numbers, and so arrange the exersome form or other, it is now used for teaching cises as to furnish the pupils as much individual number, in all parts of the world. It is some practice as possible. After each step has been illustimes employed to represent units, tens, hun- trated by the numeral frame, place figures on dreds, thousands, etc., in numeration. This use of the blackboard to represent what has been thus the numeral frame renders it necessary to give ar- taught. To illustrate the first ideas of division, tificial values to the balls on different wires; and arrange balls in groups of four, six, eight, ten, etc., notwithstanding that this is analogous, in order, on the different wires. Lead the pupils to see that to the arrangement of the numerical system of each of these groups can be divided into groups figures, there is danger that young children, by of twos. Then require them to divide the groups the use of it for this purpose, may become con- thus and tell how many groups of tuos can be fused between the actual numerical value of a made from four balls, six balls, eight balls, etc. ball and its several artificial values. Inasmuch Let the pupils also find how many threes there as numeration can be illustrated much more in-are in six, nine, twelve ; and how many fours in telligently by the method described under Num-eight, twelve, etc. That which is learned in each ber (q.v.), if aided by the use of the black- step may be represented by figures on the blackboard, it is not advisable to attempt an explana- | board.—(See NUMBER.)
OBERLIN, Johann Friedrich, a noted course, and select courses; (3) preparatory instruephilanthropist, and the originator of infant tion, including a classical and an English school; schools, was born in Strasbourg, Aug. 31., 1740; and (4) a conservatory of music. In 1875—6, died at Waldbach, in Alsace, June 1., 1826. He there were 33 instructors. The number of stuwas educated in his native city, was occupied as dents was as follows: theological, 51; classical and private tutor for several years, and, in 1766, be- scientific, 147; literary, 145; select, 66; classical came Protestant pastor of a district in Waldbach, schools, 250 ; English school, 379; conservatory which had been reduced to a condition of poverty of music
, 288; total, deducting repetitions, 1,216 by the devastations of the Thirty. Years' War. (648 male and 568 female). The following are His office as pastor of Waldbach, in the Ban de the names of the presidents : the Rev. Asa Mala Roche, in which district the people had been han, 1835–50; the Rev. Charles G. Finney, brought to a condition of helplessness by igno- 1851—66; and the Rev. James H. Fairchild, rance and want, enabled him to exercise the power the present incumbent, appointed in 1866. almost of a dictator; but this power he used OBJECT TEACHING, a method of instrucsolely for their good. His first measures were tion in which objects are employed by means of purely philanthropic. He introduced better which to call into systematic exercise the observmethods of cultivating the soil, caused good ing faculties of young pupils, with the threefold roads, bridges, and dwellings to be constructed, object, (1) to cultivate the senses, (2) to train the and established schools, hospitals, and various perceptive faculty, so that the mind may be new branches of manufacture. With the in- stored with clear and vivid ideas, and (3), simul. crease of material prosperity, the moral condition taneously with these, to cultivate the power of of the people was steadily advanced, till, at the expression by associating with the ideas thus close of his sixty years' labors, the population, formed appropriate language. The merit of originally 500, had increased to more than 5,000; introducing object teaching as a special method and the success which attended his efforts, led, of elementary instruction, is usually attributed in after years, to an unquestioned recognition of to Pestalozzi; but Comenius, Locke, Rousseau, his claim to a place among the world's benefact- Basedow, Rochow, and others based their systems ors.
His distinctive educational work was the of education, more or less, upon the same prin. establishment of schools, since known as infant ciple; that is, they recognized the necessity of schools, but then termed asylums, resembling the communicating ideas, or of affording to the mind crèche (q. v.). In these, he gathered together the the means to grasp ideas from objects, by actual children of his parishioners for amusement and perception, before attempting to teach the vertal instruction, while their parents were at work. expression of those ideas, and that, without such The idea of instruction seems originally to have ideas, mere "book-learning" is useless. Pestalozzi been secondary in Oberlin's mind, his first appears, however, to have had only a slight knowlthought being to occupy the children so as to edge of the works of those educationists. Inleave their parents free to carry out his plans for spired by the reading of Rousseau's Emile to the amelioration of their condition. The idea of study the phases of mental growth, he arrived instructing them, however, must have presented at the conclusion that the teaching of his day itself almost immediately; and his method, by was fundamentally wrong, from its violation of, combining these two ideas, was productive of the or inattention to, the laws of mental develophappiest results. In all his efforts, he was affec- ment. These laws he believed to be, (1) that tionately seconded by his housekeeper, Louisa the knowledge of things should precede that of Schepler. Memoirs of the life of Oberlin have words; (2) that, for the acquisition of this knowlbeen published as follows: T. Sims, Brief Memo- edge, the only effective agents, in the first stages rials of Oberlin (London, 1830); Memoirs of of mental growth, are the senses, chief of which Oberlin, with a short notice of Louisa Schepler is the eye; (3) that the first objects to be studied (London, 1838 and 1852); and a biography by by the child are those immediately surrounding H. WARE, JR. (Boston, 1845).
it, and these, only in their simplest forms and OBERLIN COLLEGE, at Oberlin, Ohio, relations; and (4) that from these objects as a was opened in 1833 as the Oberlin Collegiate In-center, the sphere of knowledge should be widstitute, and received its present title in 1850. It|ened by a gradual extension of the powers of obis under Congregational control. Both sexes have servation to more distant objects. The first inbeen admitted from the first; and, in 1835, it was struction, therefore, according to this plan, should resolved to admit colored students. It has valu- consist in concentrating the attention upon conable apparatus and cabinets, and libraries con- crete things, in such a way as to result in a taining about 14,000 volumes. The value of its thorough training of the observing faculties, so buildings, grounds, and apparatus is $170,000; that the conceptions with which the mind is the amount of its productive funds, $115,000. The stored may be as well defined, and as true to tuition fees are small. The college embraces four nature, as possible. So impressed was Pestalozzi departments: (1) theology; (2) philosophy and the with the correctness, and the supreme importance, arts, with a classical and scientific course, a literary of this method, that he declares in, Wie Gertrud
ihre Kinder lehrt (1806), that the sum of his sciences, universal history, mathematics, and arts; achievements in education is the establishment and, finally, a course of practical teaching in trial of the truth that “the culture of the outer and lessons, under the supervision of model teachers inner senses is the absolute foundation of all and the student's own associates. Among the knowledge—the first and highest principle of writers above mentioned, one of the principal instruction." The failure of the first attempts of points of controversy was in regard to the necesPestalozzi and his followers, however, in the sity of educating the senses. Many denied altopractical application of his theories, was dis-gether this necessity, and insisted that object couraging; and the faith of the progressive edu- teaching should be reserved exclusively for exercators who had accepted them as a new gospel, cises in using and understanding language. The was seriously shaken. The reason of their fail- senses, so they argued, take care of themselves, ure, however, was that their practice was in con- whenever an interest in surrounding objects is flict with the very principles which Pestalozzi awakened by the necessities of daily life; and the had enunciated as fundamental. The human common school, they said, can present but few obbody, with which they began their instructions, jects of interest on which the senses can be profis not only highly composite in its structure, and itably exercised. If, for instance, pictures of obdifficult of description in the language of the jects are presented—as is most frequently the case, child, but, by its very nearness, is rendered unfit and if these pictures are large and faithful copies for an object of study by children, their senses of the originals—which is rarely the case the being most powerfully, and, indeed, almost ex- exercise is still confined to only one sense; and clusively, turned to the observation of objects experience proves that this is insufficient to external to themselves. By attempting, there awaken a lively interest. The impression made fore, to name in detail and to describe the limbs, on the sight, therefore, is short-lived and feeble. their form, color, size, actions, and uses, the If, on the other hand, the objects themselves are new theory was exposed to the ridicule of its produced, as these are generally house utensils, enemies, and placed in serious peril. In all the or articles of school furniture, only a languid Protestant countries of Europe, however, and interest is aroused in the pupils' minds, because especially in Germany, the leaven of truth con- there is rarely any new feature to be observed tained in the principles of Pestalozzi, wrought a in objects so familiar. The incentive to any obgradual but sure reform in the old method of servation or comparison of qualities, therefore, is instruction. Attention having been turned to a utterly wanting; and any sharpening of the senses serious consideration of the new system, a num- is improbable. If, on the contrary, the exercises ber of pedagogical writers contributed, by their upon objects be carried on for the purpose of endiscussion of its principles, to give definite form to riching the child's vocabulary, and of storing his the truth of the theory, and gradually to improve mind with just and accurate conceptions, by its practice. Among these writers
, the names of causing him to connect with every word its proper Harnisch, Denzel, Dinter,Diesterweg, Grassmann, idea, all will have been done to benefit the pupil Graser, Wurst, Curtmann, Völter, and Dittes, de- that can reasonably be expected. The opponents serve mention, though scarcely any two of them of this view, however, insisted that the use of obagree as to the order in which the objects should ject teaching for the exclusive purpose of the acbe introduced, the relative importance of the quisition of language, would overthrow that purposes for which they are used, or the extent fundamental principle of the system which disto which the exercises should be carried. Object countenances mere word learning. The correct teaching became universal in the primary schools; understanding and use of language, also, they and the dignity and usefulness of the teacher thought, could be learned as well from books and were increased by the very impossibility of pre- conversation; while, if the child is made to underscribing any one method in which the principles stand, that to talk fluently and correctly of obshould be applied, thus giving special prominence jects is all that is required, and that a real knowlto the fact that the determining cause in favor edge of those objects is of no consequence, clever of one method over another was the individual talk will always be more highly valued by him ability of the teacher. Instead of one invariable than exact knowledge. According to their view, method, which might be unintelligently acquired the pupil brings with him to the primary school and mechanically applied, a variety of methods only the raw material out of which objective now presented themselves, each dependent for its knowledge and the proper use of the senses may success upon circumstances. The individuality of be developed : bis mental pictures are wanting the pupil suddenly acquired a new importance; in definiteness and in order. These must be and the teachers individuality, also, became, taken to pieces, i. e., analyzed, and recomposed, more than ever before, an essential factor in the i. e., synthetized, at the sight, hearing, or touch, successful conduct of the school. For the diffi- of real objects. If the interest of the children in cult work thus foreshadowed, a long and care- the exercise of the senses is lacking, it is the ful preparation was necessary on the part of the teacher's duty to excite it; and this should be student. The first step in this preparation was easy with young children, if the teacher's interthe observation of the educational work of some est in the subject is lively enough to communicate good teacher; then, a thorough study, in the nor- itself to them.-While the rapid progress of mal school, of the subjects of pedagogy, psychol- science and art in our day infinitely augments ogy, the history of education, the natural the mass of knowledge which it is desirable and
important for every body to learn, the increasing education, there appear astronomical, geographartificiality of our daily life tends to alienate us ical, and historical facts, which must simply be from a spontaneous exercise of our senses; and taken on trust, and committed to memory. In this deficiency must be supplied by education, to view of these things, text-books are indispenenable us to compass the amount of knowledge sable; and all attempts to teach without them are which it is desirable to acquire. The exercise of useless, and result in a waste of precious time. the senses is not only practically useful, but it is, While recognizing, therefore, the value of object in most cases, full of interest. To illustrate this, teaching in many branches, and its pre-eminent let pupils be asked to estimate by sight the length value in a few, they assert that it has its natural of a pen-holder, the dimensions of a window pane, limitations beyond which memorizing and an distances on the floor or on the ground, the adherence to the text-book are the only proper weight of objects that can be held in the hand; means to be relied upon by the teacher. At the or to distinguish shades of color, and the differ- present time, this latter view—that a combination ences in pitch or quality of musical sounds. Such of the two methods should be employed, is in the exercises are not only amusing, but useful ; while, ascendant. In Europe, especially in Germany, this on the other hand, there is abundant evidence reactionary movement is thought to be fostered that the circumstances of daily life do not, of from political and religious motives. In the United themselves, educate the senses. Thus, let a States, the demand for teachers has so far exdozen countrymen be asked the length of a cer- ceeded the supply from the normal schools, withtain way over which they often travel, and 'out a corresponding rise in salaries, that the the probability is that a dozen different answers standard of qualifications for teachers has not will be given, many of them wide of the mark. | been maintained at the height which many eduInstances might be multiplied indefinitely to cational reformers had hoped it would be. In short, show that the senses are not self-educative. Some the principles and system of Pestalozzi cannot be educators, while not objecting to any of the five said, at the present time, to be fully carried out. purposes to which object lessons may be applied; Object teaching should be begun as early as posnamely, (1) the preparation of the pupil for sible, and in the manner of the kindergarten, serious learning; (2) the sharpening of the senses, and should be followed by objective and conand the exercise of all the mental functions; ceptive teaching, which should be carried through (3) exercise in language ; (4) the acquisition of every branch of learning. The mental growth of knowledge; and (5) moral training; still have in- pupils
, however, should not be retarded by a sisted that a distinction should be made between superfluous use of this method. A safe criterion, object teaching and objective teaching; the former by which the teacher may know, at any moment, comprising exercises in which the objects are whether he has made a proper use of the object taught for themselves, i. e., for instruction in all method, may be found in the self-activity of the properties which are peculiar to them; the his pupils, their ability to grasp, in their answers latter, for the acquisition of that generalized or to his questions, the general fact, proposition. or fundamental knowledge which is common to law. The new method is justly called the derel. many widely different objects. The former, they oping method (q. v.), the pupils' minds being contended, should occupy only a part of the inade to develop themselves, the teacher only time during the first year or two, after which suggesting what they are to discover. Every it should cease; but every branch of learning pupil is, as it were, to rediscover every science in should, in turn, be treated objectively. The the genetic method (q. v.), a difficult task for the method of procedure should be, first, the presen- teacher, and apparently a circuitous way for the tation of the object. This should be analyzed by pupil. But because of its thoroughness, it is the the pupils, and immediately reconstructed, the most rapid way of learning; and its results are teacher supplying nothing but technical terms indelibly fixed in the mind. This method, also, which are supposed to be unknown to the pupils, if early begun, and consistently carried out, is but guiding them by conversation to observe,com- successful with every child, and saves precious pare, and reason correctly and in proper language, time, which, later in life, may be devoted to those to rise from the single features of the object to higher branches that lie beyond the commonits entirety, from similar features to generali- school course, but which are every year becomzations, from the concrete to the abstract, from ing, in many cases, highly desirable, and, in some, facts to laws. The opponents of this view said indispensable. The literature of object teaching that the principle was good, but did not go far is much too extensive to permit the enumeration enough. In the first place, there is a vast body here of more than a few of the principal works. of knowledge that cannot be treated objectively. Pestalozzi's complete works are now (1876) All facts, for instance, in regard to the days of undergoing. in Germany, a second revision. Diethe week, and the months, their names, number, sterweg's monthly, Rheinische Blätter, contains, in etc.; many facts in regard to time, such as the its long series, and in its continuation by Wichard number of seconds in a minute, the number of Lange, more information on this subject than minutes in an hour, etc., the names of the any other work. The latest German work of seasons, the method of telling time by the a progressive nature is Fr. Dittes's Die Methodik clock, these and many other necessary facts : der Volksschule auf geschichtlicher Grundlage cannot be objectively presented, but must be (Leipsic, 1874). In English literature, compare the learned arbitrarily; while, at a later period in works enumerated under Kindergarten. Se