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also, Krusi's · Biography of Pestalozzi (Cin., more enlightened portion of the older states. 1875); HAILMAN, History of Pedagogy (Cin., Often graduates of Yale or Harvard were teach1874); and, Outlines of Object Teaching (N. Y., ers ; but, as a rule, the teachers had little edu1867); N. A. Calkins, Primary Object Lessons cation, and the range of instruction was very (N. Y., 1873); Currie, Principles and Practice limited. In the course of time, school-districts of Early School - Education (Edin., 1857); were formed, and the small revenues from leases BARNARD, Object Teaching (N. Y., 1860). (See of school lands were applied to the payment also Color, Form, Number, and PESTALOZZI.) of teachers. Thus the schools gradually were
OBSERVING FACULTIES. See INTEL- changed from private schools to public schools LECTUAL EDUCATION, and OBJECT TEACHING. under legal control. The first general school
OHIO, one of the central states of the Amer- law was enacted in 1821. This authorized the ican Union, at first a part of the North-west division of townships into school-districts, upon Territory, was admitted into the Union as a a majority vote of the resident householders, the state in 1802, but not organized as such till appointment of these householders as schoolMarch, 1803. Its area is 39,964 sq. m.; and its committee men, the erection of school buildings, population, in 1870, was 2,665,260, of whom the employment of teachers, and the levying of 63,213 were colored persons.
taxes upon all the parents and guardians of chilEducational History:- The germ of public dren attending the schools, who were able to pay: education in Ohio is to be found in the ordinance Under this law, however, action on the part of of July 13., 1787, enacted to provide a terri- the people was not obligatory; and the attitude torial government for the region north-west of the of charity assumed by its provisions toward the Ohio river. At that time, an association of people poor man caused it to become unpopular. In of New England-chiefly soldiers of the Revolu- 1825, another general school law was passed by tion--organized as the Ohio Company of Asso- which, for the first time in the history of the ciates, was negotiating with Congress for a large state, a county tax for the support of the schools tract of land in the west. Gen. Rufus Putnam was was directed to be levied. This law provided the acknowledged leader of the inovement, and for the instruction of youth in reading, writing, the Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D., of Massachu- arithmetic, and other necessary branches of a setts, was the agent to purchase the land. The lat- common education.” It authorized the appointter was a man of broad and liberal culture; and, ment, by the court of common pleas, of examat the time the ordinance was framed, was con- iners of schools, whose duty it was to grant sulted as to its provisions. It is believed that to teachers' certificates to such applicants only as him more than to any other person are to be should pass a satisfactory examination in spelling, attributed those clauses which have made the or- reading, writing, and elementary arithmetic. In dinance so famous and useful: the prohibition of 1829, it was found necessary to supplement the slavery, and the declaration that "religion, moral- county tax by an assessment of rate-bills on all ity, and knowledge being necessary to good gov- school patrons, in order to keep the schools open ernment and to the happiness of mankind, for a reasonable period. The organization at schools and the means of education shall be for- Cincinnati, in 1831, of a college of teachers, ever encouraged.”. By the contract afterward composed of the most prominent educators of signed by Dr. Cutler and Winthrop Sargent, on Ohio and the neighboring states, led to a genthe part of the Ohio Company, and by the eral awakening on the subject of education, and Board of Treasury, Oct., 1787, it was stipulated to the need of a superintendent of common that lot or section number sixteen in each town- schools. In 1837, accordingly, the office of ship should be set apart for the maintenance of state superintendent was created ; and statistical schools, and also, that two complete townships information in regard to the schools was first should be given perpetually for the purposes of collected by the state school department created a university. Under this contract, a settlement partly for that purpose. The first annual rewas made at Marietta, April 7., 1788. This was port of the state superintendent was largely inthe first organized white settlement within the strumental in bringing about the enactment of present liinits of Ohio. Stimulated by the the school law of 1838, by which a state school example of the Ohio Company, John Cleves fund of $200,000 was created, a county tax of Symmes, of New Jersey, negotiated, in the lat- 2 mills, and local taxes for the building of schoolter part of the year 1787, for a tract of land houses were imposed, and reports from teachers lying between the two Miami rivers—the region were required. From 1840 to 1853, the secrewhich now includes Cincinnati. In connection tary of state was, e.c officio, state superintendent. with this purchase, Congress gave another town- In the latter year, a law was passed making each ship of land for a university. Congress after- township a school district, and creating a town. ward gave the sixteenth section in each township ship board of education, whose duty it was to of the state, or an area equal to this, for the sup- make an estimate, annually, of the money report of common schools. Thus one thirty-sixth quired for the schools, except for the payment part of all the land of the state was devoted to of teachers; to establish high schools in each common schools, besides the three townships for district, if deemed necessary by a majority of universities. The early schools in the state were voters—the latter to decide the amount of tax private schools. They were more numerous in to be levied for the purpose; and to levy a tax the settlements formed by immigrants from the of not more than 2 mills on the dollar, for the
payment of teachers in such schools, or for the rect any language to be taught in the schools, purpose of extending the terms of the sub-district and are required to provide instruction in Gerschools beyond the time provided for by the man when it is demanded by 75 freeholders, on state funds. Every city or village of 300 in- behalf of not less than 40 pupils who intend to habitants, also, was constituted a separate school- study both German and English. They may district. Various changes have been made in also establish evening schools for whites, and the law from that time to 1873, relating prin- separate schools for colored children, when these cipally to the amount of the school tax, and the are more than 20 in number. In most of the manner in which it should be levied. In that cities and towns, the boards of education apyear, all previous school laws were codified ; and point superintendents, as officers of the local a general law was enacted, by which the various school systems. These superintendents have a systems of local organization were made uniform. general oversight of the public schools, but are Slight amendments were made to this law during themselves subject to the control of the boards that and the following year.
of education. They visit the schools, give advice State Superintendents.—The first state super- to the teachers, and look after many matters intendent of common schools was Samuel which would otherwise require the personal atLewis, chosen by the general assembly, March tention of the board. If they are persons of 31., 1837. He held the office until his resigna- thorough culture, they elevate the literary chartion, in 1840; when it was abolished, its duties acter of the teachers and schools, and often exert being assigned to the secretary of state. Mr. a very wide influence. In some cases, the superLewis was a man of great earnestness and vigor, intendent does a limited work of personal ineloquent in his addresses, and of rare good sense. struction in the schools. A state board of examHe did a noble work for the cause of popular iners, three in number, is appointed for two education. The secretaries of state had little years by the state commissioner, to issue life time to devote to the cause of education, and certificates to teachers after strict examination. generally did little more than refer to the sub County boards of examiners are also appointed. ject in their annual reports. Samuel Galloway, The comnion-school fund of the state consists of who was elected secretary in 1844, gave the sub- the amount derived from a one-mill tax on taxject much attention; and, by his stirring adable property, and from the proceeds of the sales dresses and reports, exerted a wide influence of public lands. The lands set apart for common He held the office for six years. In 1853, the schools were for a time leased, but have now office of state superintendent was again made a nearly all been sold. The proceeds of the sales distinct one, under the title of State School of these school lands constitute “an irreducible Commissioner, such commissioner to be elected fund for the support of the common schools by the people, and to hold office for three years. of the township or other district having credit H. H. Barney was elected in the fall of 1853. for the same.” This fund yields an interest of He was succeeded by Anson Smith, who held six per cent. To this should be added rents etc. the office for two terms,—from 1856 until 1862. on unsold land, and the revenue from certain C. W. H. Cathcart succeeded him, but resigned fines and licenses. The chief support of the after holding the office nine months; and E. E. schools, however, comes from direct taxes, state White was appointed by the governor to com and district. At present, each civil township is plete the term, which expired in 1865. His succes a school district, managed by a township board sor was John A. Norris, who was re-elected for of education ; and this district is divided into a second term, but resigned in 1869 ; and W. D. sub-districts for the convenience of the inhabHenkle was appointed to fill the vacancy. He itants. The title to grounds, school buildings, was succeeded by T. W. Harvey, who continued and all other property, is vested in the township in office one term. The present commissioner, board. The local directors of the several subC. S. Smart, entered upon his duty in 1875. districts employ the teachers, purchase or lease
School System.— The principal educational school-house sites, rent school rooms, buy fuel, officer of the state is the state commissioner of and make all other provision necessary for the common schools, who is elected for three years. schools. There are, besides these, city districts His duties are the following: to prepare annually of the first class, being cities with a population a statistical report, showing the condition of of over 10,000, city districts of the second the common schools; to make such suggestions class, containing a less population, and village or recommendations to the legislature concern- districts. In these districts, the boards of eduing the schools of the state as he may deem catiou have somewhat enlarged powers. The proper; to visit annually each of the nine legal school year is 24 weeks; the school age is judicial districts of the state, “superintending from 6 to 21 years. and encouraging teachers' institutes, conferring Educational Condition. The whole number with boards of education, and other school offi- of township districts in the state, in 1875, was cers, consulting teachers, visiting schools, and 1,337; of sub-districts in townships, 10,433; of delivering lectures on topics calculated to sub- city, village, and special districts, 605; and of serve the inter of popular education. "District district divisions included in city, village, and boards of education are elected by the people. special districts, 701. The whole number of They may authorize, for school purposes, a tax school rooms was 14,868, of which 450 were not exceeding seven mills on the dollar, may di- classed as high-school rooms. The whole num
ber of school-houses was 10,695, the total value Normal School, at Hopedale, Harrison Co.; the of which, including grounds, was estimated at National Normal School, at Lebanon, Warren $8,037,446. The whole amount of school rev- Co.; the Western Reserve Normal School, at enue was as follows:
Milan, Erie Co.; the Orwell Normal School, at From interest on irreducible
Orwell, Ashtabula Co.; the Northwestern Ohio funds...
Normal School, at Ada, Hardin Co.; the Ohio From rents of school lands. 22,283.19
Central Normal School, at Worthington, FrankFrom state school tax. ..1,560,397.93 From local taxes.. ..6,153,442.63
lin Co.; and the Southern Ohio Normal School, From sale of bonds.
at Pleasantville, Fairfield Co. From fines, licenses, etc... 270,160.94
Teachers' Institutes.--The law authorizes the
teachers in each of the several counties to form Total..
an association and to hold annually an institute The expenditures were as follows:
for the purpose of mutual benefit and instrucFor teachers' salaries..... .$4,787,963.76
tion; and they are permitted to devote a week For superintendents' salaries 158,773.64 For sites and buildings...... 1,313,514.86
to attendance at the institute without any deFor fuel and contingent ex
duction from their salary as teachers. The surplus penses. 1,391,704.42
money derived from the examination fees paid
by all teachers when examined by the board of Total..
$7,651,956.68 The other important items of school statistics county, examiners, after the expenses of the
latter have been deducted, constitutes an instiare the following:
tute fund. The county commissioners may add No. of children of school age, males, 522,418
to this fund, when necessary, a limited sum by
direct appropriation. The meetings of these Total..
.1,017,726 institutes are well attended, and are generally Total enrollment: males,
conducted with spirit. Methods of teaching the females, 336,693
several branches of study, and of school manTotal..
712,129 agement, are considered and discussed. In 1875, Average daily attendance: males
there were 92 institutes held, with an aggregate feinales 209,918
attendance of 10,125 teachers, at a total expense Total..
of $18,988.—Besides these county institutes, it
435,449 No. of teachers common schools:
has been customary, in several of the cities, to males, 9,759
hold, each year, a local institute for the special females, 12,092
benefit of the teachers of the city schools, the No. of teachers in high schools:
first week of the school year being devoted to males, 427 females, 214
Secondary Instruction.-- The first graded Total.. 22,492 course of instruction was adopted in Cincinnati
Since then, high Average monthly salary, common schools, males, $47 soon after the year 1840.
females,$31 schools have gradually been introduced into the high males, $72 cities and towns. The Cincinnati Central High
females,$57 School, with a graded course, was established in Normal Instruction. There are, in Ohio, no 1847, and classes were admitted from the lower normal schools under state control. Such schools schools once each year. The schools of Clevehave been officially recommended by governors, land, Columbus, Dayton, and Portsmouth adoptschool commissioners, etc., but the state has ed, in the order named, the graded system; and never established them. To meet this want, afterward the system met with general favor some of the cities have normal and training in the larger places. These follow a graded schools as a part of their school systems; and system of instruction and generally require four there are several private independent normal years for the completion of the full course. schools. The cities in which there are depart. Pupils pass, by examination, to the high schools ments for training teachers connected with the froin the grammar schools. In this way, there public schools, are Cincinnati, Cleveland, Day- is a perfect gradation, and the pupils are taken ton, and Sandusky. The primary design of through the progressive stages until they emerge these schools is to prepare teachers for their own from the high school with an excellent education. schools. Such teachers are generally graduates Eight years are spent in the common grades and of the city high schools, or of schools of a similar four in the high school—in all twelve years. grade. The students are not only instructed in The high schools have largely displaced the oldthe general principles and methods of teaching, fashioned academies upon private foundations ; but in the special methods in vogue in the and if the high schools were good preparatory schools of their respective cities. As a general schools for the colleges, there would be no further .rule, the graduates of these normal departments need of academies in the state. Few of the high are given a preference, by the boards of educa- schools have a sufficiently thorough course of tion, in the appointment of teachers for the city classical study to fit boys for the best colleges. schools. They also receive a larger compensation Greek is often omitted altogether. Furtherthan teachers not so trained.— The private nor more, in order to obtain the classical training mal schools are the following: The McNealy furnished by the high school, it is generally neces
sary to take all the other studies of the full four | Franklin having offered $300,000 to secure it. years' course, some of which are included in the The proceeds of the land grant of 1862, which usual college course. Hence, the high schools constitute its endowment, have already reached do not, as a rule, serve as preparatory schools for the sum of $500,000. In addition to the necesthe better class of colleges, such colleges in Ohio sary buildings and apparatus, it has a farm of being obliged to organize preparatory depart- 320 acres. Its object is to supply a general and ments of their own.
scientific education rather than a professional Superior Instruction.—Three state institutions one; and to this end its provisions are ample, for higher education have been established—the consisting of well-equipped departments in all Ohio University, Miami University, and the the branches of natural science ordinarily taught, Agricultural and Mechanical College. The state supplemented by instruments, cabinets, and has never directly aided any of them, their en- laboratories. In the course of study, a union of dowments having been derived from lands the obligatory and elective systems is followed. granted by the general government.
A fixed preparatory course of 2 years is pursued, The state, under the first constitution, granted at the end of which the student is permitted to college charters quite freely; and, under the pres- enter whatever department he may choose. The ent constitution, adopted in 1851, colleges may number of instructors, in 1875, was 9; the numbe incorporated under a general law without a ber of students, 65. The Toledo University of special charter. Some of the colleges are close Arts and Trades has been recently organized for corporations, and are independent of state or ec- the purpose of affording instruction to young clesiastical control. Western Reserve, Marietta, men and women in the branches indicated by its and Oberlin, are of this class. The trustees of the name. In 1874, one professor gave instruction University of Cincinnati are appointed by the to 89 students. The institution still lacks many city council. The larger part of the colleges are requisites for thorough efficiency, owing to its under ecclesiastical supervision. Some of the very recent establishment. The Lane Theological Ohio colleges are modeled after the best institu- Seminary, at Cincinnati, was founded in 1820 by tions of the Eastern states, and are characterized the Presbyterians. It provides a 3 years course by thorough and exact scholarship.
of study. In 1874, it had 5 resident professors The following table contains an enumeration and 49 students. Instruction in theology is also of all the important institutions of this grade in given at the St. Mary's Theological Seminary the state.
(R. C.), at ('leveland; the Theological Seminary [The names of those for females exclusively are printed of St. Charles Borromeo (R. C.), at Carthagena; in Italics ; those for both sexes, in SMALL CAPS.]
the Heidelberg Theological Seminary (Reformed, When Religious at Tiffin; the Theological Seminary of the Evan
gelical Joint Synod of Ohio (Evang. Lutheran),
at Columbus; the Union Biblical Seminary Co. ANTIOCA COLLEGE.... Yellow Springs
Brethren), at Dayton; and the United Presby1856 M. Epis.
terian Theological Seminary, at Xenia. Several of Capital University.,
the secular colleges and universities of the state Cin. Wesleyan College. Cincinnati 1842 M. Epis. also have separate departments for instruction in Denison University.. Granville
1831 Bap. Farmers' College... College Hill
theology. The Ohio State and Union Law Col. Franklin College.
1825 Un. Presb. lege was founded at Cleveland, in 1856. Its aim
1864 M. Epis. Heidelberg College... Tiffin
is to give each student a thorough theoretical and Hillsboro Fem. College. Hillsboro
1839 M. Epis. practical knowledge of law, and to accomplish Hiram College.
1867 Disciples him as an extemporaneous speaker. For the latter Kenyon College.
1825 Pr. Epis. McCorkle College.... Bloomfield 1873 Ass. Presb. purpose, weekly debates are held, and law cases Marietta College.
are provided in which the actual practice of the Mt. St. Mary's of the
court room is illustrated. In 1874, the number of 1858 M. Epis.
professors of all kinds was 8. There is also a law
school connected with Wilberforce University, 1833 Cong. besides the Cincinnati Law School, formerly a de.
partment Cincinnati College, closed since 1875. Ohio Wesleyan Univ... Delaware 1814 M. Epis. Several institutions exist for the study of medicine, One Study University Scio
1859 M. Epis.
1847 U.Br.in c. the principal of which are the College of Medicine Richmond College.... Richmond
and Surgery, the Medical College of Ohio, the St. Xavier College.
Miami Medical College, the Eclectic Medical In
stitute, the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, and Urbana University... Urbana 1851 New Ch’ch the College of Pharmacy, all at Cincinnati; the Hudson
Medical College and the Homeopathic Hospital
1856 Ar. M. Epis College, at Cleveland ; and the Starling Medical Wilmington College.. Wilinington Willoughby College... Wilboughby
College and Hospital, at Columbus. There are de Wittenberg College... Springfield
partments, also, for the study of medicine in some
1850 M. Epis. of the colleges and universities.—Schools of drawProfessional and Scientific Instruction.— The ing and design exist in connection with the UniOhio Agricultural and Mechanical College was versity of Cincinnati and the Mechanics' Institute. opened, in 1873, near Columbus, the county of The number of pupils in each is from 300 to 400.
BALDWIN UNIVERSITY. Berea
New Athens German Wallace Coll. Berea
1851 R C.
1854 U. Presb.
OHIO CENTRAL COLLEGE
Special Instruction.—The institutions for the ferent publishers. In 1860, its name was changed blind, and for the deaf and dumb, located at to The Ohio Ellucational Monthly; and, in 1861, Columbus, are, strictly speaking, schools. In it passed under the control of E. E. White and Co., them are taught, in addition to the elementary Anson Smyth being the partner.
Mr. Smyth branches, all the studies of high schools, includ- retired after two years, and Mr. White continued ing Latin.
The instruction is thorough and to edit and publish it until 1875, when it was complete, and these institutions are an honor to transferred to its present proprietor, W. D. the state. There is also, at Columbus, an asylum Henkle. In 1870, Mr. White issued an edition for idiotic and imbecile youth, which in its very of the Monthly for circulation within the state, nature is a school. Of the whole number un- which was called the National Teacher. This der instruction in 1875, 253 had been taught journal has been the leading educational publicato read and write. It has been ascertained that tion in the state since the day of its establishone-third of the inmates can be so trained as to ment. In 1875, W. D. Henkle commenced the be able to support themselves.
publication of the Educational Notes and QueThe Reform Farm for Boys, located near ries, which supplies a want, and has already atLancaster, Fairfield Co., is also a school. This tained a wide circulation. was the first reformatory in the United States Teachers' Associations. In 1829, "some to adopt the "family plan” and has proved a twenty" teachers in Cincinnati organized an asremarkable success. No walls, or cells, or iron sociation for mutual benefit, called the Western bars restrain the boys. They are grouped into Literary Institute and Board of Education. families under the care of elder brothers", all They held monthly meetings and an anniversary under the general supervision of the commissioner meeting. In 1831, this institute was merged in a in charge. Kindness, and appeals to the higher new association, entitled the College of Teachers, and better nature, and to Christian principles, are having in view the elevation of the profession of the guiding and controlling forces, the object teaching. Annual meetings were held, in which being nurture rather than discipline or punish- valuable and elaborate addresses and reports inent. Of 704 boys, in 1875, only 30 attempted to were made by the more prominent teachers and escape. Many fugitives return voluntarily. Ilalf of friends of education of Cincinnati and of the each day is spent in school, and the other half in Ohio valley. In the fourteen years of its existwork upon the farm and in shops, where the boys ence, more than three hundred such addresses learn useful trades. Most of those who have been and reports were given. The first stale convendischarged have become useful meinbers of so tion for the promotion of public education was ciety. There is a similar reform school for girls, held in Columbus, January 13., 1836. Similar at White Sulphur Springs, Delaware Co., called conventions were held in 1837 and in 1838. The the Girls' Industrial Ilome. The girls are grouped Ohio State Teachers' Association was formed at into families and are well taught in the ordinary Akron, Dec. 30., 1847. This association has been branches of eclucation.—The Soldiers' and Sail- continued to the present time, and has proved a ors' Orphans' Home, located near Xenia, Greene most efficient aid in promoting the
progress of Co., is a school as well as a home. The graded popular education in the state. It meets annually, system is adopted, crowned with a high school. and is conducted with intelligence and spirit. Besides the above institutions supported by the A somewhat similar association for mutual constate, there are many of local character in which sultation was formed, in 1867, by representatives instruction is given to the young.—The Cincin- of many of the colleges, which is called the nati House of Refuge is a reform school, in which Association of Ohio Colleges. Annual meetings study and work are combined. The Cleveland are held, and the association is doing much good. House of Refuge is similar. The Industrial In addition to these state associations, there are School of Cleveland is a private enterprise, where several more local in character, such as the instruction in letters, as well as in sound moral- North-Eastern Ohio Teachers' Association, and ity, is given. There are in the state many homes the Central Ohio Teachers' Association. There for poor children, supported, in whole or in part, are also many county teachers' associations. A by towns or counties. In all these, the elementary History of Education in Ohio was published in branches are taught.
1876, as “a centennial volume", by order of the Elucational Lilerature.—Many different edu- general assembly of the state. It was accomcational journals have been published in Ohio, but panied by a volume of Historical Sketches of most were short-lived. The Ohio School Journal The Public Schools, and another of Historical was established by Dr. A. D. Lord in 1846, and Sketches of the Higher Educational Institutions. published at Columbus. In the same year, the OHIO CENTRAL COLLEGE, at Iberia, School Friend was issued by W. B. Smitħ and Co., founded in 1854, is a non-sectarian institution. of Cincinnati. These two journals were united, in It comprises an English department, especially 1850, under the joint names. The last issue was designed for those preparing to be teachers in in September, 1861. The Ohio Journal of Edu- the common schools; a preparatory department; cution was issued in January, 1852, under the and a collegiate department, with a classical and auspices of the State Teachers' Association, with a scientific course. Both sexes are adn ed. Dr. Lord as chief editor, assisted by several of The cost of tuition ranges from $18 to $24 per the leading educational men in the state. It has year. The Rev. Wm. Maclaren, D.D., is (1876) had a long succession of editors and several dif- I the president.