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ents are chosen annually by the people. They The expenditures were as follows :
are required to visit the schools at least once a For salaries of teachers...... $437,471.27
year, to hold two examinations of teachers each " sites, buildings, and fur-
year, to grant certificates, and to report to the



“ fuel and incidentals. 60,562.47 state superintendent once a year. Each district has a moderator, a clerk, a collector of taxes, a


$565,044.57 treasurer, one or three auditors, and a prudential The other chief items of school statistics are : committee, consisting of one or three voters re- Number of children of school age.

92,577 siding in the district. These are all elected an

enrolled in common schools 71,325 nually. The public money belongs to the Average daily attendance..

39,474 towns, and is by them distributed to the dis Number of teachers, males


3.448 tricts, where these exist. It is derived from lands reserved for the use of schools in the orig



Normal Instruction.-- There are three normal inal grants of the townships, from gifts to the towns, from the income derived from the United schools in the state--at Castleton, Randolph, States deposit fund, which is apportioned to the and Johnson. Their financial management, and several towns according to their population, and the employing of teachers for them, is committed from taxation. Each town using the district

to local boards of trustees. The arrangement of

system, is required to appropriate annually as public courses of study is intrusted to the respective money for the use of schools, such a sum as

boards of trustees and the superintendent of eduwould be raised by a tax of nine cents on each cation. The graduation of students is controlled dollar of the grand list of the town, increased by by a board of examiners, and the teachers emone half the income from the United States de ployed must be nominated and approved by posit fund. Towns using the town system, are

the state superintendent. The graduates from required to appropriate as public money all in these schools are licensed to teach in the state for a come for school purposes, derived from any of term of years. An annual appropriation of the sources mentioned above, except taxation; 81.500 is made by the state to each school. The and, in these towns, the selectmen may appropriate Chittenden County Teachers' Association, organfor the support of schools sums not exceed- ized in 1847, and the Vermont State Teachers' ing the amount that would be raised by a tax of Association, organized in 1848, hold annual fifty cents on a dollar of the grand list of the

meetings. town. All other moneys raised for school

Secondary and Denominational Instruction.

purposes must be voted by the towns or by the dis- - In a few of the large towns, the Roman Cathtricts. Vermont has no state school fund. Each olics have established schools for the separate edutown is required to support a school or schools, cation of their children, and movements tending the organization of which according to the town

to the same end, are said to be in progress in other or district system, is optional. The school-dis- towns. Private schools, incorporated as academies, trict being the creation of the town, is subject, grammar schools, seminaries, etc., exist in ali in every respect, to town control. The public parts of the state. The number of incorporated schools are free to the inhabitants of the towns academies, county grammar schools, and academic or districts supporting them, and ample facilities departments of graded schools is about 100. are furnished for the establishment and support The number of pupils pursuing higher studies of graded and high schools. The studies pursued was reported, in 1875, as 7,334. by law in the common schools, are reading, spell

: this grade exist in the state as follows:

Superior Instruction.— Three institutions of ing, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, geog, raphy, the history and constitution of the United States and of Vermont, and good behavior. The


Denomi. legal school age is from 5 to 20 years; the school year, 5 months or more. For children

Middlebury College..... Middlebury 1800 Cong. between the ages of 8 and 14 years, and for a

Norwich University..

1834 Pr. Epis.

University of Vermont.. Burlington 1791 Non-sect. period of 3 months, education is compulsory ; and no child of this age, who has resided a year

The Vermont Methodist Seminary and Fein the state can, without violation of the law, bemale College, at Montpelier, is the only instituemployed in any mill or factory, unless he has tion in the state exclusively devoted to the suattended a public school for 3 months during perior instruction of women. The value of its the preceding year:

property is estimated at $80,000. In 1875, it Éducational Condition. - The number of had 8 instructors and 166 students. The Uniorganized school-districts, in 1874, was 2,224;versity of Vermont also furnishes instruction to the number of fractional districts, 530; the women on the same conditions as to men. number of common schools, 2,782. The amount Professional and Scientific Instruction. The of money received during the school year ending agricultural and scientific department of the March 31., 1876, was as follows:

University of Vermont constitutes the State From local tax..


Agricultural College, established in 1865. It has permanent fund.


three regular courses.--one in theoretical and apother sources..


plied chemistry, one in civil engineering, and one Total.

$480,158.07 in metallurgy and mining engineering. There is.










also, a literary and scientific course, and a labo- preparatory classes, and four, to the collegiate. ratory course, the latter for students in the med- The scientific course requires six years. There ical department, and for teachers in academies is a commercial course of two years. The the who are required to give instruction in chemistry. ological department has a four years' course. In In 1875, the number of instructors was 7, and 1875—6, there were 17 instructors (2 theological) the number of students, 20. Instruction in sci- and 79 students (13 theological). The presidents ence is also given in the scientific department of have been as follows: (1) Patricius Eugene Norwich University, and instruction in medi- ; Moriarty, O.S.A.; (2) Jno. P. O'Dwyer, O.S.A.; cine, in the department for that purpose in the (3) Wm. Harnett, O.S.A.; (4) Ambrose A. MulUniversity of Vermont.

len, 0. S. A.; (5) Patrick A. Stanton, O. S. A.; Special Instruction.— The Home for Destitute (6) Thomas Galberry, O.S.A.; (O) the Very Rev. Children, at Burlington, was founded in 1865, Thomas C. Middleton, D.D., O.S.A., the present its origin being a small private asylum, opened incumbent (1877). at that time for seven indigent children. In VIRGINIA, the oldest of the thirteen orig. 1867, a permanent fund of nearly $50,000, was inal states of the American Union, having an raised by subscription, and, in 1875, a area of about 45,000 sq. m., and a population, building was dedicated and opened.

according to the federal census of 1870, of VERMONT, University of, at Burling- 1,225,163, of whom 712,089 were whites, and ton, Vt., was chartered in 1791, and opened in 512,841 colored persons. 1800. In 1865, the congressional land grant to Educational History,—The history of educathe state, for the support of an agricultural and tion in Virginia may be divided into periods mechanical college, was transferred to it, and it marked by the great political epochs of the state: was incorporated as the University of Vermont (1) From 1607 to 1776; (II) From 1776 to 1865; and State Agricultural College. A medical de- (III) From 1865 to the present time. partment was organized in 1809. It is supported I. From 1607 to 1776.- Among the first cares partly by endowments and partly by tuition fees of the Virginia colony was the provision for ($70 per annum in the medical and $45 in the education. As early as 1619, some provision was other departments). The university has a library made for a college, and for a free preparatory of 17,000 volumes and a valuable cabinet of school; but the massacre of 1622 destroyed natural history. In the academic department, these nascent institutions, and left education there is, besides the classical course, a literary without any organized form until the creation scientific course, embracing Latin, the modern of the College of William and Mary, in 1693. languages, and various branches of science, phys. During the first three quarters of the 16th ical, political, mental, and moral. In the agricult-century, this college served well its objects, ural and scientific department, there are courses

whilst the lower branches were taught by clergyin agriculture, in chemistry, in civil engineering, men, parents, and chance teachers. The gerils and in metallurgy and mining engineering. În of Washington College and Hampden Sidney each department, special courses may be pur- | College were planted near the close of this pesued by those not candidates for a degree. Both riod. Some abortive efforts were made to edusexes are admitted to the academic and scien cate Indians and negroes. tific departments. In 1875——6, there were 21 in II. From 1776 to 1865.— The education of structors (12 in the medical department) and 168 the people was an object of solicitude with the students (76 medical). The presidents of the Virginia legislature, even during the Revolutionuniversity have been as follows: the Rev. Daniel ary war, as was evinced by the report of an able Clarke Sanders, D.D., 1800—14; the Rev. Sam- committee, with Mr. Jefferson at its head, in uel Austin, D. D., 1815—21; the Rev. Daniel favor of a scheme of public instruction. The Haskel, A. M., 1821–4; the Rev. Willard Pres- plan reported was finally adopted in 1796, with, ton, D. D., 1825–6; the Rev. James Marsh, however, an important modification, which, by D.D., 1826–33 ; the Rev. John Wheeler, D. D., changing it from a mandatory state system to an 1833—49; the Rev. Worthington Smith, D. D., optional county system, occasioned its failure. 1849—55 ; the Rev. Calvin Pease, D. D., 1855 The next public movement was the creation of a

-61 ; the Rev. Joseph Torrey, D. D., 1862–6; literary fund in 1810, the interest of which was James Burrill Angell

, LL.D., 1866–71 ; and at first devoted exclusively to the education of Matthew Henry Buckham, A. M., since 1871. the poor. This fund grew by the addition of

VILLANOVA, Augustinian College of fines, forfeitures, and escheats, until, by the end St. Thomas of, commonly called Villanova of the period, it amounted to two millions of College, at Villanova, Delaware Co., Pa., was dollars, and yielded an annual revenue of about founded in 1842, and chartered in 1818. It is a $100,000, of which $80,000 was apportioned Roman Catholic institution, conducted by Her- among the counties for paying the tuition of mits of the Order of St. Augustine. It is supported the poor children, chiefly in private schools

, by the fees of students, the regular charge for and the remainder was ultimately given to tuition, board, etc. being $150 per session of the State University and the Military Institute. five months. The libraries contain 8,000 vol. 1 —School commissioners were appointed in every

In the classical department, the studies county, to determine what children were entitled necessary for graduation embrace a period of to the benefit of the public inoney, and to pay seven years, three of which are devoted to the their tuition fees at a certain fixed rate, which


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varied at different times from 4 to 8 cents a day. I that of 1860. By this time, however, about oneMultitudes of children-sometimes more than sixth of the pupils were colored, owing to the 30,000 in one year—were thus sent to school, establishment of colored schools by northern sowho otherwise would have had no opportunity cieties and by the Freedmen's Bureau. Increased of receiving the simplest elements of education. poverty and the failure of revenue from the But badly qualified teachers were often em- Literary Fund occasioned the falling off of atployed, the poor experienced a feeling of humil- tendance among the whites.—In 1869, the new iation, ignorance was but slightly diminished, state constitution prepared by the convention of and the working of the system was so unsatis- 1867—8, assembled under the Congressional factory that, every few years, efforts were made Reconstruction Acts, became the organic law of to provide something better. In 1829, an act the state. This constitution provided for a was passed by the legislature, looking to a com- system of public free schools to be supported by bination of private and public means for the taxation, state and local, and by the interest maintenance of schools free to all. To this end, derived from the Literary Fund. The system the school commissioners in any county were was to be administered impartially as between authorized to district the county, and to offer to the races, and to be in full operation by 1876. contribute two-fifths toward the cost of the The first legislature which met after the adopbuilding of a school-house in each district, and tion of the constitution promptly took up the one hundred dollars towards maintaining a subject, chose a state superintendent of public teacher, if the people would do the rest by vol- instruction, and, on the 11th of July, 1870, untary contribution. In a few counties, the ex- passed a complete school law, embodying a periment was tried vigorously, but not with thorough and effective public free-school system, much success anywhere.—Soon after the census which was imniediately put into successful operof 1840 had revealed, for the first time, the large ation, and has grown steadily in strength and proportion of illiteracy existing among the , usefulness.—Before the establishment of the whites, a strong and well-nigh successful move public school system in Virginia, we ascertain, ment was made to establish a state system of from the census of 1860 and other sources, that public free schools; but, in passing through the there were about 67,000 children attending school legislature, the scheme was marred, as Jefferson's in the present limits of Virginia, of whom 31,500 had been before it, by giving it the shape of sim- were pauper children, whose instruction was paid ply authorizing any county to adopt a free for out of a portion of the interest of the Literschool system for itself. This act was passed in ary Fund. The entire amount expended on 1846, and nine counties by popular vote adopted these pauper children was $80,000, so that the the system; but, owing to defects, it was not instruction received was very rudimentary. There satisfactory anywhere. The "Pauper Systein” has been no great change in the aggregate of still prevailed until the revenues of the Literary population of the counties now constituting VirFund were applied to the military defense of the ginia since 1850. It may, therefore, be instructive state.—Unsatisfactory as was the condition of to observe the school attendance in all schools, primary education during this period, the higher public and private, at different periods: branches, on the other hand, were studied by an In 1850.

.51,808 (U. 8. Census) unusually large proportion of the Virginian

.67,024 youth. Many young men sought a liberal edu


.58,974 cation at Harvard and Yale, and especially at


.207,771 (Va. School Returns) Princeton college, while some crossed the ocean. Of these, the colored pupils were about 10,000 William and Mary, Hampden Sidney, and in 1870, and 58,760 in 1875.Washington colleges supplied the means of ad Almost immediately on the establishment of vanced education in the state previous to the the public-school system, in 1870, the number opening of the State University, in 1825. Sub- of pupils attending the public schools alone was sequently were added Randolph Macon, Emory more than twice as great as the total number and Henry, Richmond, and Roanoke colleges – which had, at any time previous, been found in of which a more particular account is given else- , schools of all sorts; and, besides this, there were where. A constantly increasing number of sec over 20,000 children attending the private schools. ondary schools existed in the state, and some While, in 1870, according to the U. S. census, of them were conducted by highly educated' taken for 1869–70, the number of pupils enrolled men. In 1838, an institution was founded by in schools of all sorts was 58,974; in 1870–71, the state for the instruction and maintenance of the total number was 157,841, or an increase of the deaf and dumb and the blind, and was en- nearly 100,000 in one year. The enrollment of dowed with an annuity of $35,000. The only whites was more than doubled, while the colored special provision for female education consisted pupils increased fourfold. Excepting one year, of private and denominational academies. there was a gain in the public schools every year,

III. From 1865 to 1875.— At the close of for the first five years, in the attendance of both the civil war, in 1865, schools of all grades were | white and colored pupils. The number of whites prostrate within the territory remaining to Vir- increased from 89,734, in 1871, 129,545, in ginia; but immediate efforts were made to revive 1875 ; that of the colored pupils, from 38,554, them, and the census showed that the general in 1871, to 54,941, in 1875.--About $25,000, school attendance in 1870 was not greatly below more or less has been annually distributed in the




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state from the Peabody fund. The object and branches, reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, conditions of distribution are the same in Vir- grammar, and geography, are required to be ginia as in the other Southern States. The money taught in all the public schools, and other branches has been exceedingly useful, far more than would are allowed in the rural districts under restrichave been the same amount forming part of the tions. The law imposes no restriction on studies ordinary local funds. There has been but one or the general management in the larger cities, state superintendent in Virginia, William the subject being regulated by the city school H. Ruffner, LL. D., elected in 1870, and still in boards. The schools are free to all children beoffice (1877).

tween 5 and 21 years of age, residing in the disSchool System.The system is administered trict, without charge for tuition, except that a by a state board of education, a superintend monthly charge of $2.50 may be made for the ent of public instruction, county and city higher branches, which are taught, under presuperintendents of schools, and district trustees. scribed regulations, in some of the schools. Equal The board of education consists of the gove educational privileges are secured by law to white ernor, the superintendent of public instruction, and colored children, but they must be taught and the attorney-general. It controls the state in separate schools. The minimum school term school fund, appoints and removes county and is 5 months, and 15 is the minimum number of city superintendents, and also district trustees, pupils prescribed to constitute a school. Schoolthe latter absolutely, and the former subject houses are provided and furnished at the expense to confirmation by the senate. The city school of the district. School funds are derived from the trustees are appointed by the city councils, but state, the county, and the district. The state funds are removable by the state board. There are no embrace the interest on the Literary Fund, a popular votes in reference to either school offi- capitation tax of one dollar on every niale citizen, cers or taxation. The state board is the final and a tax of one mill on every dollar's worth tribunal for the decision of all appeals from the of property in the state. Out of the state funds action of the state superintendent. It is also ' are paid the expenses of the central office, and a charged with regulating uniformity of text- portion of the salaries of the county and city books, and all other matters of detail not ex- superintendents; the rest is apportioned among pressly provided for by the law. The super- the counties and cities to be used exclusively for intendent of public instruction is elected by the the payment of teachers, except that the county legislature for four years, and receives a salary superintendent's salary may be supplemented of $2,000, and $500 additional for traveling ex from this source in an amount not exceeding penses. He is provided with an office in the that received from the state. District funds state capitol, and has two clerks. He is the chief (where they do not exceed a property levy of 5 executive officer of the school system. His duties cents on the $100) are used exclusively for schoolare to see to the enforcement of the school laws houses, furniture, incidental expenses, and for and regulations, and to promote an educational buying books for indigent children. Local funds spirit among the people, to interpret the school are raised by the supervisors on the presentation laws, to decide appeals from the action of the of estimates from the school boards, but the county superintendents, to instruct and super- estimates may be cut down by the supervisors. vise the school officers, to provide blanks, to ap- Cities having more than 10,000 inhabitants are portion state school funds, to make tours of in- allowed to manage their own school affairs in spection, to require reports of local officers, and most respects. to make an annual report, which goes to the Educational Condition. -The whole number legislature through the board of education, and of school-districts in the state is 458; of public is printed at state expense. County and city schools, 4,185. The graded system has been superintendents are appointed for four years' ; adopted in all the cities and towns, and in many their pay is graduated according to population thickly-settled country places ; so that, in 1873, and number of schools, but outside of the cities there were 155 of such organizations, each harno superintendent can receive more than $700 ing from 2 to 13 teachers. Some of the bigher a year, to be drawn equally from state and coun- branches are usually taught in the upper grades. ty funds. They are charged with the usual The schools are, with some exceptions, for both duties of such officers in the most approved sexes. school systems. There are three district school The most important school statistics (for 1875) trustees in each magisterial district (which cor are the following: responds to the township in other states). Besides the district boards, there is a county

Whole number of pupils enrolled


in average attendance. 103,927 school board, composed of all the district trustees, Percentage of school population enrolled.. with the county superintendent as president. No. of teachers in public schools.

4,262 The county board annually examines the records Average number of months schools were taught 5.59 and vouchers of the district boards, and furnishes Entire expenditure for public education.

Value of public-school property...


.$1,021,336 to the supervisors of the county estimates for Average monthly salary of teachers.. $30.48 the amounts wanted for school purposes. Teach- : Whole no. of pupils in public and private schools 207,771 ers are examined and licensed by the county


5,581 superintendent, and appointed by the district Normal Instruction.—Legal provision has not boards under written contracts. The six primary yet been made for normal instruction. There


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found denomi

ed nation

1838 M. E. S. 1775 Presb. 1832 M. E. 8.


1853 Luth, 1819 Non sect. 1749 Non-sect. 1693 Non-sect.

are three colored normal schools supported by! Superior Instruction. The important instiforeign means; and normal courses are supplied tutions of this grade are enumerated in the folby some of the colleges. This is the case in lowing table : Roanoke College, at Salem, and (for females) in

When Religious Hollin's Institute, and Marion Female College.

Location The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute is accomplishing an important work in the Emory & Henry Coll.. Emory education of colored teachers. In 1875, it had Hampden Sidney Coll. Hamp. Sidney 18 instructors and 243 students. Teachers' in- Randolph Macon Coll. Ashland stitutes are held in most of the counties of the Roanoke College

Richmond College... Richmond 1841 Baptist state ; and the larger of these receive assistance University of Virginia Charlottesville from the Peabody fund.

Washington & Lee Un. Lexington

William & Mary Coll.. I Williamsburg Secondary Instruction. — Three cities have

For further information in regard to these institupublic high schools. separated from the lower tions, see under their respective titles.) grades, and organized somewhat differently. But, i There were 9 institutions for the superior incommonly the higher branches form a mere con- struction of women that reported to the United tinuation of the lower, and are somewhat inter- States Bureau of Education in 1875, as follows: woven with them; and, as a means of supple- Albemarle Female Institute (non-sectarian), at menting the public funds, a law, passed in 1874, Charlottesville; Farmville College (Meth. Epis. allows å tuition fee to be charged of $2.50 per S.), at Farmville; Hollins Institute (Baptist). at month, which is the only fee allowed in con- Botetourt Springs; Marion Female Institute nection with the public-school system. Efforts are making to define the limits of secondary Washington College (Meth. Epis.), at Abingdon;

(Evangelical Lutheran), at Marion; Martha education, both public and private.

Petersburg Female College Methodist), at PePrivate ad Corporate Schools.— Taking all tersburg; Southern Female College (non-secgrades of education, about 25,000, or less than tarian), at Petersburg; Virginia Female Institute one-eighth of the school-going population, are (non-sectarian), at Staunton; and Wesleyan now educated outside of the state schools. The Female Institute (Meth. Epis. S.), at Staunton. number of private schools (exclusively primary) Most of these institutions are authorized to is about 650. They are chiefly alphabet schools, confer degrees. or those intended for children of from five to

Professional and Scientific Instruction. The ten years of age. There are also from 160 to 175 institutions which afford instruction in science, private schools, called academies or classical theology, law, and medicine, are enumerated schools, nearly every one of which has a primary below: department in which a majority of the pupils are

SCHOOLS OF SCIENCE. found. A few schools (including some orphan asylums) are supported by church contributions, the most of which are Catholic or Episcopal. A large proportion of the academies, particularly those for girls, are under some special denominational influence. Superior teachers are often

Hampton Normal and Agrifound in these schools, both for females and for

Hampton males. Female incorporated academies are New Market Polytechnic Inmore numerous, and generally better provided Virginia Agricultural and for than those for males, and some of them are Mechanical College.... Blacksburg 1872

1839 18 called colleges. But as respects college education Virginia Military Institute. Lexington proper, there has been no provision made for The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Ingirls from either private or public means, to be stitute is a manual labor school, and a reproduccompared with that made for boys. The higher tion of the Lahainaluna School in the Sandbranches are taught, to a greater or less extent, wich Islands. It is intended for colored stuin about seventy female schools, twenty of dents of both sexes. The boys are taught which are incorporated. There are about sixty (besides the ordinary elementary and academic private male schools for secondary instruction, branches) farm work and carpenter work, and only six of which are incorporated. Some of the the girls, sewing and domestic work. It was corporate academies have small endowments, but established by northern people, in conjunction the great majority of the schools are wholly de- with the Freedmen's Bureau, and has received pendent on tuition fees and board bills. Besides probably $500,000 from sources beyond the the academies for one or the other sex, there are state. The Virginia Agricultural and Mechanabout 40 in which girls and boys are taught to- ical College was opened in 1872, and is supgether. There is a very small number of elee- ported almost exclusively by the proceeds mosynary boarding-schools, supported by the an- of two-thirds of the land scrip donated by nual interest of funds given by benevolent indi- Congress, the other third having been asviduals. The number of pupils in private signed to the colored school at Hampton-the schools, both primary and secondary, in 1875, entire proceeds of the scrip, amounting to was 23,285, of whom 19,466 were white, and about $30,000. The state legislature has given 3,819, colored children.

$45,000 for buildings, and $20,000 was paid by




No. of

No. of students

cultural Institute..

1870/ 20



New Market 1870



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