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Richmond Institute. . Richmond
the county where it is located (Montgomery). \ is very complete, and, in some respects, its facilThe scheme of the college fixes it at about the ities for this purpose are unequalled. grade of a high school, with special scientific Special Instruction.—The Institution for the and practical developments. It has a three Education of the Deaf and Dumb, and the years' curriculum, bifurcating after the first year Blind, was opened in 1838, at Staunton. Ininto a special agricultural and a special mechan- 'struction is given in the elementary branches of ical course, each of two years. The Virginia an English education, and in several trailes and Military Institute was opened at Lexington, in mechanical pursuits. There were 7 instructors 1839, on a plan similar to that of West Point, and 100 pupils in the deaf-mute department, in and at once became popular. The annuity, 1875 ; and in the department for the blind. 8 originally $6,000, was subsequently increased to instructors and einployés, and 42 pupils. The $15,000; and the number of cadets, before the Miller Manual Labor school had not been war was about 250 (50 of them being state opened up to the summer of 1876 ; but it has cadets). The buildings were burned in 1864; an endowment of $1,000,000 left for its foundabut since the war they have been restored, and tion by the will of Samuel Miller, of Lynchthe institution has been more flourishing than burg, who died in 1869, leaving also the sum of
The academic staff consists of 11 profess- $300,000 for founding and maintaining an ors and 9 assistants, the course of study, which orphan asylum at Lynchburg, and $100,000 to is chiefly of a military and scientific character, the University of Virginia for an agricultural being arranged for four years. Instruction in department. The Manual Labor School, in the industrial chemistry, civil and mining engineer- county of Albemarle, is for the benefit of the ing, and agriculture, is also given in special de poor orphan white children of that county. partments of the University of Virginia, and in Educational Literature.— The Educational civil and mining engineering in Washington and Journal (monthly) is published jointly by the Lee University.
state association of teachers and the superinSCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY.
tendent of public instruction, 12 pages of which
are official, and paid for out of the school funds. When Religious
A copy of the journal is sent to each county superintendent, and also to the clerk of each
district school board. 1868 Baptist VIRGINIA, University of, in Albemarle
Co., Va., a mile and a half west of Charlottes
ville, was chartered in 1819 and opened in 1824. Prot. Epis. Church. Fairfax Co. 1823 Pr. Epis.
It owes its organization, plan of government, and
system of instruction to Thomas Jefferson. It is the Gen. Assembly. Hampden Sidney | 1824 (Presb.
partly supported by an annual state appropriThe Richmond Institute was established for ation of $30,000, and partly by tuition fees. In the purpose of preparing colored young men for consideration of the appropriation, the university the ministry, or for teaching. The qualifications receives, free of tuition in the academic schools
, for admission are a good moral character and fair students from the state over 18 years of age who intellectual ability. The number of instructors, have a suitable preparation. The tuition fees are in 1875, was 3; the number of students, 45. ordinarily from $75 to $110 per year. The uniThe Theological Seminary of the Evangelical versity library contains 36,000 volumes. AppliLutheran Church, in 1875, had 3 instructors cants for admission must be at least 16 years of and 11 students; the Theological Seminary of age. In establishing the university of Virginia the Protestant Episcopal Church, during the Mr. Jefferson, for the first time in America, same year, had 5 instructors and 51 students; and threw open the doors of a University, in the true the Union Theological Seminary of the Pres- sense of the name, providing, as amply as the byterian General Assembly, 4 instructors and 74 available means would permit, for thorough instudents.- Law is taught in the Law School of struction in independent schools, in all the chief the University of Virginia, and the School of branches of learning. Every student may select Law and Equity of Washington and Lee Uni- the schools he will attend, but in the academic versity. In the former, the number of instruct- department he is required, as a rule, to attend at ors, in 1875, was 2; the number of students, 93; least three. The professors are paid in part by in the latter, 2 instructors and 17 students. salaries, and in part by tuition fees from puThe Medical College of Virginia, at Richmond, pils who attend their several schools. The is the only medical school in the state not con- schools in operation are as follows: 1, Latin ; nected with a college or university, It was 2, Greek; 3, modern languages; 4, moral philosfounded in 1851, and, in 1875, had 18 profess- ophy; 5, history, general literature, and rhetoric; ors and instructors and 37 students. The 6, mathematics; 7, natural philosophy (including course of study covers 2 years. Instruction in mineralogy and geology); 8, general and applied medicine is also given in the medical depart- chemistry ; 9, applied mathematics, engineering, ment of the University of Virginia, which pro- and architecture ; 10, analytical and agricultural vides a course of a year, and, in 1875, numbered chemistry; 11, natural history, experimental and 50 students and 5 professors. The equipment practical agriculture ; 12, comparative anatomy, of the latter department for medical instruction physiology, and surgery; 13, anatomy and materia
Union Theol. Sem, of
medica; 14, medical jurisprudence, obstetrics, careful use of the young voice, at home, in and the practice of medicine ; 15, chemistry and school, in the church, and wherever there is any pharmacy ; 16, common and statute law; 17, danger of this overstraining of its powers. The equity, mercantile, international, constitutional vocal exercises should be within a limited comand civil law, and government. The academic pass,-neither too high nor too low. All fordegrees conferred by the university are those cing of the voice should be positively forbidden of (1) Proficient, for satisfactory attainments and avoided ; and each lesson should come to a in certain subjects of study; (2) Graduate in a close without fatigue. An easy and systematic school; (3) Bachelor of Letters; (4) Bachelor of mode of breathing should be an early acquisiScience ; (5) Bachelor of Arts; and (6) Master of tion, since it lies at the foundation of all success Arts. The professional degrees are Bachelor of in singing, as well as in speaking. Tone, of itself, Law, Doctor of Medicine, Civil Engineer, Mining being nothing more nor less than breath, or air Engineer, and Civil and Mining Engineer. No in motion through contact with a sonorous body, fixed time is required for the attainment of a it is important to know, to some degree at least, degree; but, in some of the principal schools, the the character of the organs which enter into course commonly occupies three years. In 1875 the production of vocal tone. All cultivated
-6, there were 17 instructors and 330 students. speakers and singers are conscious of a thorough James F. Harrison, M. D., is (1877) the chair-employment of the abdominal muscles, and of man of the faculty.
those of the diaphragm, in order to secure comVOICE, Culture of the. The human voice plete control of the breath. Inhaling, however, may be considered as the audible expression of may be carried to excess, a result well known to the mental and physical characteristics of its pos- professional dramatic vocalists, who often prosessor; and, therefore, no means employed in the tect themselves against rupture by wearing varied processes of education are of more impor- shoulder braces, trusses, and abdominal suptance than those that have regard to its culture. porters. E.chaling involves that careful use of Its powers are often widely misunderstood and the diaphragm, which keeps the intercostal misapplied, sometimes abused and destroyed. nerves and muscles in a state of tension, in orIn the very beginning of education, large num- der that the lungs may have their fullest play. bers of boys, in addition to marked inherited To know when and where to inhale and to peculiarities, such as defective ears, weak lungs, exhale, is as necessary to the speaker, in his asthmatic and husky bronchial tubes, contracted written or extemporaneously delivered senchests, elongated palates, and inflamed, swollen tences, as it is to the singer, in the enunciatonsils, are permitted to indulge in the perni- tion of his musical phrases; and, in such case, cious habit of loud shouting and hurrahing, and it assumes the dignity of consummate art,in the baleful and distressing use of the chest an indispensable and prime necessity to the contones, so frequently heard in the singing of male scientious interpreter of either classic language pupils. Every boy should be made to under- or classic music. Without ease, sustained repose, stand that if he thus abuses his voice, he must not and a method made effective through long habit, expect to overcome his constitutional defects, or in the management of the breath, all subsequent retain a tone which, even by assiduous practice, attention to details in the art of speaking or will become agreeable to his audience, in read- singing is measurably lost. Demosthenes, with ing, declamation, or vocal music. Girls, while in pebbles in his mouth, declaiming to the winds many instances they have all the inherited dis- and waves on the sea-shore, and Braham, lifting advantages above referred to, present, through up his voice amid the hills and forests of Norththeir more delicate organization and guarded umberland, may profitably be remembered and habits, far more promising material for the pro- imitated by all students who desire to remedy duction of purely musical effects. Parents and defects, and to acquire new breathing power. teachers may well take warning, also, in the A graceful attitude, and thorough skill in the education of either boys or girls, against a long- proper use of the breath being gained, the close continued strain upon their vocal chords. Many sympathy always existing between the bronchial a young voice has been completely ruined | tubes and the stomach next demands attention. by this untimely forcing of the powers of the A rapid and complete digestion is esteemed by youthful candidate for declamatory or musical all intelligent persons the greatest of physical honors. A child five years of age, for example, blessings; and to no one is it a more necessary is placed on a chair, to amuse a large audience, condition of success than to the public speaker by speaking or singing in a forced utterance, or singer. So important is this to the proand with an unnaturally loud chest tone, entirely fessional vocalist, that those times, in the daily beyond its years, or powers of endurance. Such routine of duty, which find the lungs and a tax upon its vocal chords, if long continued, bronchial tubes freest from the oppression arisis exceedingly injurious. The medium or fal- ing from sympathy with the stomach, in its setto tone, that most mellow, most musical, most process of digestion, should be selected for pracsweet and expressive part of the female voice, or tice. Proceeding upward toward the organs of of the unchanged voice of the boy, gradually de- articulation, we arrive at the trachea, or windteriorates, and is finally lost by this injurious pipe, the larynx, and the pharynx. It is a proprocess. The remedy for this destruction lies litic subject of discussion among speakers and in the early protection of the health, and in the singers, whether the character of the tone de
pends as much upon the size of the lungs, the chromatic, using the medium, veiled, or somber bronchial tubes, the windpipe, the larynx, and tone, will gradually change this objectionable the pharynx, as it does upon the condition of habit. There are not wanting cases, also, of the muscles and nerves, and more remotely still contralto voices which have been destroyed by upon the general organization, temperament, attempts to cultivate the tone and compass of will
, and endurance of the speaker or singer. It the soprano, a process absurd and unnatural is surprising to notice the compass and the to the last degree. Notwithstanding the efforts variety of tone which the larynx can produce, of some late authors to ignore the division of by using the vowels alone. Beginning with the the female voice into at least three different lowest sounds of the base voice, and ascending registers, namely, the chest, the medium or falin regular order through its limits, of one and a setto, and the head ; these registers are now genhalf or two octaves ; through the compass of erally recognized by the highest and most the baritone, with a similar register, though competent authorities. Elaborate methods and somewhat higher in pitch; and, successively, studies for the development of the contralto, through the registers assigned to the tenor, mezzo-soprano, and soprano voices have been contralto, mezzo-soprano, and soprano voices, devised with these three divisions constantly there is embraced a compass of four octaves of in view. Some even assert that there are five available tones, susceptible of cultivation to an distinct registers, requiring as many different almost infinite degree of excellence. Base voices modes of producing the tone,-a condition of confine themselves mainly to the use of the the larynx and pharynx suggesting an expertchest tones throughout their entire register; but ness in the management of the voice which may the baritones, hy a prudent use of the somber well be deemed bewildering. It is, however, too tone, and of the medium register, greatly increase certain to admit of a doubt, that the voices of the pure quality and flexibility of the higher the most accomplished female vocalists living portions of their voices. For the orator or have been trained by recognizing this division declaimer, there is no quality of tone compar- into the chest, medium or falsetto, and head able to that of the orotund base or barytone registers, and are, moreover, preserved in their voice; and, in the oratorio and opera, it is as- wonted availability, by adhering to the same signed to characters of inherent dignity and method. Allusion has been made to the pharforce. The tenor voice, undoubtedly, demands ynx, or arched chamber immediately back of the a combination of native and acquired qualities, palate, a most important modifier of the voice which, in some countries, are exceedingly rare. in its passage from the larynx, and the expanIn its uncultivated state it is thin, reedy, and sion and contraction of which gives greater or somewhat nasal ; but steady, persevering prac- , less volume of tone, especially if the root of the tice upon the open vowels ah, oh, and 00, soon tongue be not artificially enlarged, so as to corrects this defect, and renders the tenor, of all produce an impure throatiness of tone, frequent
ly Great care should be exercised by tenor voices, lest badly managed. To know the important inthe clear timbre of the chest tone be carried too fluence of a healthy pharynx under complete high, thereby crushing out the delicacy of the control, it is only necessary to compare the voice real medium register, which is the most flexible of one possessing it, to that of a vocalist suffer and available part of the tenor voice. The ing with a cold in the head, or with a catarrhal contralto, mezzo-soprano, and soprano voices en- affection and swollen tonsils. The difference in counter a similar difficulty, at the very outset of the clearness of the vibrations, and in the diftheir practice, in combining the chest with the fusive character of the tone, is very perceptible falsetto or medium voice. While this difficulty and marked.-A clear knowledge of the organs occurs in the higher register of the male voice, which are employed in producing a vocal tone, it is found in the lower register of the female and of the proper combination of the registers voice, and presents obstacles in the way of to secure power, purity, and equality throughout cultivation, which nothing but long and per- the entire vocal compass being gained, the organs sistent practice can overcome, though the strain of articulation present themselves for particular upon the nervous system is far less than consideration; and this leads directly to the subthat experienced by the male voice. The ject of musical elocution. System and facility contralto yields to no other female voice in in breathing, the employment of all the proper depth and richness of tone, as is clearly evident organs, in their healthy condition, for the proafter listening to singers like D'Angri and Al- duction of a pure tone, expertness in reading boni. Naturally not so flexible as the soprano music, and the minutest attention to attitude or mezzo-soprano, it is yet endowed with a won- and gesture, will all fail to produce an impression derful power in causing effects replete with the worth remembering, unless a true conception of most ardent passion, and with the most noble the meaning of the words and music, a bold womanly feeling. There is a great temptation enunciation, a distinct articulation, a wellto abuse the lower register of the contralto rounded phrasing, and an accurate intonation voice by indulging in the disagreeable habit of be added to the acquirements of the finished forcing the chest tones to a point bordering vocalist. Conception relates to both words and upon masculineness, if not positive coarseness. music. If it be necessary for the speaker to The practice of descending runs, diatonic and study well the signification of words, in order to
get at the true meaning of the poet, it is eventive, nor the adjective from the noun, by a sepamore necessary for the singer to do so, since the rate breathing; nor should the syllables of a word effect of melody and harmony upon all per- be separated. Long diatonic or chromatic runs, sons, is such as to deprive them, measurably, arpeggios, trills, and cadenzas, must, however, be of the power, for the time being, of judging of executed with an unbroken continuity of the the signification of words. The singer who rests i musical phrase. The orotund busso or barytone, upon the simple effect of his melody, is certainly as well as the rich and deep contralto, require to as weak as the speaker who relies upon his man- be particular in their articulation, in order to be ner of uttering fine language, rather than upon heard, since the very fullness of their voices prothe strength of the ideas involved. A true con- duces a resonance not easily overcome in large ception, it is hardly necessary to add, is the assembly rooms. Good phrasing implies good rarest of possessions among modern vocalists. singing; such a knowledge of the composer's idea Pronunciation, in its musical connection, not on the part of the singer, as shall not mar, to say only implies that enunciation, or careful throw the least, either the poetic or musical symmetry ing out of each syllable and word which good of what is sung. The singer should be able to speech and declamation require, but also that analyze the phrases he sings, in order that, in which, not particularly recognizing the inflec- melodic and harmonic construction, he tions of reading or declamation, is entirely ab- cover where they begin, how they progress
, and sorbed in the far more permeating channel of where they end. But, if he cannot do this, he sound, a melody or recitative song according to should be able, intuitively to grasp a musical a given key or scale. Dr. Rush alludes to this as passage to the fullest extent of its melodic the special advantage which the singer has over proportions, and spontaneously to present it the speaker. Slowness and quickness of utter with such accessories as shall make it appear his ance are also controlled, to so great a degree, in own. All the bright coloring which may be immusic, by the relations of the notes, the bar, the parted by a vivid conception, a good pronunciafractional measure-marks, and words indicating tion and articulation, will be seriously dimmed varieties of movement, that there is left less lib- by defective phrasing. Last, but by no means erty to the singer than to the speaker, in many least, there must be the accurate intonation respects. But such curtailment of liberty (which which is the result of a correct ear. liberty, by the way, is often a clog to inex- sons do not hear correctly, concords becoming to perienced speakers), and, by consequence, greater them discords. Whether it be a local difficulty concentration upon the characteristics of the of the tympanum, or, as is more probable, a melody, only tie the singer to a more vivid con- rigidity of the entire organization and sluggishception of the subject, and to a more distinct ness of temperament, the fact is obvious that pronunciation of the words. For the correction defective ears are by no means uncommon ; and, of marked inelegancies of pronunciation, whether of course, to imitate musical sounds with the of foreign or native growth, no means are so voice, in such cases, is an impossibility. The effective as the careful study of the classic lan- commonness of the defect increases, as we proguages, together with the study of the principal ceed low in the scale of social being, particularly modern languages taught by native professors. where, in addition to poverty and moral degraOf these latter, the Italian is most musical in it- dation, there is superadded the prolific cause, abself, and, therefore, is most useful to the musical sence of youthful opportunities of hearing music student, whose pronunciation of his native lan- well sung or played. Could all classes, without guage, particularly if he be English or German, exception, be gladdened, when young, by hearwill be vastly improved by often reading and ing music correctly sung and played, the numsinging in the most euphonious of modern lan- ber of those who pass through life unnioved" by guages. Of distinct articulution, it may in gen- the concord of sweet sounds," would be much eral be said, that the vowels only are sung, while diminished. It is important, also, that the sounds the consonants are articulated; in other words, heard by children, be correct both as to melody that the vowels are sung, and the consonants are and rhyihm, if it be expected that such children, spoken. In vocalizing alone, the larynx, obedient when grown, shall have a so-called good ear for to the mind and will, performs unassisted, save music. In remarking upon articulation, the by the lungs, trachea, pharynx, and diaphragm, value of the vowel sounds ah, ee, oh, and oo was all those changes which promote power, purity, noticed ; and it is known that a thorough scale, sweetness, and flexibility of tone. Some slight and rhythmical use of these, combined with all changes in the position of the jaws, tongue, and the consonants as initial and final letters, will lips are necessary in vocalizing with ah, ee, oh, not only develop a more distinct articulation, and oo; but only the consonants, as initial, in- but also a purer, more effective, and manageable termediate, or final letters, require a constant tone. For standard authorities, on this subject, and vigorous use of the tongue, teeth, and lips, see Rush, Philosophy of the Human Voice which are the chief agents in acquiring an effect- (Phila., 1833); ÉDOUARD FOURNIÈRE, Physiologie ive articulation. Full respirations should be de la Voix et de la Parole (Paris, 1866); EMANUEL the rule, and partial respirations the exception. Garcia, École du Chant (London); BASSINI, Art In plain music, where one or two notes are ap- of Singing (Boston, 1856); New Method (Bospropriated to a syllable, the article should not ton, 1869); Emma Seiler, The Voice in Singing be separated from the noun or qualifying adjec- (Phila., 1868).
WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY
WABASH COLLEGE, at Crawfordsville, | legiate). The presidents have been the Rev. Dr. Ind., chartered in 1833, is under Presbyterian Wm. Smith, the Rev. Dr. Colin Ferguson, Dr. control. It has productive funds to the amount Clowes, the Rev. Dr. Waters, R. W. Ringold, of $240,000, and libraries containing 17.000 the Rev. A. J. Sutton, R. C. Berkeley, and Wm. volumes. It has an English and commercial, a J. Rivers, the latter since 1873. preparatory, and a collegiate department, the WASHINGTON AND JEFFERSON latter with a classical and a scientific course. COLLEGE, at Washington, Pa., under PresThe cost of tuition is from $24 to $30 a year. byterian control, was formed, in 1865, by There are several scholarships. In 1875–6, the consolidation of Jefferson College (at ('anthere were 12 instructors and 220 students (104 onsburg, chartered in 1802), and Washington collegiate, 64 preparatory, and 52 English and College (chartered in 1806)." The former grew commercial). The Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle, D. D., out of the Canonsburg Academy, opened in 1791; is (1877) the president.
the latter had its origin in the Washington WACO UNIVERSITY, at Waco, Tex., | Academy, chartered in 1787, and opened in founded in 1861, is under Baptist control. ); 1789. T'he consolidated institution has an enhas a small endowment, but is supported chiefly dowment of $220,000, a cabinet, and libraries by tuition fees, the regular charge ranging from containing 9,000 volumes. Tuition to holders $15 to $25 per term of five months. The libra- of scholarships is free; to others the fee is $24 ries contain about 2,500 volumes. It has a pre a year. There is a preparatory and a collegiate paratory department, a collegiate department department, the latter having a classical and a for females, and a classical and a scientific col scientific course. In 1875–6, there were 8 prolegiate course for males. In 1875—6, there fessors and 175 students (140 collegiate and 35 were 11 instructors and 279 students (157 males preparatory). The presidents have been as foland 122 females). The Rev. Rufus C. Burle- Iows: the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, D.D., LL.D., son, D. D., is (1877) the president.
1866–9; the Rev. Saml. J. Wilson, D.D., LL.D. WAKE FOREST COLLEGE, in Wake (pro tem.), 1869; the Rev. James J. Brownson, Co., N. C., founded in 1834, is under Baptist D.D. (pro tem.), 1870; and the Rev. Geo. P. control. It is supported by tuition fees ($35 Hays, B. D., since 1870. per term of five months) and the income of an WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERendowment of $25,000. The libraries contain SITY, at Lexington, Va., was chartered in 1782. about 8,000 volumes. The course of study com Its germ was a mathematical and classical school, prises six schools-Latin, Greek, modern lan- called the Augusta Academy, established, in guages, mathematics, natural science, and moral | 1749, near the site of Greenville, Augusta Co. philosophy. There is also a preparatory and a In 1776, the name was changed to Liberty Hall. commercial course. In 1875—6, there were 5 pro- After several removals, it was located near Lerfessors and 91 students. The presidents have ington, in 1785; and, in 1803, it was finally rebeen: the Rev. Saml. Wait, D.D.; the Rev. Wm. moved to its present site, within the limits of Hooper, LL. D.; the Rev. John B. White; and the town. The first commencement was held the Rev. W. M. Wingate, D. D., the present in- in 1785. In 1796, Washington donated to the cumbent (1877).
institution the 100 shares of stock in the old WASHINGTON. See DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. James River Company, which the legislature
WASHINGTON COLLEGE, at Wash- had given him, and the name was changed to ington, Alameda Co., Cal., founded in 1872, for Washington College. In 1803, the Cincinnati the education of both sexes, is a non-sectarian Society appropriated their funds, nearly $25,000, institution. It has a preparatory, and an academic to the college. During the civil war, the instidepartment with a four years' course. French, tution was suspended. Soon after the death Spanish, German, Greek, and Latin, instrumental of Gen. Lee, in 1870, the present name was and vocal music, painting, drawing, etc. are op- adopted. The university is supported by tuitional studies. The institution is supported by tion fees (generally $70, a year, in the acathe fees of students, the charge for tuition being demic departments, and $85, in the professional from $50 to $80 a year. In 1875—6, there were departments), and the income of endowments 10 instructors and 176 students. Silas S. Har- amounting to $200,000. It has a library of mon, A. M., has been the principal since the 12,000 volumes, mineralogical, geological, and opening of the college.
zoological cabinets, and valuable philosophical WASHINGTON COLLEGE, at Chester- and chemical apparatus. The distinguishing town, Md., founded in 1782, is a non-sectarian features of the university are: (1) The arrangeinstitution. There is a preparatory and a col- ment of the course of study into distinct electlegiate department. The cost of tuition, except ive schools or departments; (2) The adaptation to holders of scholarships, ranges from $10 of the several departments to certain courses of $60 a year.
The library contains about 1,300 study, to each of which is attached a correspondvolumes. In 1875—6, there were 3 instructors ing degree. No degrees are conferred in course; and 37 students (10 preparatory and 27 col- | but all are based upon actual attainments in a