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AFFECTATION, as opposed to what is real. professor of zoology and geology in the Lawrence genuine, and natural, is carefully to be guarded Scientific School, then just established. He comagainst in the education of the young. In certain menced his duties in 1848, and settled perpeculiarities of character, there is a proneness to manently in the United States, where his greatest the forination of habits of affectation in manners fame was achieved by his numerous labors as a and speech.
This tendency, however, rarely naturalist and a scientific lecturer and teacher. shows itself at an early age. Children generally The establishment of the Anderson School of yield to their natural impulses, and do not as- Natural History on Penikese Island in 1873, sume or feign what they do not feel, or, to use a was almost the last act of his life. The means for common expression, " put on airs." Their mode founding this school were furnished by Mr. John of training, however, may tend to this, partic-Anderson, a generous and public-spirited citizen ularly if they are forced to assume an unnatural of New York, who not only devoted for this obmode of expression in phraseology or pronuncia- ject the island of Penikese, but the sum of tion, in the attempt to make them excessively pre- $50,000, as a permanent endowment. Agassiz cise in such matters. Some styles of reading and had long advocated the establishment of such elocution may lead to this characteristic; and a school for the special instruction of teachers hence the importance of adopting methods that, in marine zoology; and during the summer of in all respects.correspond to the prevailing usage. 1873, he devoted his time and energies to this Certainly, nothing can be more disgusting than institution, being present at every exercise and the forced imitation of peculiar and unnatural lecture, and the constant companion of the models of conceived propriety of speech and students. His chief publications were Rechermanners. which we sometimes find to prevail ches sur les Poissons Fossiles, 1833 - 1844; among the pupils of certain schools, or the “min- Études sur les glaciers, 1840; Système glacing airs" which are often assumed by those, both ciaire, 1847, and Contributions to the Natural male and female, but particularly the latter, who History of the United States. Though chiefly affect to belong to the best society, and hence ar- eminent as a naturalist, and particularly in the rogate to themselves a superior degree of refine- department of ichthyology, he was an accomment. The standard of the educator should be, plished linguist, being versed in six languages. in every respect, that ease, grace. simplicity, and ile read Plato and Aristotle in the original, beauty that belong to what is natural ; and every wrote several works in elegant Latin, and was tendency to the contrary, in his pupils, should be a good Hebraist. French and Gerinan were promptly and sternly repressed. Locke says: to him vernacular tongues, and he could speak * Plain and rough nature left to itself, is much and write th: English language with ease and better than an artificial ungracefulness, and such correctness. He was a natural teacher, fond studied ways of being ill-fashioned. The want i of giving instruction, patient and sympathetic, of an accomplishment, or some defect in our be- overtlowing with an earnest love for his subhavior, coming short of the utmost gracefulness, ject, and having a mind replete with stores of often scapes observation ; but affectation in any information. This voice, look, and manner at part of our carriage, is lighting up a candle to once gained the attention of his pupils : and the our defects, and never fails to make us to be clearness of his explanations as well as the fluentaken notice of, either as wanting sense or want-'cy of his delivery gave interest to every subject ing sincerity." See Locke, Thoughts concern- upon which he spoke. His skill in ready graphic ing Education.
delineations with chalk and blackboard was AGASSIZ, Louis John Rudolph. This astonishing, and greatly contributed to the eminent naturalist and teacher was born at effectiveness of his teaching. Few have ever Motiers, near Neufchatel, in Switzerland, May made such rich additions to the stores of science, 28., 1807, and died at Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 14., or have been more zealous in diffusing the bene1873. His ancestors were Huguenots, driven fits of knowledge among mankind. from France by the revocation of the edict of ample as a teacher has been of very great value, Nantes. His father was the pastor of a protest- : since his system was to teach from natural obant parish ; his mother, the daughter of a phy-jects rather than from books,-to enable the sician. Under the latter he received his first pupil to acquire an experience of his own before education till the age of eleven, when he was presenting to his mind the results of the exsent to the gymnasium at Bienne, where he re- perience and observation of others. mained four years. His subsequent studies were assumed title. “ Louis Agassiz— Teacher," was pursued at the college of Lausanne, the medical the one of which he seemed to be most proud; school of Zurich, and the universities of Heidel- ' and all teachers should cherish the example berg and Munich. At the latter place, he partic- which he set, as the true means of success. ularly distinguished himself for his attainments AGE, in Education. The life of man has in natural history. At Paris, he made the ac- been variously divided into periods, or ages. quaintance of Humboldt and Cuvier, both of Thus Pythagoras assumed four, Solon and Mawhom held him in high esteem for his talents and crobius ten, different ages, while others have prescientific acquirements. In 1846, he came to the ferred a division into five, six, seven, or eight. United States, being invited to deliver a course With ard to the education of man, one great of lectures at the Lowell Institute, in Boston. turning point stands forth so conspicuously, that The next year, he accepted the appointment of teachers at all times have chosen it as a broad
line of demarcation, into whatever number of | AGE.) Of course, instruction at such an age periods they have thought it proper to divide must be limited to the most elementary rudihuman life. This turning-point in life is the ments, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. period when man passes from the age of youth The method should be thoroughly adapted to the into that of virility. The physical development mental condition of the child, and modern eduat this time has become complete; in social life cators are agreed in recognizing the importance both sexes have attained majority ; and the edu- of object teaching for the first stages of a child's cation of the young man or woman for the instruction. A novel mode of instruction, specially career that has been selected, is, in the main, con- intended as introductory to the regular primary cluded. Up to this time, the education of man school, is the Kindergarten, founded by Froebel. is conducted by others, chiefly parents and The astonishing rapidity with which it has spread teachers; henceforward, he is expected to edu- through all the countries of the civilized world, cate himself, and to assume the education of and found admission into educational systems others.
otherwise radically at variance, seems to prove it to During the period of life when man is depend be a great improvement in elementary education. ent upon others for his education, three different (See KINDERGARTEN.) ages are broadly distinguished.-childhood, boy Boyhood or girlhood embraces the time from hood or girlhood, and youth. These are marked, in the 7th to the 14th year of age. In the developthe physical development of the body, by the ment of the body, this age is characterized by shelding of teeth, the entrance of puberty, and the appearance of the permanent teeth, by the the setting in of virility. The process of mental completed growth of the brain, and by the first development in these three ages is as different as consciousness of sexual difference. Poys and the physical basis ; and, accordingly, each of them girls long for the free and frequent exercise of demands a peculiar pedagogical and didactical their muscular systems. At the beginning of this treatment.
age, girls like to take an active part in the plays Childhood, which embraces the first seven of the boys; but they soon show a preference for years of life, is characterized by the rapid growth more quiet occupations and less publicity; while, and development of the organs of the body. At on the other hand, boys manifest an increased the age of seven a child weighs about six times interest in noisy and wild sports. It is among as much as at its birth, and it has attained ono the prime duties of the educators of this age, to half of the stature, and about one thir) or ono keep the development of the natural desires and fourth of the weight of the grown man. The mind aspirations of the two sexes within the right is, during this period, more receptive than self- channels. The minds of boys and girls afford active; the only manifestations of self-activity many proofs of independent thought and being found in the efforts to retain and arrange activity. The company of adults is not sought the impressions which have been received. All for by them as eagerly as before, but they feel pedagogical influence upon the pupil in this age entire satisfaction in the society of children of can be only of a preparatory character. The body their own age. They think, as yet, little of the must be guarded against injuries, and must have realities of life and of their future careers; but opportunities for a vigorous and manifold develop their plays give more evidence, than before, of ment. The mind must be preserved from debasing, plan, serious thought, and perseverance, and weakening, or over-exciting influences, and must generally indicate the faculties with which they be kept open for anything that is conducive to have been most strongly endowed ; each child, the development of its faculties; and, in order in this way, foreboding to some extent its not to become sated and confused, it must learn future career. It is of great importance that to distinguish what is important from the less the educator should not only understand the important. As the child is thoroughly dependent peculiar nature of this age in general, but that upon its educator and unable to direct its own he should thoroughly know the character of each exertions, it should be made to understand as individual ; for the faults which are peculiar to clearly as possible, that any opposition of its own this age are best overcome in individual cases, if will to that of its educators can be followed by the educator knows how to make the right kind only evil consequences. It should, therefore, be of appeal to those good qualities of his pupils taught obedience, but not obedience through fear, which are most strongly developed. In arranfor fear has a repressive influence upon the ging a course of instruction for this age, it must development of the mental faciuties, but an be specially remembered that the minds of boys obedience springing from confidence in the and girls are prelominantly receptive. The memsuperior wisdom and experience of the teacher, ory readily receives and faithfully retains imand from love produced by his kindness. The pressions; and this, therefore, is the right time natural educators of the child are the parents, for learning a foreign language and geographical especially the mother ; but, toward the close of and historical facts. The independence of mind this age, systematic teaching by a professional peculiar to this age shows itself at the same time teacher begins. Legislation in regard to the in the growth of imagination, which awakens in school age differs considerably in different the boy a lively interest in all that is great and countries. In some, children are sent to the pub- extraordinary in history. On many questions lic schools when they are four years of age; in relating to the education proper for this age, others, not until they are seven. (See School educators still differ. Prominent among these
questions, are, whether the two sexes should be regarded at that time as necessary for this study, educated separately or conjointly, to what extent but Agricola advised his friend always to reprothe same course of instruction should be pre- duce what he had learned in German Three scribed for both, whether special studies should be things were needed for pursuing any study: (1) To begun at this age, or whether the entire course understand what had been learned; (2) 'i'o retain should be obligatory for all the children of a what had been understood ; (3) To derive adschool. (See CO-EDUCATION OF the Sexes.) vantage from what had been learned. The first
The age of youth extends from the beginning was obtained by application, the second was the of puberty to the complete development of sexu- gift of memory, the third could only be acality, or from the fourteenth to about the twenty- quired by practice. While the works left by
At this time the growth of Agricola would alone not suffice to assign to him the body is completed ; young men and women a prominent place among the educators of the become aware of their special duties of life and of middle ages, it appears from the writings of his the difference in the careers upon which they are contemporaries that his personal influence was respectively to enter. The time of study is draw- very great, and that, in fact, he was regarded as ing to its close ; the entrance into active life is at second to none but his friend Reuchlin. His hand. Among lower classes of society, this letters to Reuchlin, to Alexander Hegius, an extransition occurs at the beginning of this age; cellent educator, who founded the famous school and the only increase of knowledge that is access of Deventer, to Antonius Liber of Soest, a very ible to most persons of these classes must be de- zealous humanist, who, after fruitless efforts to rived from evening schools, public lectures, and establish a school at Emmerich, Kampen, and reading; while those of the wealthier classes, and Amsterdam, at length succeeded at Alkmaar, all who wish to fit themselves for any of the where he died in 1514, and to other contemlearned professions, now enter upon the special poraries, contain a large amount of information studies of those professions, or finish the general on the educational movements of his times. A studies of the preceding age. Toward the close of complete edition of the works of Agricola has this period, if not earlier, the preparations for enter- been published by Alardus, of Anisterdam (Coing public life are completed, or an actual entrance logne, 1539).-See Schmidt, Geschichte der Päinto life begins.-See SCHWARZ, Erziehungslehre; dagogik, 11, 452; RAUMER, Geschichte der PädaSCHLEIERMACHER, Erziehungslehre, edited by gogik, trans. in Barnard's Germain Ellucational Platz; BENEKE, Erziehungs- und Unterrichts- Peformers; GEIGER, in Allgemeine Deutsche lehre; HERBART, Umriss pädagogischer Vor- Biographie, 1, 1:1 – 156; TRESLING, Vita et lesungen.
merita Rudolphi Agricole (Groningen, 1830); AGRICOLA, Rodolphus, an eminent edu- HALLAM's Literature of Europe. cator of the middle ages, was born in August 1443 AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES. It is (or 1442) at Baflo, near Groningen, in Holland. only within the last fourteen years that any His original name was Huysmann, which, after general and systematic effort has been made in the custom of his time, he exchanged for a latin the United States to furnish facilities for acquir
After his native province, Friesland, he ing a thorough scientific and practical education is also sometimes called Frisius. He studied at in agriculture. In 1862. Congress gave to the the universities of Louvain, Paris, and Ferrara ; several states and territories land scrip to the and, after returning to his native country, distin- i amount of 30,000 acres for each senator and guished himself greatly by introducing the study representative in Congress, provided that each of Greek into the countries north of the Alps. state or territory, claiming the benefit of this In 1483, he accepted an invitation from his act, should, within five years from its passage, friend. Bishop Dalberg of Worms, and deliv- “provide not less than one college, which should ered lectures alternately at Heidelberg and at receive for its endowment, support, and maintWorms. He died in Heidelberg, Oct. 28., 1485. enance the interest of all moneys derived from His works, which are not very numerous, are the sa'e of the aforesaid scrip or lands.” It written in Latin. His principal work De Inven- was further required that the leading object" tione dialectica attacks the scholastic philosophy of these colleges shoull be, without excluding of the age. In an educational point of view, his other scientitic and classical studies, and includepistle to Barbirianus in Antwerp, the so-called ing military tactics, to teach such branches of Epistola de formando stwlio, is of special im- learning as are related to agriculture and the portance. At the time of its publication, it was mechanic arts, in order to promote the liberal regarded as a compendium of the pedagogical and practical education of the industrial classes, views of the German humanists. Its prime ob- in the several pursuits and professions of life. ject was to advise his friend as to the continua- The main supporter of this law was the Hon. tion of his studies. Agricola recommended philos- Justin S. Morrill
, senator from Vermont. Of ophy, by which term he understood also ethics all laws enacted, either state or national, for and physics, and, in general, the entire range of the advancement of higher education, no one has natural science, as the study most deserving his ever been productive of such fruitful results. friend's attention; he represents it as the only . The originators and framers of this law, "builded road to true knowledge and perfect felicity, better than they knew.” The tabulated statewhile the other sciences could procure only a ment below, while it shows a vast amount acdoubtful happiness. The Latin language was complished in a short space of time, cannot, of
necessity, give more than a faint idea of what increased population shall furnish a demand for has been done in advancing agricultural edu- the products of the soil at prices sufficiently recation in the single direction of a systematic munerative to induce many trained and educated and thorough collegiate training. Looking back men to embark in agriculture. over the last ten years, we notice that those It is difficult to give an exact statement of the engaged in agriculture have made marvelous present condition of agricoltural colleges, since progress in general information, as well as in they are only a part of colleges or universities technical subjects having a direct bearing upon devoted also to teaching mechanic arts, and scientheir special calling. This has been largely tific and classical studies more or less germane to brought about by the munificent endowments of agriculture. We find that, in this department, and Congress. For as soon as the act had become a in that of mechanics.there are at present about 300 law, numerous energetic and far-seeing men professors and teachers. So far as reported, 361 brought the matter prominently before the students have graduated after a full course in several state legislatures, setting forth the great agriculture. According to the usual proportion benefits that would arise from an acceptance of of freshmen to graduates, this would indicate the donation. Some strenuously opposed its ac- that 1,444 had pursued the course for a longer or ceptance, as it would add heavy burdens, in order a shorter period. The number of graduates who to furnish buildings etc., to those already im- during their course have, to use the phraseology posed by the war ; and others opposed it, believ- of the act of Congress endowing these instituing the whole scheme to be chimerical and im- tions, pursued studies “ relating to agriculture practicable. Through these discussions, which and the mechanic arts," is 669 ; making the total have not yet wholly ceased, much valuable in- number who have entered these courses, for a formation has been disseminated ; and the effect longer or a shorter period, 2,676. The number has been, to arouse thoroughly the agricultural of students, so far as reported, in all the departclasses to a sense of their rights and duties. ments of the institutions named, is 6,907, of These earnest and continued discussions have whom 715 are ladies, and 2,889 are receiving developed latent talents, and excited a desire for instruction in military tactics. The minimum cost information among the farmers, that is, as yet, of board-usually in clubs—is $1.25 per week; only partially gratified. They have made it pos- the maximum cost, $5,00; and the average, sible to publish and sustain numerous agricult- $3.00. The cost of room rent per term ranges ural journals with regular contributions from from $1.33 to $12.00. In all but two or three the pen of many of the ablest writers on the institutions, some provision is made for a greater practical and scientific subjects of the day. They or less number of free scholarships, and several have created such a demand for agricultural offer free tuition for all. As a general rule, no literature, that a large proportion of our relig- pains have been spared by these colleges to furious and political journals devote more or less nish all the facilities for pursuing a college course space to the subject. These are but a few of the at the least possible expense. Manual labor is reincidental results of this wise and munificent act quired in 11 of the colleges ; in the others, it is of Congress; and they are none the less real or optional. The price paid for students' labor beneficial, although they cannot tabulated or ranges from 5 to 18 cents per hour. State apset forth in long columns of figures. Such rapid propriations have been made of nearly one and strides have been made in some directions within a half million of dollars, which have been largely the last few years, that a chemist and a laboratory used for erecting buildings. The amount of prihave become a necessary adjunct to many of the vate donations it is impossible to arrive at acagricultural industries, -notably to that of the curately, but they cannot fall short of $5,000,000. manufacture of cheese, butter, and commercial The late Ezra ('ornell gave $700,000 to the unifertilizers. Up to 1865, the agricultural college versity that bears his name, and the total amount of Lansing, Mich., was the only one in the United of private donations to this single institution is States in which students could pursue a college not less than $1,400,000, of which the colleges of course arranged and adapted to meet the wants agriculture and the mechanic arts have received of those who might desire, in after years, to en- their due proportion. The number and equipment gage in agriculture. Since that time, some thirty of laboratories, workshops, etc., in the colleges colleges have been organized-about one half of that serve, directly or indirectly, to illustrate and them from parts of universities--which are teach subjects relating to agriculture, are as follargely devoted “ to teaching such branches of lows: mechanical laboratories or workshops, 10, learning as are related to agriculture and the all of which are furnished with tools for workmechanic arts." The donation of lands by Con- ing in iron and wood, and several with engines, gress did not furnish endowment sufficient fully planers, turning-lathes, drilling machines, saws, to equip and man these numerous institutions; and other necessary but less expensive tools ; but it afforded the means to lay the firm founda- physical laboratories, 16, most of which are tions upon which, aided by state and individual furnished with apparatus for illustrating the submunificence, have been reared many noble insti. jects of mechanics, electricity, magnetism, heat, tutions of learning, which are doing an important acoustics, and optics. All, with one or two exand much-needed work. We can hardly con- ceptions, have well-equipped chemical laboratorceive of the grand and important position these ies; and several of them furnish facilities for ininstitutions are to occupy when the wants of an Istruction in chemistry not excelled in any other
institutions in the United States. Nine anatom- | training students in the art and practice of the ical, 12 geological, and 15 botanical laboratories care, preservation, and planting of forests. As are already equipped for student practice. Eight a part of the equipment for illustration and of these colleges have greenhouses in operation; practice on these farms. are found some 500 head most of them have drafting-rooms, with the of neat-cattle, 236 of which are thorough-breds, necessary tables and models for illustrating the representing nine distinct breeds. The horses subjects taught. A large amount of practice in and mules number 129, only 3 of which are drawing is, moreover, required in several of the thorough-breds; the total number of sheep is branches related to agriculture. Free-hand 233, of which 58 are pure bloods of various drawing, as yet, has not been largely introduced. breeds; the swine exceed 500, including about Some ten colleges have large collections of mod- 400 pure-bred animals, representing nearly all of els of farm implements and machinery; engrav- the well-established breeds. This aggregation of ings, photographs, charts, and drawings; to laboratories, workshops, museums, greenhouses, gether with numerous specimens of grains, orchards, gardens, farms, and domestic animals grasses, and other plants ; geological and miner- is furnished and provided for the express puralogical specimens; collections of insects and pose of affording, not only the means for illusskeletons of domestic and other animals; all trating the subjects taught, but actual experience constituting what might be called an agricult- and skill in those processes which require that ural museum, though usually kept in separate the judgment, eye. and hand, as well as the inrooms for the sake of convenience. Ten of these tellect, should be trained. institutions offer one or more prizes for good The propriety and expediency of the Congresscholarship; six report, through their leading sional grant by means of which these instituofficer, that the effect of offering such prizes tions have been established, have been seriously appears to be “good;" six consider it " bad;" called in question ; indeed, it has been held that two, “doubtful;" one, “ that it depends on cir- the function of government should be strictly cumstances ;" one, that it is “ a healthy stimu- confined to the promotion of elementary instruclant to be carefully used ;" and one, “ non con- | tion. In 1873, President Eliot, of Harvard stat.” At least twelve appear to have kept care- College, took strong ground against the endowful accounts of farm receipts and expenditures; ment, by the government, of institutions for subut since we have no reports of the amount of perior or technical instruction, and was susincrease in the valuations of farm-stock, imple- tained in this view by President McCosh and inents, etc., it is impossible to say whether the others. At the session of the National Educafarms are worked at a profit or a loss. The tional Association, held at Elmira, N. Y., in Au. total gross receipts of twelve farms reported, for gust, 1873, this question was considerably dis1874, are $64,329.60, or an average of $5,360.80 cussed, and the principle underlying the endowper farın. The total expenditures for experi- ment of the agricultural colleges was ably vindiments, during the same year, on eight of these cated in a paper by Prof. G. W. Atherton, of farms, are $8,143.26. This indicates that farm New Jersey, entitled The Relation of the Genexperiments are not, as yet, carried on to any eral Government to Education, in which he great extent; and the reason for this is, doubt- said, “ These younger institutions have a larger less, a lack of means rather than of disposition. average of students, by more than one-tenth, Every professor of agriculture fully appreciates than the long established colleges, and are fairly the benefit, not only to his class but to himself occupying with them the field of higher educaas well, of extended and systematically conducted tion. In an important sense. however, they are experiments. They are, indeed, effective but not the rivals of the older colleges. Their gradcostly auxiliaries to the class-room lectures. uates, to only a limited extent, enter the learned There is a constantly increasing tendency to professions. They become engineers, farmers, ward using the farm and its appliances, regard- mechanics, architects. They labor with hand less of profit or loss, in order to teach and illus- and brain. They become leaders and organizers trate the principles of agriculture, rather than- of labor, and thus precisely fulfill the intent of as has too often been the case-using it simply Congress when it designed these institutions to as a means of increasing the common fund. The furnish a · liberal and practical education to the aggregate number of acres used for general and industrial classes.” Prof. Atkinson, on the experimental farming by twenty of these col- same occasion, took similar ground. What," leyes is 5,081; added to which there are 112 said he, “is the government domain but the acres of orchard, 92 acres of vegetable gar- property of the people, and to what higher use den, 29 acres of small-fruit garden, 1.300 acres can the people put it than to promote the higher of native timber, 438 acres of planted timber, as well as the lower education of all the people? and 580 acres used as college grounds. Though We have in this country no aristocracy of eduwe find that the planted timber is about six cation—not one education, as in the old country. acres to each hundred of arable land,—which is for the masses,' and another and higher one for certainly a very creditable showing--yet forestry the privileged minority. The republican prinis taught to but a limited extent, thare being no ciple is, the best education for all—the best and distinctive course yet marked out in that branch ghest education for the · masses.' That is the of study. We are far behind some of the Euro- only principle on which republican institutions pean countries in our facilities and methods for can be founded.” The words of Washington