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ization and management of schools, also discipline and class teaching. (3) The Administration of Schools and School Systems — embracing supervision, examinations, school hygiene, school architecture, co-education of the sexes, etc. (4) Governmental Policy in regard to Education such subjects as state education, compulsory attendance laws, the secular and denominational systems, etc. (5) The History of Education, giving an account of the most noted plans and methods of instruction and school organization that have been proposed, or that are now in vogue, as well as the history of the school system of every state and territory in the Union, and of every important country in the world. Much of the matter under this section is entirely new, and will be found to be of great interest. (6) Biographical Sketches of distinguished educationists, educators, and others who have been celebrated for their efforts as promoters or benefactors of educational progress or enterprise. (7) Statistical and other information in regard to (a) schools and other institutions of learning of different countries, states, cities (in the United States, of those having a population of 100,000 and upward), and religious denominations (the latter treated with considerable fullness) ; (b) different kinds of schools, as public schools, private schools, parochial schools, academies and high schools, kindergartens, colleges and universities. Every important college or university in the United States has been described in a separate article ; and special articles also inserted on the great universities in England, the latter articles having been written in that country. Considerable care has also been taken to show what has been done, during the last few years, for female education, and more particularly for the higher education of women (especially in this country and in Great Britain). (8) Educational Literature, which is constantly brought to the notice of the reader in connection with the various articles. As the immense mass of material to be condensed within the compass of a single volume has necessitated the greatest possible brevity, references are made throughout to standard works on educational science, as well as to statistical works affording more detailed information. It is believed that this will prove one of the most valuable features of the work. (9) The main work is followed by an Analytical Indie.c, in which reference is made to the principal topics of all the longer articles, as well as to the pages on which the more important subjects are treated incidentally.

Of course, the editors of a cyclopædia cannot be expected to carry out their plan without the support of an adequate corps of able contributors. However extensive their own information may be in relation to the general subject, there must always be many topics to the details of which specialists have devoted a much more minute study, and of which, therefore, their knowlege must be more comprehensive and exact. The list of special contributors which follows this preface will show to what extent the editors have succeeded in securing the co-operation of distinguished educators and writers in the preparation of this work. Most of the names presented will be at once recognized as those of persons of well-established reputation for successful experience in their respective spheres of effort. The editors deem themselves singularly fortunate in securing to so large an extent the aid and co-operation of the state and city superintendents throughout this country, the articles on the school systems having been prepared by them or under their direction, or compiled from the latest and most accurate information officially supplied by them. The articles on the different classes of professional, scientific, and denominational schools and colleges have, in the main, been written by persons professionally conversant with those institutions, and thus afford an amount and kind of information very difficult to obtain, but often of great value to students and educators.

It is proper to say that the announcement of this work has met with a most earnest and encouraging response from educators in Great Britain, and that the editors have received most prompt and valuable assistance, as well as cordial co-operation, from that source, so as to enable them to carry out their intention to make the usefulness of the Cyclopedia co-extensive with the English-speaking race. It is, however, a cause of deep regret to the editors that a long illness, terminating in death, deprived them of the co-operation of one of the ablest and most highly esteemed English educators, the late Joseph Payne, who not only was among the first to afford encouragement to this work when proposed, but promptly engaged to contribute a number of important articles.

As a work of reference for information in regard to American institutions for higher education, the Cyclopædin will, it is hoped, prove eminently satisfactory. Great pains has been taken to secure the fullest and most accurate information respecting the colleges and


universities of this country; for which purpose, every article of this description has been submitted, in proof, to the president of the institution described, and, with but very few exceptions, has received the benefit of his revision.

The editors also acknowledge their indebtedness for the very full information, in regard to the educational work of the various religious denominations of the United States and Great Britain, which they have received from distinguished members of those denominations. Very much of this information could have been obtained by no other means than by a long official connection with the educational boards of the churches, and, to a considerable extent, is now supplied exclusively by this work.

To all the contributors the thanks of the editors are due for a support without which the work could not have been completed—at any rate, could not have possessed the value which may, with considerable confidence, be attributed to it; and certainly could not have earned the approval which it may justly be expected to receive. The editors, also, take occasion to express their obligations to the many friends who, though not special contributors, have afforded valuable aid in the revision of special articles, in giving important advice, or in affording needed information.

In these few remarks, the editors have briefly stated the object they have striven to attain, and some of the instrumentalities of which they have availed themselves ; but they are by no means so presumptuous as to suppose they have produced a work without fault or blemish. The Cyclopædia, it must be borne in mind, is but a pioneer, opening out, it is to be hoped, a wide path for further literary and professional effort in the same direction. It will, doubtless, share the fate of all books of its class, in which the habitual reader, as well as the scrutinizing critic, by the side of that which elicits his approval, meets with statements that are capable of improvement or that require correction. In every future edition of the work, pains will be taken to correct what is faulty and to improve what is imperfect ; and any assistance which those who appreciate the aim of the work may be able to render to that end, will be gratefully acknowledged.

The progress of education in all the countries of the world is now so rapid and so manifold, that every reader of this Cyclopædia will, after the lapse of a short time, feel the need of a systematic continuation of large classes of articles. States and cities add, from year to year, to their educational history; new names of educators and educational writers constantly loom up; new educational laws are enacted ; and new courses of studies are proposed and tried. The discussion of the great educational questions of the day continues with increasing earnestness, and no year passes without producing educational works which, in one respect or another, excel those previously issued. The editors and the publisher of the Cyclopedia are now maturing, and, in due course of time, will announce, an annual publication, or Supplement to the Cyclopaedia of Education, in which will be collected such new information as may appear to them to be of most value, and in which, they hope, to establish a kind of central organ for all who are anxious to cooperate in that grandest aim of the human race—the proper education of the rising generation.

NEW YORK, March 17th, 1877.



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Prof. E. B. ANDREWS, Lancaster, 0.

| JAMES Donaldson, LL. D., Rector of the High Ohio.

School of Edinburgh, and Editor of the EduHon. Ellis A. APGAR, Supt. Public Instruc

cational News. tion, New Jersey.

Education (Theory of),
New Jersey.

England (in part),
Prof. Th. APPEL, Franklin and Marshall Col-


Memory, lege, Lancaster, Pa.

Science, The Teaching of (part I.),
Reformed Churches (in part).

Senses, Education of the. Rev. John G. Baird, Asst. Sec. Board of Edu- Dr. A. Douai, Irvington, N. J. cation, Connecticut.

Developing Method (in part),

Ear, Cultivation of,--and other articles.

Prof. W. E. Griffis, late of the Imperial Col-
Seton, Samuel W.
Prof. B. P. Bowne, Boston University.

lege, Tokio, Japan.

College (in part),
Hegel, -and other biographical articles.

Miss Mary GURNEY, of the Women's Education
Rev. Dr. R. L. BRECK, Chancellor Central Uni-

Union, London, England.

Women, Higher Education of. versity, Richmond, Ky. Presbyterians (in part).

Hon. H. M. HALE, Supt. Public Instruction, Hon. Dan. B. Briggs, Supt. Public Instruction,


Colorado (in part).

Prof. Wm. G. HAMMOND, Law Department Iowa
HENRY B. BUCKHAM, A. M., Principal State State University, Iowa City.
Normal School, Buffalo, N. Y.

Law Schools.

Thomas F. HARRISON, Asst. Supt. of Schools,
NORMAN A. Calkins, Asst. Supt. Schools, New New York.


Dr. E. 0. HAVEN, Chancellor Syracuse Univer-
Numeral Frame.

sity, Syracuse, N. Y.

Methodists (in part).
M. P. Cavert, A. M., Rhinebeck, N. Y.
New York (State).

J. W. Hawes, New York.
Henry CHETTLE, M. A., late Fellow of Exeter

College (in part),

Harvard University, College, Oxford University, England.

Yale College, - and other articles on American Oxford University;

colleges and universities. Hon. EDWARD Conant, Supt. Public Instruction, Rev. W. W. Hicks, Supt. Public Instruction, Vermont.


Florida (in part).
Hon. J. C. CORBIN, late Supt. Public Instruc-Hon. T. W. Higginson, Newport, R. I.
tion, Arkansas.

Rhode Island.

Prof. CHARLES T. Himes, Dickinson College,
Rev. Dr. E. T. Corwin, Millstone, N. J.
Reformed Churches in part).

Carlisle, Pa.

GEORGE H. Curtis, Prof. of Music, New York.

Singing Schools,

Pharmaceutical Schools.
Voice, Culture of the.

Hon. HENRY Houck, Dep. Supt. Public In-
Rev. Dr. S. S. CUTTING, Cor. Sec. Baptist Edu struction, Pennsylvania.
cational Society, Brooklyn, N. Y.


Thomas HUNTER, A. M., President Normal Col-
Prof. E. H. Day, Normal College, New York. lege, New York.

Teachers' Seminaries.
Science, The Teaching of (part II.).

Rev. Dr. I. F. Hurst, Pres. Drew Theological
Rev. Dr. CHARLES F. DEEMS, New York.

Seminary, Madison, N. J.
Methodists (in part).
Hon. W. L. DICKINSON, Supt. Schools, Jersey Rev. Dr. E. T. JEFFERS, Pres. Westminster Col-

lege, New Wilmington, Pa.
Jersey City.

Presbyterians (in part).




Prof. D. P. KIDDER, Drew Theological Semina- | Prof. I. P. Roberts, Cornell University, Ithaca, ry, Madison, N.J.

N. Y.

Agricultural Colleges.
Theological Schools.

C. C. Rounds, Princ. State Normal School, FarALBERT KLAMROTH, late Commissioner of Com

mington, Me. mon Schools, New York.

Falk, P. L. A.,

Wm. H. RUFFNER, LL. D., Supt. Public In-

struction, Virginia. Rev. Prof. E. G. KLOSE, Moravian Theological

Virginia. Seminary, Bethlehem, Pa.

Prof. CHARLES A. SCHLEGEL, Normal College, Moravians.

New York. W. H. LARRABEE, New York.

Mager, Karl.
Francke, A.H.,—and other biographical articles. Prof. David B. Scott, College of the City of
Dr. Edwin LEIGH, Brooklyn, N. Y.

New York.

New York, College of the City of,

Oral Instruction,
R. M. LEVERSON, Ph. D., Denver, Col.

Social Economy,

Dr. J. BERRIEN LINDSLEY, Nashville, Tenn.

Thermometry, Educational.
Nashville University,

Hon. R. D. SHANNON, Supt. Public Instruction,
Presbyterians (in part).

Missouri. J. M. LOGAN, Princ. Springfield School, Pitts

Missouri. burgh, Pa.

Hon. J. W. SIMONDS, Supt. Public Instruction, Pittsburgh.

New Hampshire. W. MacDONALD, High School of Edinburgh, New Hampshire. Scotland.

Hon. J. H. SMART, Supt. Public Instruction,
England (in part),

Ireland in part),

Indiana in part).
Scotland (in part).

Prof. Walter Smith, State Director, Art EduWilson MacDONALD, Artist, New York.

cation, Mass.

Hon. J. M. MCKENZIE, Supt. Public Instruction, WILLIAM L. STONE, Jr., New York.

Stone, William L.
Nebraska (in part).

Hon. Joan Swett, late Supt. Public Instruction,
Hon. J. M. McKLEROY, Supt. Public Instruction, California.

Alabama (in part)

San Francisco (in part).
Prof. Francis A. MARCH, Lafayette College, Rev. Dr. I. N. Tarbox, Cor. Sec. Amer. Educ.
Easton, Pa.

Society, Boston, Mass.


Rev. Dr. H. A. Thompson, Pres. Otterbein Uni-
Classics, Christian,

versity, Westerville, 0.
English, the Study of,

United Brethren in Christ.
Lafayette College,

D. L. THOMPSON, Plainfield, N. J.
Prof. J. M. D. MEIKLEJOHN, University of St.


Locke, John,-and other articles. Andrews, Scotland.

J. S. Thornton, B. A., University College English Literature.

School, London, England. Thomas MILLER, M. A., late Fellow of Queens'

King's College London),
College, Cambridge, England .

London, University of,
Cambridge University.

Murray, Lindley,
Prof. O. W. Morris, late of the Deaf and Dumb

Owens College Manchester, England),

Preceptors, College of,
Inst., New York.

Deaf-Mutes (in part).

University College (London).
Prof. EDWARD Olney, University of Michigan. WILLIAM B. Wait, Supt. New York Institution

for the Blind.

Blind, Education of the (in part).

S. WALKER, University College School, London,
S. S. PACKARD, of Packard Business College,


Working Men's College (London).
New York.

H. L. WAYLAND, Editor of The National Bap-
Business Colleges.

tist, Philadelphia Hon. John D. PHILBRICK, Supt. Schools, Bos- Rev. Dr. J. P. 'WESTON, Pres. Dean Academy,

Wayland, Francis. ton, Mass. Boston.

Franklin, Mass.
Hon. T. L. PICKARD, Supt. Schools, Chicago, Ni.


Prof. J. H. WORMAN, Norwich, N. Y.
Prof. A. RAUSCHENBUSCH, Theol. Seminary,


Rochester, N. Y.

Rome,-and other articles.

R. M. WYCKOFF, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Hon. ANDREW J. RICKOFF, Supt. Schools, Cleve-

edical Schools in part). land, O.

F. ZINSSER, M. D., New York.

Medical Schools in part).

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