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as to our reason, in the contemplation of metals, min"erals, plan"ts, and meteors."
"Proofs of the immortality of the so'ul/ may be justly drawn from the nature of the SUPREME BEING: concerned in this gre ́at-point/ are his justice, goodness, wis"dom, and vera"city."
An example exhibiting both the commencing and concluding series of four.
"He who resigns the wo'rld, has no temptation from en"vy, hatred, malice, an"ger, but is in constant possession of a serene mi`nd; h`e/ who follows the pleasures-of-it, (which are in their very nature disappo'inting) is in constant search of care", solicitude, remorse", and confusion."
Note. When a simple series extends to a considerable length, it may be divided into portions of three, counting from the last; if it be a commencing series, pronounce the two first with the falling, and the last with the rising inflexion; and, if a concluding series, pronounce the first with the falling, the middle with the rising, and the last with the falling inflexion.
"Love, joy, peace', long-suffering, gen'tleness, good'ness, faith', meek'ness, tem'perance, are the fruits of the spirit, and against such/ there is no law."
Me'taphors, enig'mas, mot'toes, par'ables, fa'bles, dreams', vi'sions, dramatic writings, burlesque', and all the methods of illu'sion, are comprehended in Mr. Locke's definition of wit, and Mr. Addison's short explan^ation-of-it."
"But the fruit of the Spirit is love', joy', peace', longsuf'fering, gen'tleness, good'ness, faith', meek'ness, tem'perance, -against such/ there is no law."
"Mr. Locke's definition of wit (with this short explication) comprehends most of its species; as metaphors, enig'mas, mot'toes, parables, fa'bles, dreams', vi`sions, dramatic writings, burlesque', and all the methods of illu'sion."
When the members of a sentence consist of several words, the series is designated compound, and, like the simple series, is divided into commencing and concluding.
A commencing compound series requires every member except the last, to be pronounced with the falling inflexion. EXAMPLES.
"Moderate exercise, and habitual tem"perance, strengthen the constitution."
"To advise the ignorant, reli'eve the need"y, com'fort the afflicted, are dut'ies/ that fall in our wa'y/ almost every da'y-of our lives.
"Labour or e'xercise/ ferm'ents the humours, casts them into their proper channels, throws off redun"dancies, and helps nature in those secret distributions, without which the bo'dy cannot subsist with vigour, nor the soul/ act with
"The descriptive part of this allegory/ is likewise very stro'ng, and full of sublim'e-ideas. The figure of death", the regal crow'n/ on his head", his menace of Satan, his advancing to the combat, the outcry at his birth", are circumstances too no'ble/ to be passed over in silence, and extremely suitable/to this King-of Terrors."
"Nature has laid out all her art in bea'utifying the face" she has touched-it/ with vermi"lion; plan'ted-in-it/ a double row of ivory; made it the seat of smiles and blush"es; lightedit up and enlivened-it/ with the brightness of the eyes"; hung it/ on each side/ with curious organs of sense"; given it air's and gra'ces/ that cannot be described; and surrounded-it/ with such a flowing sha'de of hair", as sets all its beauties/ in the most agreeable light."
Every member of a concluding compound series except the last but one, requires the falling iuflexion.
"Nothing te'nds/ more powerfully/ to strengthen the con
stitu'tion/ than mo'derate exercise, and hab'itual tem"perance."
"It was necessary for the world, that arts should be inven'ted and improved, books written and transmitted to poster"ity, na'tions con'quered and civilized."
"Notwithstanding all the pains which Cicero took in the e'ducation of his so'n, young Ma'rcus/ proved a mere blockhead; and na'ture (who it seems was even with the s'on/ for her prodigality to the father), rendered him incapable of impro'ving/ by all the rules of e"loquence, the precepts of philosophy, his own endeavours, and the most refined conversation/ in Athens."
Though we seem grieved at the shortness of life in general, we are wishing every period-of-it/ at an en'd. The minor/ longs to be at age", the'n/ to be a man of business, th ́en/ to make up an estate", the'n/ to arrive at hon"ours, and th ́en/ to retire".
"If we interpret the Spectator's words in their literal m ́eaning, we must suppose that women of the first quality/ used to pass away whole mornings/ at a puppet-show; that they attested their principles/ by patch"es; that an audience/ would sit out an evening/ to hear a dramatic performance, written in a language/ which they did not understand"; that chairs and flower-pots/ were introduced as a'ctors/ on the British stage"; that a promiscuous assembly of men and women/ were allowed to meet at midnight/ in ma'sks/ within the verge of the court"; with many improbab'ilities of the like"-nature."
Note. When a conditional or suppositive conjunction commences the series, if there is nothing particularly emphatical in it, the rising inflection on each particular is preferable to the falling, especially if the language be plaintive and tender.
"When the gay and smiling aspect of things/ has begun to leave the passage to a man's heart thus thoughtlessly ungua"rded; when kind and caressing looks of every object without, that can flatter his sen'ses, has conspired with the enemy within', to betray him and put him off his defence"; when music/ likewise/ hath lent her' aid, and tried her power upon the passions; when the voice of singing m'en and the voice of singing women (with the sound of the vi`ol and the l'ute) have broke in upon his soul, an'd/ in some tender notes/ have
touched the secret springs of rap"ture, that moment let us disse'ct and look into his heart"; see how vain", how weak", how emp"ty-a-thing/ it is"."
All questions may be divided into two classes; namely, into such as are formed by interrogative pronouns or adverbs; and into such as are formed only by an inversion of the common arrangement of the sentence. The former has been denominated "the question with the interrogative word," or "the indefinite question," and requires the falling inflexion; the latter is termed "the question without the interrogative word," or "the definite question," and almost always demands the rising inflexion.*
EXAMPLES OF THE INDEFINITE QUESTION.
"How can h'e exalt his thoughts/ to any thing great and no'ble, who only believes th'at (after a short turn on the stage of this wo'rld) he is to sink into oblivion, and to lose his con'sciousness for ev"er ?"
"Whe're (amid the dark clouds of pagan philosophy) can we find such a clear prospect of a future state", the immortality of the soul", the resurrection of the dead", and the general judgment, as in St. Paul's first epi ́stle/ to the Corinthians ?"
In this sentence, as in one purely declarative, each member, except the last but one, requires the falling inflexion; the word finishing the last member, requiring only a little additional force and it may be observed, that all interrogative sentences similarly constructed, must be pronounced according to the rule which relates to the series of which they are composed.
EXAMPLES OF THE DEFINITE QUESTION.
"Would it not employ a bea'u/ prettily enough, if (instead of eternally playing with his sn'uff-box,) he spent some part of his time in making one?"
* When the definite question is protracted to a considerable length, and concludes a paragraph, the falling inflexion must be used instead of the rising.
"Do we not sometimes feel the most at our ea'se, when we may be treading the confines of some im'minent dan"ger ?"
"Are we not often the least thoughtful, when our situation demands the utmost se"riousness ?"*
When interrogative sentences connected by the conjunction or, either expressed or understood, succeed each other, the first ends with the rising, and the rest with the falling inflexion.
Shall/ we in your person/ crown" the author of the public calamities, or shall we destroy" him ?”+
"See! Falkland dies! the virtuous and the jus't;
"Do the perfections of the Almighty lie dor'mant? Does possess them as if he possessed them not'? Are they not" (or understood) "rather in continual exercise ?"
Note. When or is used conjunctively, the inflexions are not influenced by it; and the usual termination of the definite question is adopted.
"Should these credulous i'nfidels (after all,) be in the right,
* An easy and familiar way of determining whether the interrogation be definite or indefinite, and consequently whether it require the rising or the falling inflexion, is, to observe whether it can, or cannot, be answered by a simple negative or affirmative :-if "yes" or "no" will answer it, and make sense, the question is "definite," and demands the rising inflexion; if it require more than a monosyllabic answer, it is "indefinite," and demands the falling. It must be observed, however, that the immediate repetition of the same question, requires a different inflexion of voice according to its form: Thus we say, when simply putting the definite question, "Are you going to College ?"-but, repeating it, we say with emphasis, "Are you going to College?" and putting the indefinite question in its simple form, we say, "When do you go to College ?"-but, emphatically, "When do you go to College ?" Thus we perceive the power of emphasis. It ought to be remarked, however, that such a forcible expression of it but seldom occurs.
†The rising circumflex (~) applied to " crown," and the falling (^) to destroy," appear more suitable than the simple inflexions.