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latter/ I consider as an a'ct, the for'mer) as a lorb'it-of-themind. Mir'th is sho'rt and tran'sient ; cheerfulness fi'xed and permanent. Those/ are often raised into the greatest transports of mi'rth, who are subject/ to the greatest depre’ssions of me'lancholy : on the con'trary, che'erfulness (though it does not give the mind such an ex'quisite gla’dness) prevents us from falling into any depths-of-soʻrrow. Mirth' is like a flash of lightning, that breaks through a gloom of clou'ds, and glitters for a mo'ment; ché'erfulness/ keeps up a kind of day'light in the mi'nd, and fills it with a steady' and perpetual sere'nity.
Men of austere prin'ciples/ look upon m'irth as too wa’nton and dissolute for a stat'e of probʼation, and as filled with a certain triumph and in solence of h'eart, that are inconsistent with a li'fe which i's/ every mo'ment/ obno'xious to the greatest dangers. Writers of this complexion have obse'rved, that the SACRED PE'rson, who was the GREAT PATTERN of perfe'ction, was never seen'/ to lau'gh.
Cheerfulness of mind/ is not liable to any of these exc'eptions: it is of a se'rious and compo'sed-nature ; it does not throw the m'ind/ into a condition, improper for the present sta'te of hum'anity; and is very conspi cuous/ in the characters of tho'se/ who are looked up'on/ as the greatest philo'sophers/ among the He'athens, as well as among tho'se who have been deservedly esteem'ed/ as sain'ts/ and ho'ly-men/ among Christians.
If we consider cheerfulness in three lig'hts, with regʻard to our'selves, to th'ose/ we converse' with, and, to the 'great Author of our be'ing, * it will not a little recommend it'self/ on each'-of-these-accounts. The man who is possessed of this excellent frame of mi'nd, is not only easy in his thoʻughts, but a perfect mas'ter of all the po'wers and fa'culties of his sou'l: his imagination is always cle’ar, and his judgʻment/ undistur'bed: his tem'per is e'ven and unr'uffled, whe'ther in ac'tion or in solitude. He co'mes) with a re'lish/ to all those goods/ which n'ature has provi'ded-for-him, tastes all the pleasures of the crea'tion which are poʻured upon him, and does not feel the fu'll weight of those accidental e’vils/ which may-befa'll-him.
If we consider him in relation to the persons whom he conve’rses with, sit naturally produces lov'e and good-will to
* When any of the various appellations of the Deity occur in reading, the voice should assume a solemn and reverential tone.
wards him. A cheerful mi'nd/ is not only disposed to be a'ffable and obli’ging, but raises the same good humour in tho'se/ who come within its in'fluence. A man finds himself ple'ased (he does not know why) with the cheerfulness-of-his-companion: it is like a sudden sun'shine, that awakens a sacred delight in the mi’nd, without her attending-to-it. The heart rejoices of its own acc'ord, and naturally flows out into friendship and benev'olence/ towards the person who has so kindly an effe'ct-upon-it.
When I consider this cheerful state of mind in its third relation, I cannot but lo'ok-upon-it/ as a con'stant, habitual gra'titude/ to the Au'thor of na'ture. An inward cheerfulness/ is an implicit prai'se and than'ksgiving to Pro'vidence/ under a'll its dispensations. It is a kind of acquies'cence in the sta'te/ wherei'n we are placed, and a secret approbation-of the Divine w'ill, in his con'ducts towards man'.
A ma'n/ who uses his best endeav'ours to live according-to the dictates of vir'tue and right rea'son, has two perpe'tualsources of cheer'fulness, (in the consideration of his own na'ture, and of that Be’ing/ on whom he has a depen dance.) If he looks into him'self, he cannot but rejoice in that exi'stence which is so late'ly bestowed upon him, and which (a'fter millions of a'ges) will be sti'll new, and sti'll in its beginning. How many self-congratulat'ions/ naturally rise in the mi'nd, when it reflects on thi's/ its en trance into eternity, when it takes a view of those improveable fa'culties, which in a few ye’ars (and even at its first setting oʻut) have made so considerable a pr'ogress, and which/ will be still receiving an increase of perfeʼction, and, co'nsequently, an in'crease of hap'. PINESS !* The con'sciousness-of-such-a-being/t spreads a perpetual diffusion of joy'/ through the soul of a virtuous-man, and makes him look upon himself every mo'ment/ as more h'appy/ than he knows ho'w/ to conce'ive.
The se'cond source-of-cheerfulness/ to a go'od-mind/ is its considera'tion of that B'eing, o'n whom we have our depe'ndance, and in 'whom (though we behold him as y'et/ but in
* Nouns ending in ness should have the e carefully sounded, and the termination should not be pronounced niss, as we too frequently hear it. The same rule should be observed in the pronunciation of nouns ending in ent.
† It will be observed, as in other similar combinations, that "consciousness-of-such-a-being” is one Rhetorical word, with the accent upon " con."
* Such a tone and modulation should be employed when a lesson is about to be finished, as to show the hearer (without his being told) that the subject is drawing to a close.
the affairs of thi's world, integrity/ hath many advan'tages over all the artificial modes of dissimula'tion and dece'it. It is much the pla'iner and eas'ier, much the safer and more secu'reways of de’aling in the woʻrld; it has less of trou'ble and di'fficulty, of entanglement and perple'xity, of dan'ger and haz'ard-in-it; it is the shortest and nea'rest way to our e'nd, carórying us thi'ther/ in a straight li'ne, and will hold o'ut, and last longest. The arts of deceit/ continually grow w'eaker, and less effec'tual to tho'se/ that prac'tise them; whereas, intergrity/ gains str'ength by use, and the mor'e and longer any man prac'tiseth it, the greater ser'vice it do'es him, by confirming his reputa’tion, and encouraging those with whom he hath to do', to repose the greatest confidence in hi'm. which is an unspeakable advan'tage in bu'siness, and the affai'rs of life.
A dissembler must always be upon his gu'ard, and watch himself care'fully, that he do not contradi'ct his own prete'nsions ; (for he acts an unna'tural part, and, the'refore, must put a continual force and restra'int upon him'self.) Where'as, he that acts sincerely, hath the easiest ta’sk in the wor'ld; because he follows na'ture, and is put to no trou'ble and ca’re/ about his woʻrds and actions ; he needs not invent any pretences before-hand, or make excuses af'terwards, for any thing/ he has sa'id/ or don'e ;
But, insincerity* is very troublesome to ma'nage ; a h’ypocrite/ hath so ma'ny-things to atte’nd to, as make his life a very perple’xed and intricate thing. A liar/ hath need of a good me'mory, lest he contradict at on'e-time what he said at anoʻther; but tru'th/ is always consis'tent with itself, and needs no'thing/ to help it o'ut; it is always near at ha'nd, and sits upon our li'ps; whereas a lie) is trou'blesome, and needs a great many moʻrel to make it goo'd.
A'dd to all this, that since'rityl is the most compendious wi'sdom, and an excellent instrument/ for the speedy dispa'tch of bu'siness. It creates confidence in those we have to dea'l with, saves the labour of many inq'uiries, and brings things to an is'sue/ in few wo'rds. It is like travelling in a pla'in, bea tenroad, which commonly brings a man sooner to his journey's en'd/ than byʻ-w'ays, in which/ men often lo'se-themselves. In
* “ Insincerity,” like “inconvenience," requires the rising circumfler. See page 5 of “ Introductory Outline.”
a word, whatever conve'nience may be thought 'to be in fal'sehood and dissimula'tion, it is soon oʻver ; but, the inconvenienceof-it/ is perpetual,* because it brings a man under an everlasting jea'lousy and suspicion, so that he i's-not-believed when he speaks tru'th, nor tru'sted/ when/ perha'ps/ he means hon'estty. When a man hath once forfeited the reputation of his inte'grity, nothing will the'n serve his tu'rn, neither truth nor false'hood.
Indeed, if a man were only to deal in the woʻrld for a da'y, and should never have occa'sion/.to converse moʻre with mankin'd, never more need their good opinion or good woʻrd, it were then no great mat'ter (as far as respects the affairs of this'-world) if he spent his reputation all at onc'e, and ven'tured it at one throw ;-b'ut, if he be to continue-in-the-world, and would have the advantage of reputation while he is i'n it, let him make use of truth and sincerity in all his wor'ds and ac'tions ; for/ nothing but thi's/ will hold out to the end. All other ar'ts may fai'l, but truth and integrity, will carry a man through, and bear him out, to the last'.
CHARACTER OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.
HUME. There are few pe'rsonages/ in hi`story/ who have been more expo'sed to the ca'lumny of e'nemies and the a'dulation of frie'nds, than Queen Eliza'beth, and yet there scarce is an'y/ whose reputation has been more ceʻrtainly dete'rmined/ by the unanimous conse'nt of poste'rity. The unusual le'ngth of her administra'tion, and the strong features of her cha'racter, were a'ble/ to overcome all prejudices; a'nd, obliging her detrac'tors) to abate mu'ch of their inve'ctives, and her admi^rers/ somewhat of their panegyʻrics, ha've, at la'st, (in spite of political fa'ctions, and, whʼat is mo're, of religious animo'sities), produced a uniform ju’dgment/ with regard to her co'nduct. Her visgour, her co'nstancy, her magnanimity; her penetra'
* The rising circumflex 0 is required at “inconvenience." This circumflex begins with the falling inflexion and ends with the rising upon the same syllable; and while it imparts to the word upon which it is placed a peculiarly significant emphasis, it seems to twist the voice upwurds. See page 5.