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clusion of Peace;" and Lord Granville Emperor Napoleon is still forinally, for again replied that it was not desirable to foreign Powers, the bearer of the soreoffer mediation “until there seemed to be reignty. I answer by the counter question a basis on which both parties would con- -What guarantee can the present Go. sent to negotiate." Similar observations vernment, or one of those which will are exchanged on the same day between probably follow it in Paris, give that Lord Lyons and M. Favre himself; but agreements with it would be recognized by M. Favre remained dissatisfied with Lord France, or even immediately only by the Granville's attitude, and on the 10th of troops at Strasburg and Metz 2 September he directed M. Tissot to express M. Favre replied as follows: the value he would attach to "a more “The guarantees justly required by active co-operation on the part of the Count Bismarck can be given in a twofold Cabinet of London ;" he said that public respect-political and military. From opinion in France looks for this co-opera- the political point of view the Governmeat tion, and has been painfully affected on of the National Defence will sign an learning that England, amid the cruel trials armistice, and call in an Assembly withoat which her most faithful ally is undergo- delay, which will ratify the Treaty of ing, hesitates to take a more decisive step." Peace to be concluded between the Prus.

In the midst of this restlessness and sian and the French Government. anxiety the mission of M. Thiers was “ From the military point of view the announced on the 12th of September. On Government of the Defence affords the the 13th of September Lord Granville same security as a regular Government, reports to Lord Lyons that M. Thiers inasmuch as all orders of the War Minis. asked for no forcible intervention, but ter are obeyed. Whatever in this respect appealed to England to exert her moral should be settled by means of an armistice influence to obtain peace. He urged that would, therefore, without delay be puncEngland “belonged to Europe,” and if she tually carried out.” would only take the lead, all neutral But M. Favre's eagerness had already nations would follow, and it would be im- outrun these despatches. He entertained possible for Prussia to withstand the moral the idea of going himself without delay to force of such a public opinion. Lord the German head-quarters, and Lord Granville replied that England had done Granville, if he did not suggest this course, more than she had a right to do, in the cordially supported it in his language both hope of preventing the war. Her advice to Thiers and to Lord Lyons. On the had been disregarded, and she could not 13th of September Lord Lyons tells Lord now interfere until a basis of negotiations, Granville it was the intention of M. Jules mutually acceptable to France and Prus- Favre to go to Count Bismarck himself, and sia, was apparent. Lord Granville also "to say frankly and fairly that the Governsuggested that it was worthy of M. Favre's ment did not shut its eyes to the results consideration whether he should not at of the campaign," and was prepared, in once negotiate the conditions of a Peace short, to yield “almost any thing, provided and not of an Armistice; and be urged the integrity of the territory be preserved." the importance of obtaining a regular Go- Meanwhile, to appease M. Favre's vernment by means of a Constituent anxiety, Lord Lyons had sent Mr. Malet Assembly. In a third interview M. Thiers through the French lines to insure the asked whether, if Russia were to take the first of M. Favre's communications initiative in addressing Germany in favour reaching Count Bismarck's bands. A of France, England “would not object to short answer which Count Bismarck be left behind" Lord Granville replied addressed to Lord Lyons is remarkable for that England felt no jealousy of other

a statement somewhat inconsistent with Powers in such a matter.

an assertion he afterwards made in his Let us now return to M. Favre. On account of the interview of Ferrières. the 13th Lord Granville received and for. 'Confidentially," he says, “I beg leave warded to Paris Count Bismarck's answer to inform your Excellency that we shall to M. Favre's question. The following always be ready to enter into negotiations was the telegram Count Bismarck sent to for peace but not for an armistice." M. Count Bernstorff in reply :

Favre carried away the impression that September 12, 1870. Count Bismarck expressed a similar obAlready said in previous telegram that jection to an armistice in conversation you are to meet every overture of the with him, but this was denied by Count Queen of England, but cannot attach to Bismarck. The question is more than the overtures of the Government now once suggested in the course of these acting in Paris the importance of an over. Papers, how far the idea of an armistice ture of the Government of France, because was at any time before the fall of Paris it is not yet recognized by France, and the agreeable to the Prussian authorities.

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The mission of Mr. Malet was opportune. conclusion of peace.” On the same day On the 19th of September, M. Favre told M. de Chaudordy, after discussing with Lord Lyons that, if Her Majesty's Go- Lord Lyons the divergencies between the vernment would not deem it discourteous, statements of Count Bismarck and M. he “would sacrifice all personal pride and Jules Favre, expressed the opinion that reserve," and if the answer of Count Bis- “ the best course would be for the neutral marck to his last message were longer Powers to ask Count Bismarck what his delayed, set out for the Prussian head- conditions really were ;” and he said M. quarters without waiting for it. Mr. Jules Favre represented that the pretenMalet was able to state that Count Bis- sions of Prussia were now avowed to be marck had said, “If the French Govern. such as it was manifestly impossible for ment wish to treat they should send some France ever to submit to. “He felt he one to do so; we will treat with any one was entitled to appeal to the rest of Europe they send.” Of the negotiation which for support. The time for good offices ensued two narratives were published by had passed. The Powers should now M. Favre and Count Bismarck.

speak to Prussia in a tone which could Meanwhile Count Bismarck bad issued not be mistaken, and take measures to his circular from Rheims, in which he ensure their being listened to.” In a publicly declared the intention of the despatch of the 4th of October, Lord German Government “to push back the Granville, after a review of the course French frontier on the south-west, and bitherto pursued by the Government, thereby the starting point of the French states explicitly that they are not prepared attacks," and to seek “ to acquire for Ger. to support by force any representations many the fortresses with which France they might make to Prussia, and that they threatens us, so as to make of them bul- must await some more favourable moment warks of defence." This circular was for interposition. officially communicated by Count Bern- It is quite lamentable to read the almost storff to Lord Granville, and it is impor. frantic cries for help which the French tant to observe that Lord Granville asked authorities uttered. One day M. de “whether any expression of opinion on the Chaudordy read to Lord Lyons a despatch contents of the Circular was invited by from M. Jules Favre "commenting with the Prussian Government," and the reply some bitterness upon what the writer was in the negative. The Prussians termed the abandonment of France by the maintained throughout a similar indis- Cabinets of Europe, and containing a posi. position to invite the opinion of England tive order to make a distinct demand for or of any other Power, and this attitude armed aid (concours arme) upon Italy.” seems materially to have affected Lord At this point we again hear of M. Thiers. Granville's course.

He himself sent by telegraph an account On the 25th of September M. de Chau. of his reception at St. Petersburgh. M. dordy, who now represented M. Favre at Thiers, it appeared, expressed very great Tours, called on Lord Lyons to urge that satisfaction with the reception which he “ the time was come for the formal recog- had met with from the Emperor and the nition of the present Government of imperial family, from Prince Gortchakoff, France by Great Britain.” He represented and other men in high office, as well as that the Government was now universally from the society in general. He had acknowledged and obeyed, that it was the found public opinion alarmed by the proonly possible Government in France at the gress of Prussia, and extremely well-dispresent moment, and that to recognize it posed towards France. The Emperor and would enable Her Majesty's Government, Prince Gortchakoff had expressed them. without in the least departing from neu- selves warmly against the enforcement by trality, to establish a claim to the grati. Prussia of any exorbitant terms of peace, tude and sympathy of the French nation. and had declared that Russia would never

Lord Lyons referred the matter to Lord give her sanction to any conditions which Granville, who contented himself for the were not equitable; and that, consemoment with approving a reference Lord quently, the sanction of the other Powers Lyons had made to the language used in would also be withheld, and the exactions of the interviews with M. Thiers. But, on Prussia would be simply the effect of force, the 1st of October, he reported to Lord and would rest on no European foundation. Lyons that the Cabinet fully sustained On the 10th of October Lord Granville his views with respect to the recognition writes to Lord Bloomfield at Vienna a of the French Government.

report of a communication which Count In answer to M. Cadorna, Lord Gran. Apponyi had been instructed to make to ville again expressed the opinion that him on the expediency of mediation " there is no means at present by which between France and Prussia, and on the the neutral Powers can accelerate the views with regard to it entertained by the

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Austro-Hungarian Government. Count already quoted from him. He again exBeust said that for special reasons it was pressed the opinion that England and impossible for Austria to take the initia. Russia might interefere, but he declined tive; but he was distressed at the "torpor to do so himself. On the question of the of Europe, and he thought England and recognition of the Provisional Gorern. Russia might move. Lord Granville adhered ment he beld language closely correspondto his ordinary language on the subject. ing to that of Lord Granville. In short,

On the 1st of October Count Bismarck Lord Granville said that though there issued from Ferrières the short despatch were some observations made by Count to Count Bernstorff in which he combated Beust in which he did not concur, yet “it the statement of M. Favre that “Prussia was satisfactory to see that the policy of means to continue the war and to bring the two Governments was the same.” France back to the position of a Power of Lord Lyons, on the 13th of October, the second rank.” We refer to it bere reports that the French Government ad. because in the course of it he distinctly- here to their first programme.

Nevermentions that the acquisition of Metz was theless Lord Granville appears at this included in “the general outlines” of the moment to have discerned a gleam of conditions of peace which he had sketched hope, for on the 16th, in a letter to Sir to M. Favre, and had indicated in his cir. A. Buchanan, he said there was some cular of September 16, dated from Meaux. reason to suppose the Provisional Govern. He speaks of “the cession of Strasburg ment would agree to Metz and Strasburg and Metz, which, in accordance with those being razed, and he wished to know ideas, we are striving for."

whether Prince Gortchakoff thought it On the 11th of October Lord Granville might be possible for England and Russia addresses a brief despatch to Lord Lyons, to come to some understanding on the in which he ventures further than he had reasonable terms of peace, and then make yet done in offering advice to the French. a joint appeal to both parties. This He instructs Lord Lyons, if an oppor. elicited some important statements on the tunity should arise, to point out that Her part of the Russian Government. Prince Majesty's Government are of opinion that Gortchakoff expressed a conviction even “the rigid adherence by M. Favre to the stronger than that of Lord Granville that conditions of yielding not an inch of terri- it would at present be of no avail to intory nor one stone of a fortress is a great terpose, and he added that Russia had obstacle to peace.”

already gone further than any other On the 5th of October M. de Chau. Power, " as the Emperor, in his private dordy, at Tours, again returned to the correspondence with the King of Prussia, subject of the intervention of the neutral had expressed a hope that no annexation Powers. He said :

of French territory would be required," “ It was possible there were terms upon

and the King had answered that he must which France and Prussia might agree if

be guided by the opinion of his allies and

of Germany they were proposed and insisted on by the united voice of Europe, but which neither

On the 18th of October M. Tissot was Power was in a position to propose to the

instructed to inforin Lord Granville that other."

overtures were being made to Italy to

give armed support to France, that there It was at this critical moment, when it were reasons which might induce Italy to was still hoped that the elections for a give it, and he hoped Lord Granville Constituent Assembly would be held, and would abstain from preventing Italy actthe question of Pence or War decided by ing on her own inspirations. At the same France herself, that M. Gambetta appeared time M. de Chaudordy at Tours, and M. at Tours, bringing with him a positive Tissot in London, were again urging order to postpone the elections indefinitely, England "to take at once a decided and and thus plunging France into the fierce Active part in the present state of affairs prolongation of a blind struggle. Lord in Europe, and to use their influence in a Lyons, on being informed of this, addressed direct manner to bring the war to an end some very just and vigorous remonstrances on terms which it would be possible for to M. de Chaudordy.

France to accept.” M. de Chaudordy reOn the 12th of October, Lord Gran- lied on that misconception to which we ville tells Lord Bloomfield he has learnt have already referred respecting the supfrom Count Apponyi that the Provisional posed “ League of Neutrals," urging that Government of France had appealed for by placing herself at its head England “the active support of Austria, even sup- had incurred a serious responsibility. She posing that Russia should maintain her had "prevented France finding active present attitude." Count Beust's answer allies," and thus rendered it incumbent was in the sense of the language we have

to take an aotive part in uniting

on her

the neutral Powers in a common effort to follow if means were not taken while it moderate the pretensions of Prussia.” was yet time to prevent the establishment Such an appeal is a testimony to Lord

of Prussian supremacy: Granville's wisdom in avoiding the more But though Her Majesty's Government formal and exacting engagement which could not yield to these passionate apCount Beust bad desired. Lord Lyons peals, they took advantage of Count had no difficulty in showing that the Bismarck's Circular respecting the dan. simple promise to communicate ideas bad gers of famine which threatened Paris, to no bearing on the present state of affairs, make a formal suggestion to Prussia and and at last, after reminding the Count France that they should agree upon an that “Her Majesty's Government had Armistice for the convocation of a Con. declared that they could not contemplate stituent Assembły: Having once sug. going to war with Germany," he begged gested this proposal, Lord Granville seems him “ to say distinctly what, short of this, to have pressed it with great energy. he would propose that England should He promptly informed Count Bernstorff do.” The following is M. de Chaudordy's of M. Thiers' proposal to undertake the answer :- He said he must premise that negotiation, and M. Thiers was assisted whatever England did must be done of in his application by the personal interher own accord, and must not have any vention of the Emperor of Russia. appearance of being prompted by France. Russia, Austria, Italy, and Spain joined After the rejection of M. Jules Favre's in urging the Armistice on both Governovertures, it was plain that France could ments, and Italy appeared to desire even not address Prussia again. What he more decided intervention. There is, would suggest was that Her Majesty's however, a despatch we reluctantly omit Government, acting quite apart from from Sir A. Paget, detailing an account France, should invite the other neutral furnished to him by M. Visconti Venosta Powers to make a combined application of a conversation with M. Senard, the to Prussia. England should, he thought, French Representative at Florence, in the take the lead in bringing the neutral course of which M. Venosta gave most Powers to an understanding on the sub- forcible expression to his views of the ject, or she might act alone. The object, course which political prudence recomin either case, would be to call upon mended to France at this juncture. If Prussia to say how far she meant to go; the rulers of France had been Italian in fact, to declare distinctly on what politicians, they would probably before conditions she would make peace. Hav- this have discovered some solution of their ing ascertained this, England and the difficulties. The manner in which Count Powers acting in concert with her might, Bernstorff at first replied to Lord Granin the same way, make themselves ac- ville's note of the 25th was not encourag. quainted with the views and feelings of ing. The French, on their side, appeared France. This being done, the neutral still dissatisfied, for M. Tissot called on Powers should hold a Conference (or, if Lord Granville to urge again that the this were objected to, communicate their neutral Powers should call on Prussia to ideas to each other in some other man- state her terms of peace, “bring them ner), and then pronounce, distinctly and within fair limits, and then communicate authoritatively, what were, in their

them to the French Government.” All opinion, equitable terms of peace, and the principal negotiators, however, adcall upon both belligerents to accept the hered to the prudent course of confining terms so laid down. Both France and the proposed negotiations solely to the Prussia must be disposed to listen with question of an Armistice.

We ought, respect to the voice of united Europe, and perhaps, to mention that the Russian each might find it easier to make con- Government addressed its official support cessions in deference to the recommenda- of Lord Granville's proposals to France tions of an European Conference than to alone, the Czar reserving all representayield to each other. Such was the plan tions to Prussia for his private corresponM. de Chaudordy would suggest : and if dence with the King. England was indisposed to take the lead We need not repeat from the Correin executing it, she might advise Italy or spondence the history of M. Thiers' missome other power to do so. Only, he re- sion and its failure on the question of peated, whatever was done, must be done revictualment. Soon afterwards, howaltogether independently of France and ever, Count Bernstorff said a renewed the French Government ; "en dehors de “ direct communication” would be wel. nous," was the expression he used. Hav- comed at Versailles, and this would be ing made this suggestion, M. de Chau. much the better course if the Provisional dordy reverted to the dangers to Europe, Government were in earnest. Lord and to England in particular, which must Granville said it appeared strange on the part of a great country like Germany to Prussia; and his Excellency added, morebe so sensitive as to the friendly action of over,

that any German Government which any other power; and that “the dead should accede to such proposals, without lock appeared to be created by the Ger- being obliged to yield to force of arms, mans declining to make advances, while would find itself in the position of being the French were at least equally indis- compelled to abdicate. posed to take first steps.” Lord Gran

I am, &c. ville telegraphed at once to Lord Lyons

(Signed) GRANVILLE. Count Bernstorff's statement of the will. ingness of the Prussian Chancellor to re- We now approach the end, and Lord sume the negotiation, and Lord Lyons Granville begins to use language of par. reported from a conversation with M. tial remonstrance to Prussia. Count Thiers and others that the French Go- Bernstorff gave him an opening early in vernment would gladly resume the nego- January, of which he availed himself as tiation on condition of revictualment.

follows: M. Tissot made representations in a “If Germany was unable to conclude similar sense to Lord Granville. The the war at once, obtaining her own terms following day M. Tissot made a renewed of peace, she would regret the persistent suggestion :- He thought the presence way in which she had shown her objecof Mr. Odo Russell at Versailles might tion to make use or to allow of the afford tbe Cabinet of London facilities for friendly offices of the neutral Powers. I negotiations." Lord Granville simply quite understood that being successful in referred, in reply, to the language we a great war of which she had to bear all have just quoted froin him and to the the brunt and all the sacrifices, she had fact that he “had been positively in. determined not to be dictated to by those formed by Count Bernstorff that a direct who had stood aloof. It was probably the communication from the French Govern- same feeling which had prevented the ment would be more likely to succeed.” Imperial Government from consenting But though M. Favre wrote on the 19th to any mediation. The Republican Gothat the Government of the National vernment had made different appeals to Defence “ were more than ever anxious us, to which we had invariably answered to be delivered from the horrible burden that we could not interfere unless our which had been on their shoulders since mediation or advice would be accepthe 4th of September last,” they still re- table to both parties or would be likely fused to make any overtures on their own

to be effective. If the war was continued, account, they maintained the impossibility if France became totally disorganized, a of holding elections without an Armistice, curse to herself and to Europe, incapable and they persisted in their request that of indemnifying Germany for the costs of Mr. Odo Russell might sound M. Bis- the war, and Germany had no resource marck. Lord Granville could not yield to but to seize and occupy vast territories this request, but nothing could discourage filled with unwilling inhabitants, blame the pertinacity of the French appeals for would attach to her for having rejected, help, and despatch after despatch de- not the intervention, but the good offices scribes interviews with M. de Chaudordy of some of the neutral Powers, of a cha. and M. Tissot. Lord Granville commu- racter which had so often led to satisfac. nicated one threefold alternative to tory results in international disputes.". Count Bismarck, at M. de Chaudordy's Then followed a despatch in which suggestion, and on the 19th of Decem- Count Bismarck enumerated the misber he sends to Lord Lyons the following

deeds of the French in the war. In uncompromising reply :

reference to this despatch, Lord Gran

ville wrote to Lord Loftus, at Berlin, on Foreign Office, Dec. 19th, 1870.

the 20th of January, urging that Ger. My Lord,—Count Bismarck, who has many, in the full tide of her victories, been made acquainted with the terms of could not fear any misconstruction of her your Excellency's telegram of the 16th motives in endeavouring to bring to an inst., has replied that it is quite impos- end the miseries of the war, and suggestsible to accede to any one of the three de- ing the advantage of a declaration by the mands of the French Government as Imperial Government of its views, and of therein stated-namely, either an Armi. its readiness to negotiate. stice with the condition of revictualling, The series closes with the documents in order to elect a Constituent Assembly; relating to the Armistice, and a final deor the conclusion of peace without any spatch from Lord Granville, announcing cession of territory; or the assembly of a the decision of the Cabinet on the ques. European Congress which should discuss tion of recognizing the Provisional Gothe questions at issue between France and vernment.

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