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he adds, were given him, "in language rence of the errors that have occurred calculated to convey conviction ” to his may be prevented in future.” M. Ser. mind. Another despatch from Count vais writes with equal fairness and Bismarck, and a report by Lord Granville moderation, and makes out a very good of corresponding statements made to him case. To our Minister at the Hague by Count Bernstorff, conclude the discus- he observes that, at the commencesion between the British and German ment of the war, fearing these diffiGovernments :

culties, he suggested “the appointment Versailles, January 20, 1871. in the Grand Duchy of agents” who Herewith I send your Excellency a copy might ascertain the authenticity of of a despatch dated the 7th of January facts alleged by either belligerent. This inst., addressed by Lord Granville to Mr. offer was declined by our Government, Odo Russell, and communicated by the and M. Servais bases on this a claim for latter to me, in answer to my despatch to the acceptance of his statements. He your Excellency of the 24th. It affords also points out “that the neutrality conme satisfaction to see that Lord Granville ferred on certain States in Europe would acknowledges that our despatch of the no longer haveany realexistence, if the exis3rd of December was not founded on any tence of a State constituted as neutral in intention of denouncing the Treaty of virtue of a treaty could depend on the will 1867, and that it relates only to military of a single one of the contracting Powers." measures of defence against the injuries He observes, with some reason, that since arising from the violation of the neutrality, the Treaty of 1867 restricted the Luxemwhich measures, as the royal British burg forces to the numbers necessary to Secretary of State admits, may be justified maintain order, allowances should be by the state of affairs. Under these cir- made for any apparent failure to deal cumstances I quite agree with Lord with large numbers of foreign soldiers. Granville that in the particular case the He proves, too, that his Government had question only depends on the actual state taken numerous precautions, for some of of affairs, and further discussion would be which they had received the thanks of the superfluous. I request your Excellency Prussian Minister, and that the Prussians to tell the royal British Secretary of State as well as the French had infringed the this, and to express my thanks for his neutrality of the Duchy. At the same communication. « VON BISMARCK.” time the French Minister in Brussels

In addition, the papers contain the avows to Mr. Lumley that he, of his own correspondence between M. Servais, the authority, had sent the provisions in quesMinister-President of the Luxemburg tion to Thionville, with a view of relieving Government, and Count Bismarck. It is Bazaine's army in the event of its breakunnecessary to enter into the details of | ing through the German lines. The im. the accusation and defence, the more so pression created by this part of the correas the correspondence ends with the very spondence is, in short, that the complaints reasonable proposal by Count Bismarck, of the Prussian Government were exag. which was at once accepted by M. Servais, gerated, that the Luxemburg Government that a special Plenipotentiary should be did its best to observe neutrality, but that sent to Luxemburg "to enter into a con- it was very difficult for it to avoid being sideration with the Grand Ducal Govern. compromised by others—both Germans ment as to the means by which a recur. and French.

VII.

LORD LYONS AND THE BRITISH RESIDENTS IN

PARIS.

AMONG the Parliamentary papers of the Session relating to the war appeared a correspondence between the Foreign Office and Lord Lyons respecting the departure of the Ambassador from Paris and the provision made for the withdrawal of British subjects. The last letter of the series is dated Bordeaux, February 26, and contains Lord Lyons' answer to the

charges made against him in Parliament. He writes :

“I perceive that observations have been made in both Houses of Parliament on the fact of my having left Paris in the month of September last, and on the steps which I took to provide for the protection of British subjects there during my absence.

“I do not think it necessary to say

much here on the first point. I was ad- against the course I took appear to resolve vised to remove to Tours by M. Jules themselves into a complaint that I did not Favre, and pressed to accompany them to leave Mr. Atlee the Consul at Paris, inthat place by the representatives of the stead of or in addition to Mr. Wodehouse, Great Powers of Europe. I travelled to one of the Secretaries of the Embassy. Tours with the representatives of Austria, “ What happened was this. When it Italy, Russia, and Turkey, and we were became apparent that an attack upon followed immediately, by the Spanish Paris was imminent I naturally became Charge d'Affaires, and afterwards by the desirous of reducing the number of memrepresentatives of other Powers. In fact, bers of the Embassy whom I kept with the only chief of a diplomatic mission me there to the lowest point compatible from a great Power who stayed in Paris with the performance of the work. Much was Mr. Washburne, the United States of the ordinary business, and in particular Minister. As representing a nation the not inconsiderable part of it caused which punctiliously abstains from taking by the passage of Queen's messengers, part in the political affairs of Europe, and the necessity of transmitting without Mr. Washburne had not the same reasons delay despatches brought by them, was as the representatives of European Powers sure to be suspended by the siege; confor removing to a place at which he could sequently, I thought that the services of serve as a means of communication be- two of the members of the Chancery tween his Government and the Govern- might be temporarily dispensed with. It ment of France; and, as being charged so happened that two of these had wives with the protection of North German and families, while the rest were unmarried. subjects in France, he was allowed by the I therefore selected, as most proper to German inilitary authorities facilities for send away, the two married men, of whom correspondence during the siege which

Mr. Atlee was one. were denied to the representatives of other “ As your lordship is aware, although Governments. I conceived at the time Mr. Atlee holds a commission as Consul, that it was my duty neither to reject the his principal functions are those of Attaché advice of the French Minister for Foreign Librarian and Registrar to the Embassy. Affairs nor to separate myself from my In ordinary times there are some technical principal colleagues, and I thought it advantages in having a person with the would be on all accounts inexpedient for character of Consul in immediate conme to allow myself to be shut up in Paris nexion with the Embassy, among which and to be deprived of all speedy and satis- may be reckoned his collecting, on account factory means of communicating with your of Her Majesty's Government, Consular lordship. My subsequent experience has, fees, which considerably exceed in amount I confess, confirmed me in these opinions. the Consular salary allowances. On the day after I left Paris, all commu. “Under the circumstances, however, nication by road with that place was in- under which my departure took place, tercepted, and on the following day the there were certainly no special functions last telegraphic wire was cut. The diplo. which could be better discharged by a matists who were left in the besieged city Consul than by a Secretary of the Emwere refused by the German authorities bassy. I had no power to take out of the positively all facilities for corresponding hands of the committee of the British with their Governments otherwise than Charitable Fund the management of the by letters left open for the inspection of charitable contributions for the relief of those authorities. My having resided at distressed British subjects. I had most cer. the seat of the Delegation of the Govern- tainly no wish to do so. On the contrary, I ment at Tours, and having followed them had the fullest confidence in the members to Bourdeaux, have been accepted by the of that committee, whom the most geneFrench as manifest proofs of the desire rous motives induced to stay in Paris ; of Her Majesty's Government to maintain and the noble and unwearied devotion intimate and friendly relations with them, with which they have discharged the while my doing so has afforded Her Ma- benevolent duties they undertook have jesty's Government the readiest and most more than justified the high opinion I had effectual means of maintaining such rela- formed of them. In fact, the object which tions in fact.

rendered the presence of a member of the “On the question of the provision made Embassy in Paris desirable was that he by me for the protection of British sub- should communicate officially with the jects when I myself left Paris, it may French Government and exercise an influperhaps be desirable that I should make ence with them on behalf of Her Majesty's some explanation in addition to the subjects; and it appeared to me that I reports which I addressed to your lord- should better provide for the attainment ship at the time. The objections made of this object by presenting a secretary to

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the Minister for Foreign Affairs as repre- “I left with Mr. Wodehouse orders to sentative of the Embassy than by simply come away from Paris himself if the place leaving a Consul in the town. I accord. should be threatened with immediate ingly presented Mr. Wodehouse to M. bombardment, and in that case to do Jules Favre in that capacity. In fact, his utmost to obtain a safe passage out while Mr. Wodehouse could perfectly well for all British subjects. I considered perform all the functions that could be that in such a contingency the protecdischarged by a Consul, he was in a much tion of any of our countrymen who better position than a Consul could have might still remain could not be trans. been for communicating efficiently with ferred to better hands than to those of the Minister for Foreign Affairs or other General Claremont, who, from his inti. French authorities.

macy with General Trochu, and his large “I was naturally anxious not to expose acquaintance among French military men any of Her Majesty's servants unneces- and well-known influence with them, sarily, and I conceived that by stationing would have peculiar means of befriending Mr. Wodehouse and General Claremont, and assisting British subjects, if actual the Military Attaché at Paris, I made the danger from military operations should be best provision in my power for the pro- imminent." tection of the British subjects who remained there.

VIII.

THE BLACK SEA CONFERENCE.

PROTOCOLS OF CONFERENCES HELD IN LONDON

RESPECTING THE TREATY OF MARCH 30, 1856.

(Translation).

PROTOCOL No. 1.
Sitting of January 17, 1871.

Present :
For North Germany-

Count de Bernstorff, &c.; For Austria-Hungary

Count Apponyi, &c. ; For Great Britain

Earl Granville, &c.; For Italy

The Chevalier Ch. Cadorna, &c.; For Russia

Baron de Brunnow', &c.; For Turkey

Musurus Pasha, &c. The Plenipotentiaries of North Germany, of Austria-Hungary, of Great Britain, of Italy, of Russia, and of Tur. key, met to-day in Conference at the Foreign Office.

The sitting is opened by his Excellency Musurus Pasha, who proposes that the Presidency of the Conference should be entrusted to Earl Granville in the follow. ing terins :

“Gentlemen,-Being met in Confer. ence for the examination of a question of high importance, our first duty is to pro

ceed to the choice of our President. As you have been so good as to permit me to speak on this occasion, I have the honour to propose to you to entrust the Presidency of this assembly to his Excel. lency Earl Granville, Principal Secretary of State of Her Majesty the Queen for Foreign Affairs.

“Not only is this an act of respect due to the august Sovereign under whose auspices we are called upon to fulfil an important mission, but it is at the same time an expression of the confidence wbich is inspired in our Governments and in all of us by the eminent qualities which render the noble lord so well fitted to give the best direction to the labours of the Conference, and by the enlightened solicitude with which he has applied himself since the commencement of the incident which is to occupy our attention, to preparing the way for a solution in conformity with international law and with the general desire for the preservation of peace.”

This proposal having been unanimously adopted, Earl Granville assumes the Presidency, and expresses himself as follows:

“I hasten to thank the Turkish Ambassador for the kind manner in which he has brought forward the proposal which

agree to.

you, gentlemen, have been so good as to tiary of France shall be requested to add

his signature to it. “I propose to you, gentlemen, to en- After expressing how much he shares trust to Mr. Stuart the drawing up of in the regret of the President at not the Protocols of the Conference.”

seeing France represented at the meeting This proposal having also been agreed of to-day, the Plenipotentiary of Turkey to, Mr. Stuart is introduced, and the declares that he has agreed in the name Plenipotentiaries proceed to the verifica- of his Government to the principle laid tion of their respective powers, which are down by the President with so much the found in good and due form.

more readiness, inasmuch as the Sublime Earl Granville then resumes :

Porte has, on all occasions, recognized its “I am deeply sensible,” he says, “ of binding character, and has constantly the honour which you have done me in conformed its policy thereto in its recalling on me to be President of this lations with foreign nations. Conference.

The Plenipotentiary of Austria-Hun“At the moment of commencing the gary says that the imperial and royal discussion of a great European question Government has not hesitated to accept in which France is deeply interested, and the meeting of this Conference, which has for which she has formerly made great been called to give a fresh pledge for the sacrifices, I cannot but express my great faith of treaties and for the principles as regret, which I am sure, gentlemen, is well as the interests which they are de. shared by you, at not seeing her repre- signed to secure. sented among us to-day.

He adds that it is in a spirit of con“But M. Jules Favre, designated as ciliation and of equitable appreciation Plenipotentiary of France, not being able that the Government of His Imperial and to be present at our meeting to-day, it Royal Apostolic Majesty has charged him only remains to me to propose to you

that to enter into the examination of the we should record by general agreement questions with which the Conference is to our hope that the French Plenipotentiary be occupied. These sentiments are the will eventually adhere to any decision to more in conformity with the intentions of be taken in this sitting, and that I should the Austro-Hungarian Government as it be permitted to communicate confiden- sees in them the means of once more tially to the Chargé d'Affaires of France placing on record, by means of an imparthe details of our labours to-day.”

tial examination, the agreement of the The Plenipotentiaries having declared Powers on the important questions which their complete assent on these points, form the object of the Treaty signed at Earl Granville continues :

Paris on the 30th of March, 1856. “The Conference has been accepted by The Plenipotentiary of Italy is rejoiced all the co-signatary Powers of the Treaty at the agreement of the Powers resulting of 1856, for the purpose of examining from the Protocol which has just been without any foregone conclusion and of signed, and at the declarations of the Pleni. discussing with perfect freedom the pro- potentiaries, in which he hastens to join. posals which Russia desires to inake to us Italy will be happy to lend her hearty with regard to the revision which she asks assistance to the important work of of the stipulations of the said Treaty general interest for which the Conference relative to the neutralization of the Black has met, and to enter upon it in the Sea.

fullest spirit of equity and concilia" This unanimity furnishes a striking tion. proof that the Powers recognize that it is On the invitation of the President, the an essential principle of the law of nations Plenipotentiary of Russia speaks. He that none of them can liberate itself from requests the permission of the Conference the engagements of a treaty, nor modify to read a summary which he wishes to be the stipulations thereof, unless with the inserted in the Protocol : consent of the contracting parties by “ The Plenipotentiary of Russia recameans of an amicable understanding. pitulated the circumstances and facts

“ This important principle appears to which, since the signature of the Treaty me to meet with general acceptance, and concluded at Paris on the joth of March, I have the honour to propose to you,

1856, have induced the Powers who gentlemen, to sign a Protocol ad hoc." signed it to give their assent to different

The Protocol in question is then sub- modifications which have contributed mitted to the Conference and signed by to alter in part the letter of the original all the Plenipotentiaries, who further stipulations. decide that it shall be annexed to the « He instanced specially the precedent general Protocol of the present sitting, of the Conferences held at different and that on his arrival, the Plenipoten- periods at Paris, and cited the decisions,

adopted by general agreement with the fact, His Imperial Majesty the Sultan view of modifying the Government of the desires to maintain with His Majesty the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia Emperor of Russia the best relations of -an alteration which received the sanc. friendship and good neighbourhood ; and tion of the Sublime Porte, as well as the and that, above all, the Sublime Porte assent of the other contracting Powers. is anxious to give, in the present circum

“He affirined that these deviations stances, a proof of its conciliatory disfrom the Treaty have exercised no in- position and of its solicitude for the cause fluence on the firm intention of the of peace, by joining in the examination of Emperor to maintain intact the general a question which equally concerns other principles of the Treaty of 1856, which great Powers, and which might otherhave defined the position of Turkey in wise lead to complications which it is in the system of Europe.

the general interest to prevent. “ After having explained the views of He declares that it is with this desire his august master on this subject, the and with these views that his august Plenipotentiary of Russia pointed out Master has commanded him to represent how much the present situation of Europe his Government in the Conference. differs from that which existed at the He concludes by begging the President time of the Congress of Paris.

to be so good as to postpone the next sit“At the present moment, taking into ting for some days, with the consent of serious consideration the changes gradu- the other members of the Conference, in ally produced by the course of time, the order that he may have time to consider Plenipotentiary of Russia thinks the con- the proposal of the Plenipotentiary of clusion must be drawn that it would be an Russia. act of prudent and wise policy to submit The Plenipotentiary of North Germany the stipulations of 1856, relative to the says that he is anxious to place on record, navigation of the Black Sea, to a revision at the opening of the Conference, that guided by an unanimous sentiment of the Government of the King his august equity and concord.

master, in being the first to propose a *« In fact, these stipulations, suggested meeting in Conference of the Plenipotenat another period under the influence of tiaries of the Powers who signed the conjunctures entirely different from the Treaty of Paris of March 30, 1856, has present situation, are no longer in har- done so in a spirit of conciliation, of mony with the relations of good neigh- equity, and of peace, and that it is in bourhood which exist at this moment be. this same spirit that his Court has in. tween the two Riverain Powers.

structed bim to support and to recom“ Further, the Plenipotentiary of mend to the serious consideration of the Russia, in conformity with the instruc- Plenipotentiaries of the other Powers tions with which he is provided, declared represented in the Conference the desire that his august master attaches a just of the Iinperial Government of Russia importance to this revision in the double to see the stipulations of 1856, relainterest of the security and of the dignity tive to the navigation of the Black Sea, of his empire.

submitted to a revision which should “In acquitting himself of the orders eliminate certain clauses, the restrictive of his Court on this point, he expressed character of which, as regards the exerthe hope that the new arrangements cise of the rights of sovereignty of the resulting from this revision will contri. two Riverain Powers, seems rather calbute to the confirmation of peace, which culated to maintain a state of uneasiness forms the subject of general solicitude between them than to confirin more and on the part of all the great Powers whose more, as is essentially desirable for the Representatives are assembled in Con. maintenance of tranquillity in the East, ference in London."

the relations of good neighbourhood The Plenipotentiary of Turkey says that which are happily established between he appreciates the spirit of conciliation the two Powers, and of which the Pleni. which bas dictated the statement of the potentiaries of Russia and Turkey have Plenipotentiary of Russia, and that, ani- both of them just given evidence. mated by the same conciliatory spirit, he His Majesty's Government has been

guided in this incident by the desire of points of that statement on which he bringing about, on the questions connected differs, and reserves the opinion of his with the navigation of the Black Sea, a Government.

general understanding between the great He observes, however, that the Sub. Powers of Europe, which cannot but conlime Porte regards the incident submitted tribute powerfully to the security of the to the consideration of the Conference East and to the maintenance of the indefrom a higher point of view; that, in pendence and integrity of the Ottoman

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