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1813, relative positions marked in the diagram at p. 168.

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Knowing that the greatest force of his ship lay in her
quarter, and the smallest force of the enemy's ship
in her bows, the first lieutenant of the Macedonian
wished that the latter should continue her course, so
as to pass ahead of the United-States, in the manner
represented by the strong line in the diagram. But,
captain Carden having decided to keep the weather-
gage, the Macedonian hauled close to the wind. At

9pe. 9 A.M., when abreast of the United-States on the

her fire

without

opposite tack, the Macedonian received her passing

... fire; but it did not produce the slightest effect, the

principal part of the shot falling short of, and the
rest going over her.

Mace- The rubicon being now passed, the Macedonian .." wore in pursuit; and, owing to her superiority of sailing already noticed, reached, at about 9 h. 20 m. A. M., a position on the larboard quarter of the american frigate. Here a broadside was exchanged: by that discharged from the Macedonian, the mizen topgallantmast of her opponent was shot away; and, by that from the United-States, the Macedonian lost her gaff halliards and mizen topmast, the latter falling into the main top. “This,” as a contemporary well observes, “ produced an equality in the rate of sailling, and the United-States kept her enemy in one F." on the quarter in a running fight.”* The of United-States steered about two points off the wind, ... and, by her diagonal fire, soon cut away the chock of, ** and dismounted, every carronade upon the starboard i. side of her opponent's quarterdeck and forecastle, * besides shattering the Macedonian's hull, and disabling man, a great portion of her crew. Having by this means up to reduced his antagonist to the use of her main

close.

deck battery only, and increased the disparity that
previously existed to more than double, commodore
Decatur, at about 10 h. 15 m. A. M., laid his main
topsail to the mast, and allowed the Macedonian, now
that it was too late, to come to close action.
By a few minutes past 11 A. M. the Macedonian
* Brenton, vol. v. p. 59. See also diagram at p, 168.

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had had her mizenmast shot away by the board, 18% and which had fallen over the starboard or engaged og quarter, her fore and main topmasts shot away by the caps, and her main yard in the slings, her lower masts badly wounded, rigging of every sort destroyed, a . . small portion only of the foresail left to the yard, and ...of two guns on the main battery, and all on the upper but .

two, disabled. The ship had also received upwards of donian.

100 shot in her hull, several of them between wind and water; and had all her boats, except the jollyboat

towing astern, destroyed, and more than a third of her crew killed and wounded. Owing, likewise, to the heavy sea and her dismasted state, the Macedonian rolled her maindeck guns under water; while the United-States, having no sail that she could not set but her mizen topgallantsail, remained perfectly steady. In this dreadful state, the men of the Macedonian still possessed the spirit of british seamen; and, at 11 h. 10 m., when the United-States was making sail, to get from under the lee of her opponent, and the

british frigate, as a last resource, had put her helm

a-weather, with the intention of laying the american frigate on board, “every man was on deck," says it lieutenant (now captain) Hope, “several who had of lost an arm, and the universal cheer was, ‘Let us ** conquer or die.’” Fortunately, considering the ow. unnecessary carnage that must have ensued, the fore brace was at that moment shot away, and the yard, swinging round, threw the ship up in the wind.

The to. then stood athwart the bows of the Macedonian, without firing a shot; having, it appears, expended all her cartridges. This circumstance, being unknown on board the Macedonian, led to a very erroneous impression; and, the crew continued to cheer after an enemy, who, until the United-States hove to out of gun-shot, they supposed was making off. As soon as she had refilled her cartridges and refitted her rigging, the United-States Mace. tacked, and at about noon stationed herself in a . raking position across the stern of her defenceless ders,

* Marshall, vol. ii. p. 1018,

1812, antagonist; who, having no means of making a oo further resistance, struck her colours. ! The following diagram is intended to represent the movements of the two ships, from the time that the Macedonian hauled up to pass to-windward of the United-States, to the termination of the contest.

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on Of her 254 men (deducting the eight foreigners K. who refused to fight) and 35 boys, the Macedonian donian had her boatswain, (James Holmes,) one master’s mate, (Thomas James Nankivee,) her schoolmaster, (Dennis Colwell,) 23 seamen, two boys, and eight marines killed, her first lieutenant, (David Hope, severely,) third lieutenant, (John Bulford, slightly,) one master's mate, (Henry Roebuck,) one midshipman, (George Greenway,) one first-class volunteer, (Francis Baker,) 50 seamen, (two mortally,) four boys, (two with each a leg amputated,) and nine marines wounded; total, 36 iii.;and 68 wounded. The United-States is represented, by her captain

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and his officers, to have had her masts and rigging 1813; not materially injured, and to have received only nine Too. shot in her }. “ It is remarkable,” adds one of her officers, “that, during an action of one hour and a half, and a fire which I believe was never equalled same by any single deck, not an accident occurred, nor a ...a rope-yarn of our gun-tackle strained.” Her loss, from Unitedthe same authority, amounted to no more than five * seamen killed, lieutenant John Musser Funk and one seaman mortally, and five others badly wounded. The slightly wounded, as in all other american cases, are omitted. With respect to the damage sustained by the DaUnited-States, although commodore Decatur makes. very light of it, captain Carden represents, that ted. the United-States “was pumped out every wateh * till her arrival in port, from the effect of shot received under water, and that two 18-pounders had assed through her mainmast in a horizontal line.” he masts of the american 44, it should be stated, are as stout as those of a british 74-gun ship; and, to render them still more secure from the effects of shot, four large quarter-fishes are girthed upon them. Although none of her masts, except her mizen topgallantmast, were shot away, the rigging of the UnitedStates was much cut. The reason that the american frigate had to refill her cartridges, all of which had been expended in the action, has already appeared;f and one of her officers, in a letter to a friend, exhibits the practical advantages of sheet-lead cartridges in the statement, that, during the time, the Macedonian was firing 36 broadsides, the UnitedStates fired 70. But an allowance must here be made for the inability of the Macedonian, during a third at least of the action, to bring more than a few of her bow-guns to bear. We shall, as in the case of the Guerrière, exclude Guns from the broadside force, the Macedonian's boat- . carronade. We might be justified in doing the .* |B1* same with the two french 8-pounders; for, it apor pears, they “ were only fired once, the solder, by which pieces of metal for securing the locks had been affixed to them, having run the first discharge, and filled the touch-holes.” With respect to the United-States, we shall exclude her top-guns, although, during the time the close action lasted, they were used incessantly and with considerable effect, the shot from them frequently passing through the Macedonian's decks as she rolled; but the travelling carronade, having a port expressly fitted for its reception, we shall estimate as a part of the broadside force, and consider to have been an 18-pounder, although we are doubtful if it was not a 24. Captain Carden appears to think that he has underrated the crew of the United-States, and that the number, instead of being 478, as expressed in his official letter, ought to be 509, “the officers' names not being entered in her victualling book.”* We differ from him on this point, and shall abide by his official statement ; allowing four boys, although one only was seen, and he was at least 17 years of age. Error . Upon the authority of a statement made by captain ...et. Carden, Mr. Marshall has represented the size of

* Marshall, vol. ii. p. 1012. t See p. 149.

spect

ing the the United-States to be “ 1670 tons,” as “taken : from the register of New-York dock-yard.” In to the first place, there was no national dock-yard at §. New-York, until long after the United-States was launched. Secondly, that frigate, as we have already shown, was built at Philadelphia. Thirdly, 1670 tons, american measurement, which the statement must mean, if it means any thing, would be equal to 1800 english ; thus swelling the american 44-gun frigate to a most extravagant size indeed, In direct opposition to this, a british officer of distinction was informed by an officer belonging to the United-States, at a time when there was no motive to deceive, that that frigate measured between 1400

and 1500 tons; which, allowing for the difference * Marshall, vol. ii. p. 1013. t See p. 7.

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