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1813, at least six or seven very young boys. The tophamper necessarily diminishes the vessel’s rate of sailing; and another impediment frequently arises from the inexperience of her commander, in the art of working to advantage a schooner-rigged vessel.

Care. To whatever is classed under one head, people are

... apt, and very naturally, to attach an idea of equality;

judo, and the stronger party is sure to triumph in his'

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js victory, until the weaker party has shown the disto parity of force, against which he had to contend. ão. It too frequently happens, that this is not done; ... and, before it can be done with effect; two operations are necessary: the removal of one impression, and the substitution of another. The President and the Southampton* are “frigates;” the Peacock and the Childers+ are “sloops of war;” and the following statement will show, that one “man-of-war schooner” may differ in force and size from another, to even a greater extent than in the case of the frigate or the sloop. The american privateer-schooner Harlequin, of Boston, measured 323 tons, and mounted 10 long 12-pounders, with a crew of 115 men. Her mainmast was 84 feet, and her fore yard 64 feet, in length. Her bulwark was of solid timber, and four inches higher, and two inches thicker, than that of the british 18-gun brig-sloop. The Whiting schooner and her class, on the other hand, measured 75 tons, and mounted four 12-pounder carronades, with a crew of 20 men and boys; and her bulwark, if it deserved the name, consisted, with here and there a small timber, of an outside and an inside plank. propri. We trust that the importance of the subject, into of which we have entered at such length, will be rejor ceived as an excuse for this digression; but, in .* reality, it is only the concentration of remarks which being would otherwise have been scattered over our ac...a counts of the different american actions, and perhaps

ulted to not so well understood, nor so usefully applied.

* See pp. 7 and 10. t See vol. v. p. 39.

Previously to quitting the topic of improvements in 1813. ship-building, we have one more observation to make. T It has already been stated, that the american govern-on. ment is in the habit of appointing an experienced of naval captain, to superintend the construction of each of of their larger ships of war. This, although accom-" plished with ease in a small navy like that of the United States, would be quite impracticable in a navy like that of England. But, as in most of the higher classes of british ships it is usual to construct many individuals from one draught, might not that draught, with an accompanying exposé, showing the size of the intended scantling, the number and nature of the ordnance, the length and diameter of the masts and yards, and, in short, every other particular calculated to dispense with the actual inspection of a model, be submitted to a committee of experienced naval officers ? Had any three captains, or commanders, been consulted, when the Bonne-Citoyenne's beautifully proportioned form was proposed to be shortened and contracted for “improvement,” the british navy would never have owned such ships as the Cyrus and her 17 class-mates. The number of commissioned officers and masters, officers belonging to the british navy at the beginning of the .

british year 1813, was, navy. Admirals . . . . . . . . . 64 Vice-admirals . . . . . . 69 Rear-admirals . . . . . . . 68 25 superannuated 28 Post-captains . . . . . . . 802 - 55 92 32 Commanders or sloop-captains 602 32 superannuated 50 Lieutenants . . . . . . . . 3268 Masters . . . . . . . 629

And the number of seamen and marines, voted for the service of the same year, was 140000.*

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state of

- owing to a deficiency of seamen and the dis

affected state of those that remained, the Scheldt

fleet, numerically strong as it was, gave, during this

§. year, very little trouble to those that blockaded it;

mor did the Brest squadron, or fleet, as it now might
almost be called, make any attempt to put to sea.
On the 27th of August the newly-formed port of
Cherbourg was opened, with great pomp, under the
eyes of the empress Marie-Louise; and on the 12th
of October the 80-gun ship Zélandais, the first line-
of-battle ship constructed atCherbourg,was launched:
another was also getting ready with all possible de-
spatch. Since the 28th of May the french 74-gun ship
Régulus, from Rochefort, had anchored in the river
of Bordeaux; and, according to the french accounts,
she was the first ship of her class, that had ever
entered the Gironde.
Toulon was now the only french port to be looked
to for any operations of importance between the
fleets of England and France. The british Mediter-
ranean fleet remained in the able hands of vice-admiral
sir Edward Pellew, and the fleet in Toulon was still
under the command of vice-admiral the comte
Emeriau. The flag of the latter was flying on board
the 130-gun ship Impérial, and the flag of the second
in command, the baron Cosmao-Kerjulien, on board
the Wagram, of the same force. On the 15th of
August the 130-gun ship Héros was launched; mak-
ing the sixth three-decker in the port. Not being
able to discover the launching of any three-decker
in Toulon named Impérial, we consider that the
Austerlitz had recently changed her name; espe-
cially as, at the latter end of 1812, the flag of vice-
admiral Emeriau was flying on board of her. The
addition of the Héros makes the total number of line-
of-battle ships 21 ; all, except the Héros and Monte-
bello, at anchor in the inner and outer roads, in
company with ten 40-gun frigates and one 20-gun
corvette. On the stocks there were two 80s, and one
74, the latter in a very forward state,

and Brest fleets. Opening of Cherbourg.

Fleets before and in Toulon

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Although a dearth of seamen, owing to the draughts (818. sent away to the army, prevented the Toulon fleet, . as a body, from making any serious attempt to put to of sea. sea during the year 1813, large divisions of it, when . the wind would serve also for returning, frequently fleet. weighed from the road, and exercised in manoeuvring between the capes Brun and Carquaranne. In the latter part of October the british fleet was blown off its station by a succession of hard gales, which lasted eight days; and it was only on the evening of the 4th of November, that the in-shore squadron, consisting of the 74-gun ships Scipion, Mulgrave, Pembroke, and Armada, captains Henry Heathcote, Thomas James Maling, James Brisbane, and Charles Grant, arrived off Cape Sicie. The main body of the british fleet at this time consisted of the

gun-ship vice-adm. (r.) sir Edward Pellew, bt. Caledonia ........ - rear-adm. (w.) Israel Pellew.

12O captain Jeremiah Coghlan. Hibernia .......... ,, Thomas Gordon Caulfield.

112 San-Josef {..." (b.) sir Richard King, bt.

captain William Stewart.

100 Royal-George...... ,, T. Fras. Ch. Mainwaring.
Boyne . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, George Burlton.

98 Prince-of-Wales . . . . ,, John Erskine Douglas.
Union ......... ... , Robert Rolles.
Barfleur .......... - ,, John Maitland.

74 Pompée .......... ,, sir James Athol Wood.

On the 5th, at 9 h. 30 m. A. M., vice-admiral comte Comte Emeriau, in the Impérial, with, according to the jo french accounts, 12, and according to sir Edward soils Pellew's letter, 14, sail of the line, six frigates, and out, the Victoire schooner, got under way with a strong east-north-east wind, and stood to the usual spot for exercise. Captain Heathcote's squadron was off Cape Sicie; and the main body of the british fleet, consisting, as already shown, of nine sail of the line, had just hove in sight from the southward, standing under." close-reefed topsails, to reconnoitre the port. At on 11 h. 30 m. A. M., just as the french advanced squa- . dron, of five sail of the line and four frigates, under of ed

rear-admiral the baron Cosmao, had got a little to * 1813, the south-east of Cape Sepet, the wind suddenly

‘S. shifted to north-west. This unexpected occurrence, while it set the french ships to trimming sails to get back into port, afforded to the leading british ships a prospect of cutting off some of the leewardmost of the former, the names of which were as follows:

gun-ship dm. lebaron C Keriuli
- rear-asim. Ie baron UOSm30-I\erill 11611.
130 Wagram . . . . . . . . . . {. François Legras. J
Agamemnon . . . . . . ,, Jean-Marie Letellier.
74 |: * * * * * * * * * * * * * ,, C.-J.-César Chaunay-Duclos.
o) Magnanime . . . . . . . . ,, Laurent Tourneur,
Borée . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, Jean-Michel Mahé.
gun-frig. -
Pauline. . . . . . . . . . . . , Etienne-Stanislaus Simiot.
O | Melpomene . . . . . . . . ,, . Charles Beville.
Pénélope . . . . . . . . . . , Edme-Louis Simonot.
Galatée. . . . . . • * * * * * ,, Jean-Bapt. Bonafoux-Murat,

capt. The british in-shore squadron immediately stood .* for the french rear; and at 34 minutes past noon the sands, leading british ship, the Scipion, opened a fire from to: her larboard guns upon the nearest french ships, french which were then standing on the opposite or star* board tack; as did also, in succession, the Mulgrave, Pembroke, Armada, and Pompée, (who had just joined,) as they followed the Scipion in line astern. At 40 minutes past noon, having passed over, the Scipion wore, to bring her starboard broadside to bear; and in two minutes afterwards the first french shot that took effect carried away part of the Pembroke's wheel. The five british 74s, having wore round and come to, continued the cannonade with their starboard broadsides, and were then not more than a mile distant from the shore near Cape Sepet. ; At 45 minutes past noon the advanced squadron Fow, filled and stood on ; and at 1 P. M. the Caledonia, ... Boyne, and San Josef, who were far ahead of the reships, mainder of their fleet, stood in-shore athwart the ..., bows of the former. In four minutes the Caledonia the opened a heavy fire from her larboard guns upon the * sternmost french ship, the Wagram; who, being then

on the starboard tack, returned the fire with her

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