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dépôts for militia arms, &c. Learning, afterwards, 1814. that general Hungerford had rallied his men at Kinsale, the rear-admiral proceeded thither; and, although the position of the Americans was extremely strong, they had only time to give the British an ineffectual volley before the latter gained the height, when the Americans again retired with precipitation, and did not reappear. The stores found at Kinsale were then shipped without molestation; and, having burnt the storehouses and other places, with two old schooners, and destroyed two batteries, the rearadmiral reembarked, bringing away five prize schooners, a large quantity of tobacco, flour, &c. afield-piece, and a few prisoners. The american general Taylor was wounded and unhorsed, and escaped only through the thickness of the wood and bushes, into which he ran. The British had three men killed, and as many wounded. Thus 500 british marines, and 200 seamen and marine-artillery, penetrated 10 miles into the enemy's country, and skirmished, on their way back, surrounded by woods, in the face of the whole collected militia of Virginia, under generals Hungerford and Taylor; and yet, after this long march, carried the heights of Kinsale in the most gallant manner. Coan river, a few miles below Yocomico, being The the only inlet on the Virginia side of the Potomac, ** that the rear-admiral had not visited, he proceeded i. on the 7th to attack it, with the boats and marines. ..." After a tolerably quick fire on the boats, the enemy Mary's went off precipitately, with the guns. The battery “ was destroyed, and the river ascended; in which three schooners were captured, and some tobacco brought off. On the 12th the rear-admiral proceeded up St.-Mary's creek, and landed in various parts of the country about that extensive inlet; but without seeing a single armed person, although militia had formerly been stationed at St.-Mary's factory for its defence, the inhabitants of the state appearing to consider it wiser to submit, than to attempt opposition. On the 15th of August the rear-admiral

1814, again landed within St.-Mary's creek; but found, in the different parts of the country, the same quiet and submissive conduct on the part of the inhabitants, as in the places visited on the 12th. Some hints thrown out by the british commissioners at the conference at Ghent, coupled with the * rumoured destination of british troops shipping in the on ports of France, induced the american commissioners .* to intimate to their government, that an attack upon wash- the federal city would probably be made in the course * of the summer of 1814. This notice reached Mr. Madison on the 26th of June; and, on the 1st of July, he submitted to his council a plan for immediately calling 2000 or 3000 men into the field, and holding 10000 or 12000 militia and volunteers, of the neighbouring states, in readiness to reinforce that corps. On the next day he created into a military district, the whole state of Maryland, the district of Columbia, and that part of Virginia north of the Rappahannock river, embracing an exposed coast of nearly 1000 miles; vulnerable at every point, and intersected by many large rivers, and by Chesapeake bay. On the 4th of July, as a further defensive preparation, the president made a requisition to the several states of the union, for 93500 militia, as . authorized bylaw; designating their respective quota, and requesting the executive magistrates of each state, to detach and hold them in readiness for immediate service. Of these 93500 militia, 15000 were to be drawn from the tenth military district, or that surrounding the metropolis, for whose defence , , they were intended. 3." On the 2d of June the british 74-gun ship miral Royal-Oak, rear-admiral Pulteney Malcolm, captain ‘...." Edward Dix, accompanied by three frigates, three

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*... sloops, two bomb-vessels, five ships armed en flûte, f..." and three transports, having on board a body of

... troops under major-general Ross, sailed from Verdon peake road at the mouth of the Gironde. On the 24th of

July the squadron arrived at Bermuda, and there

joined vice-admiral Cochrane, in the 80-gun ship 1814. Tonnant. On the 2d of August, having received A. on board the Tonnant major-general Ross and his staff, sir Alexander sailed, in company with the 18-pounder 36-gun frigate Euryalus, captain Charles Napier, for Chesapeake bay; and on the 14th of August arrived, and joined the Albion, rear-admiral Cockburn, off the mouth of the Potomac. On the next day major-general Ross, accompanied by rearadmiral Cockburn, went on shore to reconnoitre. The rear-admiral's knowledge of the country, as Genewell as the excellent plan he adopted to prevent.” surprise, enabled the two officers to penetrate further rearthan would otherwise have been prudent. The thick §. woods that skirt, and the numerous ravines that burn intersect, the different roads around Washington, . offer important advantages to an ambushing enemy..." Rear-admiral Cockburn, therefore, in his frequent washwalks through the country, invariably moved forward * between two parties of marines, occupying, in open order, the woods by the road-side. Each marine carried a bugle, to be used as a signal, in case of casual separation, or the appearance of an enemy. It was during the excursion with general Ross, that rear-admiral Cockburn suggested the facility of an attack upon the city of Washington; and general Ross determined, as soon as the troops should arrive from Bermuda, to make the attempt. On the 17th of August rear-admiral Malcolm British arrived with the troops, and joined vice-admiral; Cochrane off the mouth of the Potomac.; and the . whole proceeded to the Patuxent, situated about 20 p miles further up the bay. In the mean time captain James Alexander Gordon, of the 38-gun frigate Seahorse, with some vessels of the squadron, had been detached up the Potomac, to bombard Fort Washington, situated on the left bank of that river, about 14 miles below the federal city; and captain sir Peter Parker, with the 38-gun frigate Menelaus, had been sent up the Chesapeake, above Baltimore,

1814, to create a diversion in that quarter. The direct ... route to Washington, from the mouth of the Potomac, ...” was up that river, about 50 miles, to Fort-Tobacco; ... thence, over land, by the village of Piscataway, 32 expeii-miles, to the lower bridge across the eastern branch * of the Potomac ; but, as no doubt could be enterWash tained that this bridge, which was half a mile long, * and had a draw at the west end, would be defended, as well by a body of troops, as by a heavy sloop of war and an armed schooner known to be in the river, a preference was given to the route up the Patuxent, and by Bladensburg; where the eastern branch, in case of the bridge at that spot being destroyed, could be easily forded. room, Commodore Barney's gun-boats were still lying in land the Patuxent. An immediate attempt against this in flotilla offered two advantages; one, in its capture boats, or destruction, the other, as a pretext for ascending #." the Patuxent, with the troops destined for the tuxent attack of the federal city. Part of the ships, having advanced as high up the river as the depth of water would allow, disembarked the troops, about 4000 in number, on the 19th and 20th of August, at Benedict, a small town, about 50 miles south-east of Washington. On the 20th, in the evening, rear-admiral Cockburn, taking with him the armed boats and tenders of the fleet, having on board the marines under major Robyns, and the marine-artillery under captain James H. Harrison, proceeded up the river, to attack commodore Barney's flotilla; and to supply with provisions, and, if necessary, afford protection to, the army, as it ascended the right bank. The boats and tenders were separated into three divisions. The first division was commanded by captains Thomas Ball Sullivan and William Stanhope Badcock, the second, by captains Rowland Money and James Somervell, and the third, by captain Robert Ramsay; and the whole was under the superintendence and immediate management of captain

John Wainwright, of the Tonnant. The frigates Severn and Hebrus, captains Joseph Nourse and 84. Edmund Palmer, accompanied by the brig-sloop W. Manly, captain Vincent Newton, had been also directed to follow the boats up the river as far as might prove practicable. On opening the reach above Pig point, the rear-o. admiral, who had just before been joined by captains ion of Nourse and Palmer with the boats of their two . frigates, which they could get no higher than Benedict, lore discovered commodore Barney’s broad pendant in . the headmost vessel, a large sloop, and the remainder flotilla. of the flotilla extending in a long line astern of her. The british boats now advanced as rapidly as possible; but, on nearing the flotilla, the sloop bearing the broad pendant was observed to be on fire, and soon afterwards blew up; as did 15 out of the 16 remaining gun-boats. The one in which the fire had not taken, was captured. The rear-admiral found 13 merchant schooners, which had been under commodore Barney’s protection. Of these, such as were not worth bringing away, were destroyed. The remainder were moved to Pig point, to receive on board the tobacco which had been there found. The destruction of this flotilla secured the right. flank of the army under major-general Ross; who, on ..." the afternoon of the 22d, with the troops, arrived "r" and encamped at the town of Upper-Marlborough, Uppersituated about four miles up the western branch of. the Patuxent. The men, therefore, after having been nearly three months on board ship, had, in less than three days, marched 40 miles; and that in the month of August, when the sultriness of the climate could scarcely be tolerated. While general Ross and his men were resting themselves at UpperMarlborough, general Winder and his army, now joined by commodore Barney and the men of his flotilla, were lying at their encampment at the long Old-Fields, only eight miles distant. On the next morning the american troops were reviewed by Mr. Madison, “their commander in chief, whose martial

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