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but very indifferent with Regard to our Intereft, however folicitous they may be in cultivating what they may call their own? *

Another Hardfhip is, not being fuffered to go into thofe Manufactures which Nature has fitted and defigned us for. This Reftraint, you are fenfible, is laid upon us under the Pretence, left we fhould rival our Mother Country. Whereas God and Nature no doubt defigned, that every Part of the Globe fhould contribute its Quota towards the Wants and Advantages of human Life; and to restrain any Part of the Earth, in this Refpect, from political Confiderations, is nothing less than laying an Embargo upon Nature, and fhackling, as it were, Divine Providence itfelf. If we rival Europe in fome Articles, Europe rivals us in others." Nature ought to have its free Course in this Respect, and not to be checked and put out of the Direction the God of Nature and the great King of Kings has given her, Nor, indeed, are Princes aware what Injuries they do themfelves, as well as what Hardfhips they lay their Subjects under, by Restraints of this Kind: How many Countries have revolted, and others been loft and torn from their Mother Nations by being kept in this Bondage? And it will be well, if, by thus keeping down the American Colonies, and not letting us exert our natural Strength, we do not become a Prey to a foreign Power, inftead of being a Defence to our Mother Country, as we might eafily have been made ere this in much greater De


* Without an Attendance to the above Confiderations, it is hard to conceive, how fuch enormous Encroachments could have been fuffered to have taken Place on our Territories in America, by the French and Spaniards; mere efpecially by the former, who have in a Manner covered that Country with their Forts, in order to maintain thofe Encrachments. See a Map published in the Gentleman's Magazine for July, 1755, where thefe Encroachments appear by Infpection, as allo the numerous Forts built in Defence of them, many of which have been erected fince the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle.

grees than we are now capable of being, had we been fuffered to have exerted ourfelves in our own proper Sphere.

Another Inftance of grofs Neglect has been the not repelling, immediately and without any Lofs. of Time, the firft Encroachments, whether on the Seacoaft, or Inland, or with regard to Iflands. As foon as ever Advice had been received that the French or Spaniards had invaded our Territories, or neutral Lands or Iflands, and were beginning to fettle and fortify themselves upon then, we should have gone against thefe Invaders directly, and have driven them out Sword in Hand; and not pretended to have entered into Treaty with People who will fpend Year after Year in treating with you, and keep all the while invading you, and fortifying themfelves in thofe Invafions, and then you may drive them out of their Encroachments how you can. the French or Spaniards had 'any Demands upon us, they should have propofed them to us, and made their Claims; and if we would not have heard the Voice of Treaties, of Evidence, Reason and Justice, it would then have been Time enough for them to have had Recourse to Arms; but to invade us first, and then to talk about treating, is all a mere Joke.*


But once more, our Mother Country has been certainly wanting to us, as well as to herself, in not directing long fince the building a strong Squadron of Ships here, where we have fo many Materials towards it, and could fo eafily have manned them; which would have ferved as a Fleet of Obfervation to have watched the Sea-coafts, and prevented all Encroachments upon them, not to say on the neutral American Iflands; and even the Landing of the last


*It was as long ago as July, 1754, that the French had the Infolence to attack Colonel Washington, and to drive him out of Fort Neceffity in Virginia, murdering a Number of his Men; at which Time the whole Garrifon narrowly escaped being put to the Sword,

late Armament from France, which may prove fo fatal to us, if not counterwrought by a proper Reinforcement from England, might, in all Probability, have been prevented.

What fhall I fay to the giving up Cape-Breton? Had we been fuffered to keep that important Place, it might have prevented the prefent American War, by breaking, in a good Measure, the Chain which the French have formed between Canada and Louisiana. Certainly, as it was an American Conqueft, it ought in Juftice, and more efpecially in Policy, to have been left to America. And if all the Powers of Europe cannot, or will not make Head against France on the European Continent, why muft America, a poor Infant Settlement of but about a Century or two's Standing be the Sacrifice? Had we kept the Ifland of Cape-Breton, it would have been a good Step towards driving the French intirely out of America; and, it is much to be feared, we fhall never have any folid Peace till that is done. In which Cafe, we had been in Condition to have lent our Mother Country incredible Affistance in a Time of War; whereas, now, by being thus reduced again into Bondage, we ftand in Need of Affiftance from her. Louisburg is the Dunkirk of America.

I come now to an Article of much Folly and Guilt I mean no other than our Management of the Indians. Thefe, we should have endeavoured, no doubt by all poffible Means, to have gained over to, and fecured in our Intereft, in Oppofition to thofe in the Intereft of France and Spain. This fhould have been attempted by all poffible Applica tion to their Minds and their Bodies. We should have endeavoured to have given them juft Notions of Life, natural, civil, and religious; and fhewn them the Difference between the Friendfhip, the Service, and the Government of the English, and of the French and Spaniards. Where Reafon had

failed us, I mean where we had found the Indians incapable of the Convictions of Reason, we should have had Recourfe to fuch other Confiderations as are immediate and palpable; and fuch as, confidering them as mere Animals only, they could not but have been fenfible to.

After gaining over as many of the Adults as poffible into our Intereft, we fhould have been parti cularly attentive to the Education of their Children: In order to have worn out the Race of the wild Indians, we fhould have taught them cur Language, and the first Principles of our Learning, natural, civil, and religious; initiated then into the mechanical Trades, and fhewn then the Conveniences and Accommodations of Life, in order to have drawn them off from the avage Life of their Parents; and a few of Genius felected out from each Nation among them, might have been introduced to an Acquaintance with the liberal Arts, who might have been made Inftruments to have gained others.

But there is the lefs Neceffity to enlarge upon this Head; as I have obferved from Time to Time among the Advertisements found in the Gentleman's Magazine you fent me, a Treatife upon the Importance of gaining and preferving the Friendship of the Indians to the British Intereft; which, however, I fuppofe, like Multitudes of your other Books, has lain by neglected among you, as it has done among us.

Laftly, it is Pity, methinks, that a Scheme, like, that obtaining among the French, was not fet on Foot here; by which an immediate Eftimate might be made of our natural, civil, and military Strength; which, more especially in a Time of War, might be of infinite Service.

I fay nothing at prefent of the Neglect with Regard to the peopling of us more thoroughly: Tho' there is Room, it is certain, to receive, and Work enough to employ, all the fpare 'Hands of the Islands


of Great-Britain and Ireland: Nor need you have any fingle Beggar or Stroller left throughout the three Kingdoms.

Nor do I take any Notice of the Deficiencies in the forming and training our Militia, or thofe already fettled among us. Thefe, together with several other Articles natural, civil, and religious, will be the Subject of another Year's Letters, if Providence fhall permit the Continuance of the Correfpondence; which, however, confidering my Age and the Troubles in View, is not, I am afraid, very probable.

Thus, Sir, I have laid before you a Specimen of our Grievances; fome of them occafioned by our own Indolence, and others by the Neglect of our Mother Country. You compaffionate us, I do not question, harraffed by Robbers on either Side, the Inhabitants of Canada and Louisiana, not to say the French and Spaniards*; but, Sir, Pity alone, give me Leave to tell you, will not do. You must fend us Supplies. Veterans and Engineers are the People that we want to mix with our raw Levies, and to pit against the Veterans and Engineers of France; without a timely and powerful Supply of which, God only knows what must be the Confequence.

Adieu, dear Sir, and may Heaven avert the melancholy Appearances which now threaten us.

Make my Compliments to all our common Friends, and particularly to the Reverend Mr. and his very agreeable Family, letting him know how fincerely glad I now am, that he did not accept my preffing Invitations of fettling here, offered him when I was laft in England. Since, if there are not already enow of us to repel the French, there are, however,

It is not long fince we had Advice that the Spaniards had rebuilt the Forts of Encroachment in Georgia, which had been demolished by General Oglethorpe during his Government of that Colony; to say nothing of their late Conduct in regard to our Settlements in the Bays of Honduras and Campeatby.

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