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Teaching not taught; the childhood shows the man,
As morning shows the day. Be famous then
By wisdom; as thy empire must extend,
So let extend thy mind o'er all the world
In knowledge, all things in it comprehend:
All knowledge is not couch'd in Moses' law,
The Pentateuch, or what the Prophets wrote;
The Gentiles also know, and write, and teach
To admiration, led by nature's light;
And with the Gentiles much thou must converse,
Ruling them by persuasion as thou mean'st;
Without their learning how wilt thou with them,
Or they with thee hold conversation meet?
How wilt thou reason with them, how refute


the man,

to the people, or privately to Of worth, of honour, glory, and potheir disciples. The Scribes and

pular praise. Pharisees sit in Moses' chair, 876 The gradation also in the several ons Mwoiws mabedgas. Matt. xxiii. 2. allurements proposed is very fine; 220. -the childhood shews and I believe one may justly say,

that there never was a more exAs morning shens the day.] alted system of morality comThus Ben Jonson in his Verses prised in so short a compass. to Susan Countess of Montgomery; Never were the arguments for Were they that nam'd you prophets ? vice dressed up in more delusive did they see

colours, nor were they ever anEv’n in the dew of grace what you swered with more solidity of would be ?

thought or acuteness of reasonDunster.

ing. Thyer. 221. Be famous then 230. Ruling them by persuasion By wisdom ;]

as thou mean'st;] Alluding to We are now come to the last those charming lines, i. 221. temptation, properly so called ;

Yet held it more humane, more and it is worth the reader's while

heav'nly first to observe how well Satan has By willing words to conquer willing pursued the scheme which he hearts, had proposed in council, ii. 225.

And make persuasion do the work

of fear. Therefore, with manlier objects we

But Satan did not hear this; it must try His constancy, with such as have was part of our Saviour's selfmore show

converse and private meditation.


Their idolisms, traditions, paradoxes?
Error by his own arms is best evinc'd.'
Look once more e'er we leave this specular mount
Westward, much nearer by southwest, behold
Where on the Ægean shore a city stands

234. Their idolisms, traditions, Milton's muse, as was before paradores ?] Idolisms is, I be observed, is too much cramped lieve, a word of Milton's fabri. down by the argumentative cast cation. It seems to mean not so of his subject, but emerges upon much the idolatrous worship of every favourable occasion, and the Gentiles, as the opinions with: like the sun from under a cloud which they might endeavour to bursts out into the same bright defend it. Our author has idol- vein of poetry, which shines ists, Sams. Agon: 453., out more frequently, though not

more strongly, in the Paradise -and op'd the mouths

Lost. Thyer. Of Idolists and Atheists ;

This might be understood W. By tradilions we may understand by S. that is, one point' from opinions collected from those phi- west towards southwest; which losophers who instructed pub- is nearly the actual position of licly, without committing their 'Athens, with respect to Mount precepts to writing; which was Niphates. Or it may only mean, the case with Pythagoras, Numa, that as Athens was four degrees and Lycurgus.

See the lives south of Rome, our Lord must of the two latter by Plutarch. now direct his view so much Paradoxes allude to the para- to the southwest, than doxes of the Stoic philosophers, when he was looking at Rome, then in high repute. Evinced which lay nearly west of Mount (v.235.) is used in its Latin sig- Niphates. Dunster." nification of subdued, conquered ; And the words much nearer in which sense it is more forcible

seem also to shew that the de. and appropriate, than as we com- scription had reference to the monly use it for shewn, proved. position of Rome, which was Dunster.

more distant from the specular 236. this specular mount] mount. E. This mount of speculation, as in 238. Where on the Ægean shore Paradise Lost, xii. 588, where a city stands] So Milton caused see the note.

this verse to be printed, whereby 237. Westward, much nearer. by it appears that he would have southwest,] This corresponds ex- the word Æ'gean pronounced actly to our Saviour's supposed with the accent upon the first situation upon mount Taurus. syllable, as in Paradise Lost, i. The following description of 746. and as Fairfax often uses Athens and its learning is ex- it, as was there remarked. Built tremely grand and beautiful. nobly, and Homer in his time


i 240


Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil,

tid Athens the eye of Greece, mother of arts ..... calls it a well built city, súztietyo" Achilles Tatiús De Leucip. and TTodgov. Iliad. ii. 546. pure the Clitoph. 1. ii) and Pindar, 01. 2. air, and light the soil, Attica calls the ancestors of Theron being a mountainous country, Σικελιας οφθαλμος. The Latins the soil was light and barren, have the same metaphor ; as and the air sharp and pure, and Cicero, Pro Leg. Manil. c. v. and therefore said to be productive in Catilin. iii. c. 10. and Velleius of sharp wits. την ευπρασιαν των

Paterculus, speaking of Pompey's ερων εν αυτώ κατιδουσα, ότι φρονιμω- defeat at Pharsalia. And so Ben τατους ανδρας οισει. . Plato in Ti- Jonson terms Edinburgh, mæo, p. 24. vol. iii. edit. Serr. Athenis tenue coelum, ex quo

The heart of Scotland, Britain's other acutiores etiam putantur Attici.

Dunster. Cicero de Fato. iv. Athens the eye of Greece, and so Demosthe- 239. --pure the air, and light nes somewhere calls it oplocageós the soil,] This is from Dio Chry'Exnados, but I cannot at present sostom. See Spanheim on Calrecollect the place; and in Justin limachus, p. 444. De Attica cæit is called one of the two eyes teroquin dicit Dio Chrysost. Orat. of Greece, Sparta being the other, vii. p. 87. Eivces goog Thu yaqeen elib. v. cap. 8'; and Catullus calls gelicev, rct tov desga xouqor, esse enim Sirmio the eye of islands, xxxii. regionem tenui solo, ac levem ae1.

rem, prout una voce nettoyEdg eaPeninsularum Sirmio, insularumque

dem Attica, post Thucydidem Ocelle :

nempe, pag. 2. a Galeno dicitur, but the metaphor is more pro- tporgent. cap. 7. Aeris autem asperly applied to Athens than any Serm. Sacr. vi. p. 642. Athens

TTOTTU eidem tribuit Aristides, other place, as it was the great

was built between two small seat of learning. 238. I cannot discover the hence it is called, in the Medea

rivers, Cephisus and Ilissus; and passage in Demosthenes referred

of Euripides, ιερων ποταμων πολις. to by Bp. Newton. Aristotle

See the chorus at the end of the (Rhetoric. lib. iii. c. X. $. 3.) cites third act. The effect of these à passage from a speech of Lep- waters upon the air is very potines, in which he conjures the etically represented in the same Athenians not to suffer Greece

beautiful chorus. to become ετεροφθαλμος, deprived of one of her eyes, by the extinc- Καλλιναου σ' επι Κηφισον ροαις tion of Sparta. The Greek poets

Ταν Κυπριν κληϊζουσιν αφυfrequently used oplaapos in a me- σαμεναν χωραν καταπνευσαι

Μετριας ανεμων taphorical sense, for the lustre of superior excellence. As Aristophanes, Nub. 284. calls the sun

Pulchrifuique ad Cephisi fluenta

Venerem ferunt [ex Cephiso] exOdlegos Ofepoce. Sappho describes

hauri. the rose as οφθαλμος ανθεων, (see entem, regionem perflasse,

Ηδυσνοους αυρας.

And eloquence, native to famous wits
Or hospitable, in her sweet recess,
City or suburban, studious walks and shades;
See there the olive grove of Academe,

Mediocres ventorum

μασθεν Ακαδημoυ, καθα και Ευπολις Dulce spirantes auras.


εν Αστρατευτοις φησιν, ,

Εν συσκιους δρομοισιν Ακαδημου θεου. . 240.

mother of arts And eloquence]

-και επαφη εν τη Ακαδημια, ενθα TOY THELOTOV Zgovoy,


φιλοσοJustin (l. v. c. 9.) terms Athens φων. όθεν και Ακαδημαϊκη προσηγοPatria communis Eloquentiæ. And

ρευση και απ' αυτου αίρεσις. Being (1. ii. c. 6.) he says, Literæ certe returned to Athens from his et facundia veluti templum Athe- journey to Egypt, he settled nas habent. Cicero abounds in himself in the Academy, a gympanegyrics upon this celebrated nasium or place of exercise in seat of learning and eloquence the suburbs of that city, beset See Cic. De Orator. 1. i. 13. ed. with woods, taking name from Proust. Brutus, s. 39, 26, 49. Academus, one of the heroes, as Orat. pro L. Flacc. 26. See also Eupolis, Roger Ascham, (English Works,

In sacred Academus' shady walks. Lond. 1771. p. 235.) Dunster. 242. —hospitable] So Diodo

-and he was buried in the Acarus describes the Athenians, thy demy, where he continued most πατριδα κοινον παιδευτηριου παρέχο

of his time teaching philosophy, Pessous tact avêqatoss. 1. xiii. c. 27. whence the sect which sprung The Athenians indeed were re

frum him was called Academic. markable for their general hos. See Diogenes Laertius, and Stanpitality towards strangers, for ley in the life of Plato. The whose reception and accommo

Academy is always described as dation they had particular officers a woody shady place, as here called a poživos. Whilst the Lace- in Laertius, and in Horace, ep. dæmonians were noted for their ii. ii. 45. ξενηλασιαις, or driving all strangers Atque inter sylvas Academi quærere from their city. Thus Pericles according to Thucydides, Hist. but Milton distinguishes it by ii. c. 39. την τε πολιν κοινην παρεχο- the particular name of the olive μεν, και ουκ εστιν οτε ξενηλασιαις grove of Academe, for the olive atuseyouey Tiram pea@npectos, n Beapel was particularly cultivated about Dunster.

Athens, being sacred to Minerva 244. See there the olive grove the goddess of the city, and he of Academe,

has besides the express authority Plato's retirement, &c.] of Aristophanes, Nependi, act iii. Επανελθων δε εις Αθηνας, διετριβεν εν scene 3. Ακαδημια. το δ εστι γυμνασιον, προ- Αλλ' εις Ακαδημιαν κατιων, υπο ταις αστειου αλσώδες, απο τινος ήρωος ονο

μοριαις αποθρεξεις. .


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Plato's retirement, where the Attic bird
Trills her thick-warbled notes the summer long;

Sed in Academiam descendens, sub 244. Akenside has well sketchsacris olivis spatiaberis.

ed this Athenian scene in his Where the Attic bird, the nightin- Pleasures of Imagination, i. 715. gale, for Philomela, who accord. The reader will find a good acing to the fables was changed count of the Academy and of the into a nightingale, was the other public gardens which were daughter of Pandion king of the resort of the learned at Athens, and for the same reason Athens, in Falconer's Historical the nightingale is called Atthis view of the Taste for Gardening in Latin, quasi Attica avis. Mar- and laying-out Grounds among the tial, lib. i. ep. 46. edit. Westm. nations of Antiquity, p. 30. The Sic, ubi multisona fervet sacer At. nightingale is with peculiar prothide lucus,

priety introduced in the descripImproba Cecropias offendit pica que tion of the Academe; in the relas,

neighbourhood of which (see Ludovicus de la Cerda in his Pausanias, 1. i. c. 30.) lay the notes upon Virgil observes, how

scene of the Edipus Coloneus often the ancient poets have of Sophocles, and which he celemade use of the comparison of brates as particularly abounding the nightingale; Sophocles has in nightingales. Ed. Col. 17. it no less than seven times, Ho- and 703. Homer has a descripmer twice, and Euripides and tion of the song of this bird not several others; and we observed unlike Milton's trills her thickupon the Paradise Lost, how warbled notes ; much Milton was delighted with

-Πανδαρεου κουρη χλωρης αηδων the nightingale; no poet has introduced it so often, or spoken of Ησε θαμα τρωπωσα χεει πολυηχια it with such rapture as he; and Owony. Odyss. xix. 521. perhaps there never was a verse more expressive of the harmony scribes the nightingale singing

It is remarkable that Milton deof this sweet bird than the fol- the summer long, when it is comlowing,

monly supposed to sing only in Trills. her thick-warbled notes the the spring. Sappho calls it, (see summer long.

the Scholiast on Soph. Electr. So that


the whole I believe 148.) it may be asserted, that Plato's

Ηρος δ' αγγελος ιμεροφωνος αηδων. Academy was never more beau. tifully described than here in a And Pliny says that its song few lines by Milton. Cicero, continues in its greatest perfecwho has laid the scene of one of tion only fifteen days,

65 afterhis dialogues there, De Fin. lib. wards, as summer advances, it v. and had been himself upon loses all its variety and modulathe spot, has not painted it in tion." (l. x. 29.) So Shakespeare more lively colours.

describes it as ceasing to sing as

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