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There flow'ry hill Hymettus with the sound:-: :
Of bees industrious murmur oft invites
To studious musing; there Ilissus rolls
His whisp’ring stream: within the walls then view. 250
The schools of ancient sages; his who bred
Great Alexander to subdue the world,
Lyceum there, and painted Stoa next:

the summer advances, in his drus on the banks and at the fifty-first sonnet; and Milton spring of this pleasant river. himself describes it singing χαριεντα γουν και καθαρά και διαφανη While the jolly hours lead on pro- aquulæ puræ ac pellucidæ ju

τα υδατια φαινεται, Νonne hinc pitious May, in his Sonnet to the Nightingale: Serr. vol. iii. p. 229. The philo

cundo murmure confluunt? Ed. but in various other places the song of the nightingale is one of sophical retreat at the springhis favourite circumstances of

head is beautifully described by description, when he is painting Socrates and Phædrus are repre

Plato in the next page, where a summer's night. Dunster. 247. There Now'ry hill Hymet- shaded with a spreading plantain,

sented sitting on a bank tus &c.] And so Valerius Flaccus calls it Florea juga Hymetti, Ar- of which Cicero hath

said very gonaut. v. 344. and the honey prettily, that it seemeth to have was so much esteemed and cele grown not so much by the water brated by the ancients, that it which is described, as by Plato's was reckoned the best of the eloquence; quæ mihi videtur non Attie honey, as the Attic honey

tam ipsa aquula, quæ describitur, was said to be the best in the quam Platonis oratione crevisse.

De Orat. 1. 7. world. The poets often speak * 253. Lyceum there, and painted of the murmur of the bees as in

Stoa next :] Lyceum was another viting to sleep, Virg. Ecl. i. 56.

gymnasium of the Athenians, and Sæpe levi somnum suadebit inire su- was the school of Aristotle, who

had been tutor to Alexander the but Milton gives a more elegant Great, and was the founder of turn to it, and says that it invites the sect of the Peripatetics, so to studious musing, which was called από του περιπατειν from his more proper indeed for his pur- walking and teaching philosophy. pose, as he is here describing the Stoa was the school of Zeno, Attic learning

whose disciples from the place 249. there Ilissus rolls had the name of Stoics; and His whisp'ring stream:] this Stoa or portico, being aMr. Calton and Mr. Thyer have dorned with variety of paintings, observed with me, that Plato was called in Greek Torxian or hath laid the scene of his Phæ various, and here by Milton very

surro:

255

There thou shalt hear and learn the secret power
Of harmony in tones and numbers hit
By voice or hand, and various-measur’d verse,
Æolian charms and Dorian lyric odes, ;
And his who gave them breath, but higher sung,

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properly the painted Stoa. . See painted, principally by Polygno-
Diogenes Laertius in the lives of tus, with representations of the
Aristotle and Zeno. But there most renowned of the Athenian
is some reason to question, whe- victories, such as those of Ma-
ther the Lyceum was within the rathon and Salamis; hence Per-
walls, as Milton asserts. Forsius, sat. iii. 53.
Suidas says expressly, that it was

Quæque docet sapiens, braccatis illita a place in the suburbs, built by

Medis, Pericles for the exercising of sol- Porticus diers : and I find the scholiast The porch, with trowser'd Persians upon Aristophanes in the Irene pictur'd o’er. (Howes.] speaks of going into the Lyceum, On the origin of the name of the and going out of it again, and Peripatetics see the note below returning back into the city : - on v. 278. Dunster. εις το Λυκειον εισιoντες --- και σαλιν

257. Æolian charms and Doεξιοντες εκ του Λυκείου, και απιοντές Tian lyric odes,] Æolian charms, εις την πολι». .

Æolia carmina, verses such as : 253. That 'the Lyceum stood those of Alcæus and Sappho, who without the walls clearly appears were both of Mitylene in Lesfrom the beginning of Plato's bos, an island belonging to the Lysis ; see also Strabo, 1. ix. p. Æolians. Hor. Od. iii. xxx. 13. 397. Its establishment has been

Princeps folium carmen ad Italos attributed both to Pisistratus and

Deduxisse modos.
Perieles. (See Meursius, Athenæ

Od. iv. iii. 12.
Atticæ, 1. ii. c. 3. and Plutarch's
Life of Pericles.) The same

Fingent Æolio cai mine nobilem.
writer (Sympos. viii. q. 4.) says, Dorian lyric odes, such as those
that it was dedicated to Apollo, of Pindar, who calls his Americco
as the god of healing, because poquiyya the Dorian harp, Olymp.
health alone can furnish the re- i. 26. Δωριο πεδιλα Dorian buskin,
quisite strength for the corporeal Olymp. iii. 9. Angist rouq Dorian
exercises of the place. From hymn, Pyth. viii. 29.
the epithets of Apollo, Auxios, 257. -charms) Our Eng-
Avxnyans, Avxoxtovos, (not the wolf- lish word charm is derived from
slaying God, but the extender of carmen ; as are inchant and in-
light, from duxos or. duxn, lux, and cantation from canto. Dunster,
εκτεινω, as also Λυκηγενης signifies 258. And his who gave them
not born in Lyciu, but producer breath, &c.] Our author agrees
of light,) the Lyceum probably with those writers, who speak of
derived its name. The Stoa' was Homer as the father of all kinds

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188

PARADISE REGAINED.

BOOK IV.

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Blind Melesigenes thence Homer call’d,
Whose poem Phoebus challeng'd for his own.
Thence what the lofty grave tragedians taught
In Chorus or Iambic, teachers best
Of moral prudence with delight receiv'd

of poetry. Such wise men as thus Milton in his Preface to
Dionysius the Halicarnassean, Sams. Agon. “ Tragedy, as it
and Plutarch, have attempted to was anciently composed, hath
shew, that poetry in all its forms, ever been held the gravest, mo-
tragedy, comedy, ode, and epi- ralest, and most profitable of all
taph, are included in his works. other poems, &c.” Dunster.
See the ingenious author of the 262. In Chorus or Iambic,]
Inquiry into the life and writings These may be said to be the two
of Homer enlarging upon this constituent parts of the ancient
subject, sect. 12. Blind Melisi- tragedy, which was written either
genes thence Homer called ; our in lambic verse, or in verses of
author here follows Herodotus various measures, whereof the
in his account of the life of Ho- Chorus usually consisted. And
mer, that he was born near the the character here given of the
river Meles, from whence he had ancient Greek tragedy is very
the name of Melesigenes, tidsras just and noble; and the English

παιδι Μελεσιγενεα, απο του Ονομαι τα

reader cannot form a better idea ποταμου την επωνυμιαν λαβουσα, and of it in its highest beauty and because he was blind, thence he perfection than by reading our was called Homer, oun oqwv, SVTEUDEV author's Samson Agonistes. δε και τουνομα “Ομηρος επεκράτησε το

-teachers best Μελησιγενει απο της συμφορης οι γαρ

Of moral prudence, &c.] Κυμαιοι τους τυφλους ομηρους λεγου- This description particularly ap

Whose poem Phoebus chal- plies to Euripides, who, next to lenged for his own, alluding to a Homer, was Milton's favourite Greek epigram in the first book Greek author. See Quinctilian, of the Anthologia,

1. x. c. 1. And Aulus Gellius,

1. xi. c. 4. Aristotle takes almost Hudov pesy sywv, exagasos de Osos Ojengos, all his examples of sentences which Mr. Fenton has enlarged from Euripides. (Rhetoric. ii. c. and applied to Mr. Pope's Eng- 22.) See Bp. Hurd's note on lish Iliad.

Horace's art of Poetry, v. 219. 261. —the lofty grave trage- for an admirable account of the dians,] These are the epithets reasons why the Greek Tragic usually applied to tragedy by poets introduced in their pieces the ancients, as Quintilian, 1. x. so great an abundance of moral c. 1. Claudian, De Mall. Theod. precepts, and why they were Cons. 314. Ovid, Trist. 1. ii. el. with such delight received. Duni. 381. and 553. Horace, in his ster. Ode to Asinius Pollio. And

262.

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265

In brief sententious precepts, while they treat
Of fate, of chance, and change in human life ;
High actions, and high passions best describing :
Thence to the famous orators repair,
Those ancient, whose resistless eloquence
Wielded at will that fiercé democraty,
Shook th' arsenal and fulmin'd over Greece,

270

264. Of fate, and chance, and does Milton's versification in this

change in human life and the following lines concernHigh actions, and high passions ing the Socratic philosophy exbest describing :)

press what he is describing! In The most usual arguments of the first we feel as it were the the Greek tragic writers (and nervous rapid eloquence of Deindeed of their

epic poets also) mosthenes, and the latter have were the accomplishment of some all the gentleness and softness of oracle, or some supposed decree the humble modest character of of fate. But the incidents which Socrates. Thyer. led to the destined event, accord- 268. Those ancient,] For Miling to their system, depended on ton was of the same opinion as chance. Fute and chance then Cicero, who preferred Pericles, furnished the subject and inci- Hyperides, Æschines, Demodents of their dramas, whilst the sthenes, and the orators of their catastrophe produced the peri- times, to Demetrius Phalereus petia, or change of fortune. The and those of the subsequent ages. history of Edipus, one of their See Cicero de claris Oratoribus. principal dramatic subjects, was And in the judgment of Quinhere perhaps in our poet's mind; tilian Demetrius Phalereus was and it affords a striking exem

the first who weakened eloplification of the preceding re- quence, and the last almost of marks. Change in human life the Athenians who can be called however might not only refer to an orator; is primus inclinasse the pathetic catastrophes of the eloquentiam dicitur ultimus est Greek tragedy, since it sometimes fere ex Atticis qui dici possit formed, as in the Edipus Colo- orator. De Instit. Orat. x. i. neus, the entire argument of their 270. -and fulmin'd over pieces. High actions, the xadece Greece,] Alluding (as Mr. Jortin Featus of Aristotle, refer to fate has likewise observed) to what and chance, the arguments and Aristophanes has said of Pericles incidents of tragedy; high pas- in his Acharnenses, act ii. sc. 5. sions to the peripetia, or change of fortune, which included the Εσσραστε», εβροντα, ξυνεχυκα την “Ελ.

λαδα. Telos or affecting part. Dunster. 267. Thence to the famous ora- Since I have mentioned this

pastors repair, &c.] How happily sage, I will add, that Cicero has

To Macedon and Artaxerxes? throne: sisschien Liit
To sage philosophy next lend thine ear,
From heav'n descended to the low-roof'd house. I

Cinsitribinoni, alluded to it in his, Orator 9... Persian king, so Demosthenes speaking of Pericles. Qui si was the orator particularly, who tenui genere uteretur, 'nunquam fulmined over Greece to Macedon ab Aristophane poeta fulgere, to- against king Philip in his oranare, permiscere Græciam dictus tions, therefore denominated esset. Diodorus Siculus has Philippics. quoted it likewise lib. 12. and 273. From heav'n descended to ascribed it to Eupolis the poet,

the low-roof'd house the same who is mentioned by Of Socrates ;] Horace.

Mr. Calton thinks the author al. Eupolis, atque Cratinus, Aristopba- ludes to Juv. Sat. xi. 27. nesque poetæ.

-e cælo descendit grade CIUDTON, και παλιν εν αλλοις Ευπολις 6

701MTYS

as this famous Delphic precept Περικλεης ολυμπιος Ησραπτ', was the foundation of Socrates's εύροντα, συνεχυκα την Ελλαδα. Ci- philosophy, and so much usel cero had at first fallen into the by him, that it hath passed with same mistake as Diodorus, which some for his own. Or as Mr. is often the case of writers who Warburton and Mr. Thyer conquote by memory; and therefore ceive, the author here probably desires Atticus to correct the alludes to what Cicero says of copies, and for Eupolis to put Socrates, Socrates autem primus in Aristophanes. Cic. ad Att. philosophiam devocavit e cælo, xii. 6.

et in urbibus collocavit, et in 270. See Kuster's note on the domus etiam introduxit. Tusc. passage in Aristophanes for the Disp. v. 4. But he has given a various authors who have alluded very different sense to the words to it; but he has omitted Quinc- either by design or mistake, as tilian, lib. ii. c. 16. and lib. xii. Mr. Warburton observes. It is c. 10. In the eleventh Æn. properly called the low-roofed 383, Virgil makes Turnus say to house ; for I believe, said SoDrances,

crates, that if I could meet with Proinde tona eloquio ; solitum tibi

a good purchaser, I might easily get

my goods and house and Cicero (Ep. ad Attic. xv. 1.) all five pounds. Eyou peso os peces speaks of the fulmina Demosthe- (εφη ο Σωκρατης) ει αγαθου ωνητου nis; and Longinus also (c. xxxii.) NITU Yout, Evgeny av peor our Ty OK! says of Demosthenes, καταφροντα και τα οντα παντα πανω ραδιως πεντε XAI XOTOCQEY&L TOV OT' clavos Pnto. Pevas. Xenophon, Economic, five gas, %. 7. a. Dunster.

minas or Attic pounds were bet271. To Macedon and Arta- . ter than sixteen pounds of our xerxes' throne:] As Pericles and money, a mina, according to others fulmineil over Greece to Barnard, being three pounds Artaxerxes' throne against the eight shillings and nine pence.

for

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