« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
I. Foresight, which looks a little into futurity, considers the consequences that may attend an action: for it is continually occurring to the player, "If I move this piece, what will be the advantage of my new situation? What use can my adver sary make of it to annoy me? What other moves can I make to support it, and to defend myself from his attacks?"
II. Circumspection, which surveys the whole chess-board, or scene of action, the relations of the several pieces, and situations, the dangers they are respectively exposed to, the several possibilities of their aiding each other, the probabilities that the adversary may take this or that move, and attack this or the other piece, and what different means can be used to avoid his stroke, or turn its consequences against him.
III. Caution, not to make our moves too hastily. This habit is best acquired by observing strictly the laws of the game, such as, "If you touch a piece, you must move it somewhere; if you set it down, you must let it stand:" and it is therefore best that these rules should be observed; as the game thereby becomes more the image of human life, and particularly of war; in which, if you have incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops, and place them more securely, but you must abide all the consequences of your rash
And, lastly, we learn by chess, the habit of not being discouraged by present bad appearances in the state of our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favorable change, and that of vering in the search of resources. The game is so full of events, there is such a variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to sudden vicissitudes, and one so frequently, after long contemplation, discovers the means of extricating one's self from a supposed insurmountable difficulty, that one is encouraged to continue the contest to the last, in hope of victory by our own skill, or at least of giving a stale mate, by the negligence of our adversary. And whoever considers, what in chess he often sees instances of, that particular pieces of success are apt to produce presumption, and its consequent inattention, by which the loss may be recovered, will learn not to be too much discouraged by the present success of his adversary, nor to despair of final good fortune, upon every little check he receives in the pursuit of it.
That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference to others, which are
not attended with the same advantages, every circumstance which may increase the pleasure of it, should be regarded; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which is, to pass the time agreeably.
Therefore, first, If it is agreed to play according to the strictest rules, then those rules are to be exactly observed by both parties, and should not be insisted on for one side, while deviated from by the other-for this is not equitable.
Secondly, If it is agreed not to observe the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgences, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other.
Thirdly, No false move should ever be made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a person once detected in such unfair practices.
Fourthly, If your adversary is long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or to express any uneasiness at his delay. You should not sing, nor whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor make a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do any thing that may disturb his attention. For all these things displease; and they do not show your skill in playing, but your craftiness or your rudeness.
Fifthly, You ought not to endeavor to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made bad moves, and saying that you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure, and careless, and inattentive to your schemes; for this is fraud and deceit, not skill in the game.
Sixthly, You must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, nor show too much pleasure; but endeavor to console your adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with himself, by every kind of civil expression that may be used with truth; such as, "You understand the game better than I, but you are a little inattentive; or, you play too fast; or, you had the best of the game, but something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favor."
Seventhly, If you are a spectator while others play, observe the most perfect silence. For if you give advice, you offend both parties; him against whom you give it, because it may cause the loss of his game; and him in whose favor you give
it, because, though it be good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had, if you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move, or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, show how it might have been placed better; for that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attention, and is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator. If you have a mind to exercise or show your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticising, or meddling with, or counseling the play of others.
Lastly, If the game is not to be played rigorously, according to the rules above mentioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered by his unskilfulness or inattention; but point out to him kindly, that by such a move he places or leaves a piece in danger, and unsupported; that by another he will put his king in a perilous situation, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above forbidden) you may, indeed, happen to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win what is better, his esteem, his respect, and his affection; together with the silent approbation and good-will of impartial spectators.
MARRIAGE,--NEW YORK REVIEW.
It is one thing for a woman to contemplate marriage as her probable destiny, because that of the majority of her sex-and appointed by him who made them-and to aim at some fitness and completeness of preparation for her future responsibilities; and quite another to think of getting a husband as the object upon which, whatever she does, may have some bearing-as the great end of her life, the reward of all her virtues and ac
complishments. The latter is as odious and disagreeable as the former is right and proper. When a young lady shows that she has this false view of a subject, she gives convincing proof of an ill-ordered, ill-formed, vacant mind; for if she were occupied with the actual, as she ought to be, she would not be unduly absorbed in what is to her contingent and ideal. She discloses, too, a want of that native delicacy which should be the universal characteristic of her sex; for if the married state was God's appointment, he also appointed that she should be led to enter into it through the exercise of her deepest, tenderest affections, and not as a matter of cold speculation. There is no danger that a young lady, who has been properly trained to the duties of life, so as to have her own mind constantly occupied, as it should be, with her own improvement, and the good and happiness of others, should commit this error.
RATIONAL DOMESTIC ENJOYMENT.-DICK.
For want of qualifications for rational conversation, a spirit of listlessness and indifference frequently insinuates itself into the intercourses of families, and between married individuals, which sometimes degenerates into fretfulness and impatience, and even into jars, contentions, and violent altercations; in which case there can never exist any high degree of affection or domestic enjoyment. It is surely not unreasonable to suppose, that were the minds of persons in the married state possessed of a certain portion of knowledge, and endowed with a relish for rational investigations-not only would such disagreeable effects be prevented, but a variety of positive enjoyments would be introduced. Substantial knowledge, which leads to the proper exercise of the mental powers, has a tendency to meliorate the temper, and to prevent those ebullitions of passion, which are the results of vulgarity and ignorance. By invigorating the mind, it prevents it from sinking into peevishness and inanity. It affords subjects for interesting conversation, and augments affection by the reciprocal interchanges of sentiment and feeling, and the mutual communication of instruction and entertainment. And in cases where malignant passions are ready to burst forth, rational arguments will have a more powerful influence in arresting their progress, in cultivated minds, than in those individuals in whose constitution animal feeling predominates, and reason has lost its ascendency. As an en
lightened mind is generally the seat of noble and liberal sentiments-in those cases where the parties belong to different religious sectaries, there is more probability of harmony and mutual forbearance being displayed, when persons take an enlarged view of the scenes of creation, and the revelations of the Creator, than can be expected in the case of those whose faculties are immersed in the mists of superstition and ignorance.
How delightful an enjoyment is it, after the bustle of business and the labors of the day are over,-when a married couple can sit down at each corner of the fire, and, with mutual relish and interest, read a volume of history or of popular philosophy, and talk of the moral government of God, the arrangements of his providence, and the wonders of the universe! Such interesting conversations and exercises beget a mutual esteem, enliven the affections, and produce a friendship lasting as our existence, and which no untoward incidents can ever effectually impair. A christian pastor, in giving an account of the last illness of his beloved partner, in a late periodical work, when alluding to a book she had read along with him about two months before her decease, says, "I shall never forget the pleasure with which she studied the illustrations of the Divine perfections in that interesting book. Rising from the contemplation of the variety, beauty, immensity, and order of the creation, she exulted in the assurance of having the Creator for her father, anticipated with great joy the vision of him in the next world, and calculated with unhesitating confidence, on the sufficiency of his boundless nature to engage her most intense interest, and to render her unspeakably happy for ever." It is well known that the late lamented Princess Charlotte and her consort, Prince Leopold, lived together in the greatest harmony and affection; and from what her biographers have stated respecting her education and pursuits, it appears that the mutual friendship of these illustrious individuals, was heightened and cemented by the rational conversation in which they indulged, and the elevated studies to which they were devoted. Her course of education embraced the English, classical, French, German, and Italian languages; arithmetic, geography, astronomy, the first six books of Euclid, algebra, mechanics, and the principles of optics and perspective, along with history, the policy of governments, and particularly the principles of the christian religion. She was a skilful musician, had a fine perception of the picturesque in nature, and was fond of drawing. She took great pleasure in strolling on the beach, in marine ex