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it, because, though it be good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had, if you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move, or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, show how it might have been placed better; for that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attention, and is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator. If you have a mind to exercise or show your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticising, or meddling with, or counseling the play of others.
Lastly, If the game is not to be played rigorously, according to the rules above mentioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered by his unskilfulness or inattention; but point out to him kindly, that by such a move he places or leaves a piece in danger, and unsupported; that by another he will put his king in a perilous situation, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above forbidden) you may, indeed, happen to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win what is better, his esteern, his respect, and his affection; together with the silent approbation and good-will of impartial spectators.
MARRIAGE,--NEW YORK REVIEW.
It is one thing for a woman to contemplate marriage as her probable destiny, because that of the majority of her sex-and appointed by him who made them-and to aim at some fitness and completeness of preparation for her future responsibilities; and quite another to think of getting a husband as the object upon which, whatever she does, may have some bearing-as the great end of her life, the reward of all her virtues and ac
complishments. The latter is as odious and disagreeable as the former is right and proper. When a young lady shows that she has this false view of a subject, she gives convincing proof of an ill-ordered, ill-formed, vacant mind; for if she were occupied with the actual, as she ought to be, she would not be unduly absorbed in what is to her contingent and ideal. She discloses, too, a want of that native delicacy which should be the universal characteristic of her sex; for if the married state was God's appointment, he also appointed that she should be led to enter into it through the exercise of her deepest, tenderest affections, and not as a matter of cold speculation. There is no danger that a young lady, who has been properly trained to the duties of life, so as to have her own mind constantly occupied, as it should be, with her own improvement, and the good and happiness of others, should commit this error.
RATIONAL DOMESTIC ENJOYMENT.-DICK.
For want of qualifications for rational conversation, a spirit of listlessness and indifference frequently insinuates itself into the intercourses of families, and between married individuals, which sometimes degenerates into fretfulness and impatience, and even into jars, contentions, and violent altercations; in which case there can never exist any high degree of affection or domestic enjoyment. It is surely not unreasonable to suppose, that were the minds of persons in the married state possessed of a certain portion of knowledge, and endowed with a relish for rational investigations-not only would such disagreeable effects be prevented, but a variety of positive enjoyments would be introduced. Substantial knowledge, which leads to the proper exercise of the mental powers, has a tendency to meliorate the temper, and to prevent those ebullitions of passion, which are the results of vulgarity and ignorance. By invigo rating the mind, it prevents it from sinking into peevishness and inanity. It affords subjects for interesting conversation, and augments affection by the reciprocal interchanges of sentiment and feeling, and the mutual communication of instruction and entertainment. And in cases where malignant passions are ready to burst forth, rational arguments will have a more powerful influence in arresting their progress, in cultivated minds, than in those individuals in whose constitution animal feeling predominates, and reason has lost its ascendency. As an en
lightened mind is generally the seat of noble and liberal sentiments-in those cases where the parties belong to different religious sectaries, there is more probability of harmony and mutual forbearance being displayed, when persons take an enlarged view of the scenes of creation, and the revelations of the Creator, than can be expected in the case of those whose faculties are immersed in the mists of superstition and ignorance.
How delightful an enjoyment is it, after the bustle of business and the labors of the day are over,-when a married couple can sit down at each corner of the fire, and, with mutual relish and interest, read a volume of history or of popular philosophy, and talk of the moral government of God, the arrangements of his providence, and the wonders of the universe! Such interesting conversations and exercises beget a mutual esteem, enliven the affections, and produce a friendship lasting as our existence, and which no untoward incidents can ever effectually impair. A christian pastor, in giving an account of the last illness of his beloved partner, in a late periodical work, when alluding to a book she had read along with him about two months before her decease, says, "I shall never forget the pleasure with which she studied the illustrations of the Divine perfections in that interesting book. Rising from the contemplation of the variety, beauty, immensity, and order of the creation, she exulted in the assurance of having the Creator for her father, anticipated with great joy the vision of him in the next world, and calculated with unhesitating confidence, on the sufficiency of his boundless nature to engage her most intense interest, and to render her unspeakably happy for ever." It is well known that the late lamented Princess Charlotte and her consort, Prince Leopold, lived together in the greatest harmony and affection; and from what her biographers have stated respecting her education and pursuits, it appears that the mutual friendship of these illustrious individuals, was heightened and cemented by the rational conversation in which they indulged, and the elevated studies to which they were devoted. Her course of education embraced the English, classical, French, German, and Italian languages; arithmetic, geography, astronomy, the first six books of Euclid, algebra, mechanics, and the principles of optics and perspective, along with history, the policy of governments, and particularly the principles of the christian religion. She was a skilful musician, had a fine perception of the picturesque in nature, and was fond of drawing. She took great pleasure in strolling on the beach, in marine ex
cursions, in walking in the country, in rural scenery, in conversing freely with the rustic inhabitants, and in investigating every object that seemed worthy of her attention. She was an enthasiastic admirer of the grand and beautiful in nature, and the ocean was to her an object of peculiar interest. After her union with the prince, as their tastes were similar, they engaged in the same studies. Gardening, drawing, music, and rational conversation diversified their leisure hours. They took great pleasure in the culture of flowers-in the classification of them—and in the formation, with scientific skill, of a hortus siccus. But the library, which was furnished with the best books in our language, was their favorite place of resort; and their chief daily pleasure, mutual instruction. They were seldom apart either in their occupations or in their amusements; nor were they separated in their religious duties. "They took sweet counsel together, and walked to the house of God in company;" and it is also stated, on good authority, that they had established the worship of God in their family, which was regularly attended by every branch of their household. No wonder, then, that they exhibited an auspicious and a delightful example of private and domestic virtue, of conjugal attachment, and of unobtrusive charity and benevolence. In the higher circles of society, as well as in the lower, it would be of immense importance to the interests of domestic happiness, that the taste of the Princess Charlotte was more closely imitated, and that the fashionable frivolity and dissipation which so generally prevail, were exchanged for the pursuits of knowledge, and the delights of rational and improving conversation. Then those family feuds, contentions, and separations, and those prosecutions for matrimonial infidelity, which are now so common, would be less frequently obtruded on public view; and examples of virtue, affection, and rational conduct, would be set before the subordinate ranks of the community, which might be attended with the most beneficial and permanent results, not only to the present, but to future generations.
In short, the possession of a large store of intellectual wealth, would fortify the soul in the prospect of every evil to which humanity is subjected, and would afford consolation and solace when fortune is diminished, and the greater portion of external comforts is withdrawn. Under the frowns of adversity, those worldly losses and calamities which drive unthinking men to desperation and despair, would be borne with a becom ing magnanimity; the mind having within itself the chief re
sources of its happiness, and becoming almost independent of the world around it. For to the individual whose happiness chiefly depends on intellectual pleasures, retirement from general society and the bustle of the world, is often the state of his highest enjoyment.
FEMALE AUTHORSHIP,--Mad. de STAEL.
If the condition of the female world in the civil order of things, is very defective; merely to alleviate their situation, and not to degrade their mind, is the object most desirable. Assiduously to call forth female sense and reason, is useful both to mental improvement, and the happiness of society: only one serious misfortune can accrue from the cultivated education which they may have received; and this would be (if by chance any should acquire such distinguished talents,) an eager desire of fame: but even this chance would not be prejudicial to society at large, as it could affect only that small number of women whom nature might devote to the worst of tormentsan importunate thirst for superiority. No sooner is a woman pointed out as a distinguished character, than the public is, in general, prejudiced against her. The vulgar can never judge but after certain rules, which may be adhered to without danger. Every thing which is out of the common course of events, is at first displeasing to those who consider the beaten track of life as the protection for mediocrity: even a man of superior talents somewhat startles them; but a woman of shining abilities, being a still greater phenomenon, astonishes, and consequently, incommodes them much more. Nevertheless, a distinguished man being almost always destined to pursue some important career, his talents may become useful to those persons, who annex but a trifling value to the charms of reflection. A man of genius may become a man of power; and from this consideration, the envious and the weak pay court to him; but a woman of talents can only offer them what they feel no interest about-new ideas or elevated sentiments; the