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proclamations—the first on the 22d day of September, 1862, declaring that all slaves held in any State, or part of a State found in actual rebellion against the authority of the United States on the 1st day of January, 1863, should then and forever thereafter be free; the second, on the 1st of January, 1863, declaring that, in accordance with the first proclamation, slavery is abolished in all the States and counties then in armed rebellion against the Government.
These measures, while they greatly unpopularized the President with certain parties in the Northern and Southern border States, were regarded as the exponents of the true, policy by the radicals. His suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, in certain cases, September 15th, 1863, also produced considerable stir in political circles.
At the Republican Convention which met at Baltimore, in January, 1864, Mr. Lincoln was re-nominated for the Presidency of the United States—was elected November 8th, and duly inaugurated March 4th, 1865.
The following note of his inaugural address is from an English journal. It speaks for itself:
"On the 4th instant, the day of inaugurating his second term, President Lincoln read a short State paper, which for political weight, moral dignity, and unaffected solemnity has had no equal in our time. His presidency began, he says, with the efforts of both parties to avoid
To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend the slave interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union by war, while the Government claimed the right to do no more than restrict the territorial enlargement of it.' Both parties 'read the same Bible and pray to the same God.'
“The prayer of both can not be answered, that of neither has been answered fully, for the Almighty has his own purposes. Mr. Lincoln goes on to confess for the North its partnership in the original guilt of slavery: Woe unto the world because of its offenses, for it must needs be that offenses come; but woe unto that man by whom the offenses cometh! If we shall suppose American slavery one of the offenses which in the providence of God must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time,
He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war, as was due to those by whom the offense came, we will not discern that there is any departure from those divine attributes which believers in the living God always ascribe to Him. Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if it be God's will that it continue till the wealth piled by bondsmen by two hundred and fifty years' unrequited toil shall be sunk, and till every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be repaid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said that the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether. With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the light, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for those who have borne the battle, and for their widows and orphans. •And with all this let us strive after a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.' No statesman ever uttered words stamped at once with the seal of so deep a wisdom aud so true a simplicity. The
village attorney,' of whom Sir G. C. Lewis and many other wise men wrote with so much scorn, in 1861, seems destined to be one of those .foolish things of the world' which are destined to confound the wise, one of those weak things which shall confound the things that are mighty.''
The rebel General Lee had surrendered. The war was apparently at an end. Abraham Lincoln, the honored and the great, looked forward to a speedy restoration of the Union.
But while the storm lulled, the assassin did his work. J. Wilkes Booth shot Abraham Lincoln on the night of the 13th, and he died April 14th, 1865, honored and lamented by every true American. The world never before beheld such universal sorrow.
A nation not merely mourned but was clad in the deepest mourning.
Election for the Nineteenth Term, commencing March 4, 1861,
and terminating March 3, 1865.
No. of Electors from
| Abraham Lincoln,
Jno. C. Breckenridge
Stephen A. Douglas,
Joseph Lane, or
8 6 13
8 5 13 4 6 5 35
7 27 3 8 15 10
8 10 12 12 23 6 7 13 11 19 9 4 6 3 4
5 New York......................
35 New Jersey.......................
3 Whole No. of Electors......
5 4 4 3
4 5 4 4 3
Abraham Lincoln took the oath of office as President, and entered upon his duties, March 4th, 1861. Hannibal Hamlin took the oath of office as Vice-President, and attended in the Senate as its President, on the 4th of March, 1861. The acceso sion of Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency was made the pretext for the great rebellion of 1861.
Election for the Twentieth Term, commencing March 4,
1865, and terminating March 3, 1869.
5 12 4
71 26 3
7 15 5 8 10 10 11 12
7 New Hampshire.............................
6 Massachusetts. ............
6 7 13 15
81...... 8...... 6.....* 4 3
3 3 3
21 Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida and Texas, being in rebellion, did not vote for President and Vice President.
Whole number of Electoral votes cast wore 233--for Lincoln and Johnson, 212; for McClellan and Pendleton, 21. Lincold and Johnson's majority 191, the greatest majority attained since the organization of the Government.
Abraham Lincoln took the oath of office as President and entered upon his du. ties March 4, 1865.
Andrew Johnson took the oath of office as Vice President, and attended in tho Senate as its President March 4, 1866.
Was born at Raleigh, North Carolina, December 29th, 1808, and is now in his sixtieth year. He lost his father when only four years old. At the age of ten he was apprenticed to a tailor in Raleigh, and served with him an apprenticeship of seven years. His mother was poor, and had been unable to give him any educational advantages; but young Andy, whose unconquerable spirit was not to be restrained by any disadvantages, became stimulated with a desire for knowledge. He acquired the alphabet with no other instructions than those obtained from the journey. men with whom he worked. He learned to read from an old volume of speeches, loaned him by a friend, and thenceforward, after ten hours' work with his goose, needle, and scissors, applied himself with vigor to study for three or four hours each evening. In 1824, having completed his apprenticeship, he went to Laurens Court-house, South Carolina, where he worked as journeyman for two years. In 1826, he set out for the West, taking his mother, whom already, at his early age, and with his scanty wages, he was supporting. He made his home at Greenville, Tennessee, where he remained, and commenced business, and where he became a thriving and popular man.
With the indefatigable thirst for knowledge which had characterized his early career, he still pursued his studies, and, in the evenings which followed a day of labor, with his wife as instructress, pushed on in the road to knowledge.
He entered early into political life, being elected to the first office he ever held—that of Alderman of the village of Greenville-in 1828. He was reëlected to the same office in 1829. In 1830, he was elected Mayor, and retained that position for three years. In 1835, he was sent to the Legislature, where he chiefly distinguished himself by taking strong grounds against a scheme of internal improvements, which, he argued, was extravagant and useless. The measure was popular, however, and he was defeated in 1837. In 1838, he was a candidate again, and was this time successful. In 1840, he served as Presidential elector for the State at large on the Democratic ticket, and during