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burden upon and best promote and encourage the great industrial interests of the country.

7. Reform of abuses in the Administration; the expulsion of corrupt men from office; the abrogation of useless offices; the restoration of the rightful authority to and the independence of the Executive and Judicial Departments of the Government; the subordination of the military to the civil power, to the end that the usurpation of Congress and the despotism of the sword may


8. Equal rights and protection for naturalized and native born citizens at home and abroad; the assertion of American nationality, which will command the respect of foreign powers, furnish an example and encouragement to people struggling for national integrity, constitutional liberty, and individual rights; and the maintenance of the rights of naturalized citizens against the absolute doctrine of immutable allegiance and the claims of foreign powers to punish them for alleged crimes committed beyond their jurisdiction. In demanding these measures and reforms, we arraign the radical party for its disregard of right and the unparalleled oppression and tyranny which have marked its career, after the most solemn and unanimous pledge of both houses of Congress to prosecute the war exclusively for the maintenance of the Government and the preservation of the Union under the Constitution. It has repeatedly violated that most sacred pledge under which was rallied that noble volunteer army which carried our flag to victory. Instead of restoring the Union it has, so far as it is in its power, dissolved it, and subjected ten States in time of peace to military despotism and negro supremacy. It has nullified there the right of trial by jury; it has abolished the writ of habeas corpus, that most sacred writ of liberty; it has overthrown the freedom of speech and of the press; it has substituted arbitrary seizures and arrests, military trials, secret star chambers and inquisitions for constitutional tribunals; it has disregarded, in time of peace, the right of the people to be free from search and seizure; it has entered the post-office and telegraph office, and even the private rooms of individuals and seized there their private papers and letters, without any specification or notice of affidavit, as required by the organic law. It has converted the American Capitol into a bastile; it has established a system of spies and official espionage to which the constitutional monarchies of Europe never dare to resort. It has abolished the right of appeal on important constitutional questions to the supreme judicial tribunals, and threatens to curtail or destroy its original jurisdiction, which is irrevocably vested by the Constitution; while the learned Chief Justice has been subjected to the most atrocious. calumnies merely because he would not prostitute his high office to the support of the false and partisan charges against the Presi dent. Its corruption and extravagance have exceeded any thing

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known in history, and by its frauds and monopolies it has nearly doubled the burden of the debt created during the war. It has stripped the President of his Constitutional power of appointment even of his own Cabinet. Under its repeated assaults the pillars of the Government are rocking to their base; and should it succeed in November next, and inaugurate its President, we will meet as a subjected and conquered people amid the ruins of liberty and the scattered fragments of the Constitution; and we do declare and resolve that ever since the people of the United States threw off all subjection to the British crown, the privilege and trust of suffrage have belonged to the several States, and have been granted, regulated, and controlled exclusively by the political power of each State respectively, and any attempt by Congress, on any pretext whatever, to deprive any State of this right, or interfere with this exercise, is a flagrant usurpation of power which can find no warrant in the Constitution, and if sanctioned by the people will subvert our form of Government, and can only end in a single, centralized and consolidated Government, in which the separate existence of the States will be entirely absorbed, and an unqualified despotism then be established in place of a Federal Union of coequal States, and that we regard the reconstruction acts socalled of Congress such usurpations and unconstitutional, revolutionary and void: that our soldiers and sailors who carried the flag of our country to victory against a most gallant and determined foe must ever be gratefully remembered, and all the guarantees given in their favor must be faithfully carried into execution; that the public lands should be distributed widely among the people and should be disposed of either under the preëmption of the homestead lands and sold in reasonable quantities, and to none but actual occupants, at the price established by the Government. When the grants of the public lands may be allowed necessary for the encouragement of important public improvements, the proceeds of the sale of such lands, and not the lands themselves, should be so applied; that the President of the United States, Andrew Johnson, exercising the power of his high office in resisting the aggressions of Congress on the constitutional rights of the States and the people, is entitled to the gratitude of the whole American people, and on behalf of the Democratic party, we tender him our thanks for his patriotic efforts in that regard.

Upon this platform the Democratic party appeal to every patriot, including all the conservative element, and all who desire to support the Constitution and restore the Union, forgetting all past differences of opinion, to unite with us in the present great struggle for the liberties of the people; and that to all such, to whatever party they may have heretofore belonged, we extend the right hand of fellowship, and hail all such coöperating with us as friends and brothers.

The nominee of the Democratic National Convention for the office of President of the United States, is a native of the State of New York, having been born in Onondaga County, some time during the year 1811. He is consequently fifty-seven years of age at the present writing. His father being a gentleman of wealth, Mr. Seymour received an excellent education, and after his graduation engaged in the study of the law. Upon being admitted to the bar, he commenced the practice of his profession in the town of Utica, Oneida County, and soon became a popular lawyer. He did not long pursue this occupation, however. The death of his father made him successor to a large and valuable estate, attention to the interests of which compelled him to abandon all professional and public labors. He never after resumed practice.

Mr. Seymour's political predilections were, it may be said, inherited from his ancestors, all or nearly all of whom were and had been Democrats from the first formation of the party. To this political organization the subject of this sketch gave in his adhesion, and has ever since adhered to and been a prominent member of it. He first appeared before the public as a candidate for the suffrages of his fellow-citizens as the Democratic nominee for the office of mayor of the city of Utica. Although that city had been one of the firmest Whig strongholds, he was elected by a fair majority, as much owing, though, to the feeling of dissatisfaction with the opposing candidate, as to his personal popularity. The election took place in 1842, before he had quite attained his thirty-first year. During the same year, he was elected to the lower house of the State Legislature, and served until 1845, when he declined a reëlection. His ability as a legislator brought him considerable reputation, and had the effect of extending his popularity, which had hitherto been confined to a rather limited extent of territory. From 1845 to 1850, Mr. Seymour does not appear to have held any political office, although he took an active part in politics, stumping the State for other candidates, and doing all that he could to further the interests and insure the success of the Democracy. During the latter year, however, he had attained to sufficient prominence to warrant his nomination for the office of Governor. His opponent was Washington Hunt, and after a very exciting contest, Mr. Hunt was elected by a majority of 262, in a total of 428,966 votes cast. The balance of the Democratic ticket was elected, and this fact had the effect of temporarily obscuring Mr. Seymour's prospects. Still, he soon recovered from this reverse of fortune, and in 1852, was re-nominated for the same office. As before, his competitor was Mr. Hunt, whom he defeated, after an exciting canvass, by a majority of 24,385, in a total vote of 503,857. This victory added considerably to his popularity, as it was believed to presage a long lease of power to the Democratio

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