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ren of Israel :" he will not “ consume them in his jealousy ;' and because Phinehas was zealous for his God, Jehovah establishes with him the covenant of an everlasting priesthood.*
Jehovah hardens Pharaoh's heart in order that he may have a suitable opportunity of displaying his vengeance and terrible judgments.
“ And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt. But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah, when I stretch forth mine hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from
among them.”—Exod. vii. 3-5. Jehovah is cruel towards the inhabitants of Canaan, and commands their utter destruction to make way for his chosen people.
“ Jehovah said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven."
Exod. xvii. 14. “ Vex the Midianites, and smite them."—Numb. xv. 17.
Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites: afterward shalt thou be gathered unto thy people. And Moses spake unto the people, saying, Arm some of yourselves unto the war, and let them go against the Midianites, and avenge Jehovah of Midian.”
“ And they warred against the Midianites, as Jehovah commanded Moses ; and slew all the males."
Numb. xxxi. 2, 3, and 7. Jehovah insists on the total destruction of the Canaanites.
“ Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye are passed over Jordan into the land of Canaan; then ye shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you, and destroy all their pictures, and destroy all their molten images, and quite pluck down all their high places : And ye shall dispossess the inhabitants of the land, and dwell therein: for I have given you the land to possess it. And ye shall divide the land by lot for an inheritance among your families. But if ye will not drive out the inhabitants of the land from before you ; then it shall come to pass, that those which ye let remain of
* See Numb. xxv. + See Exod. xxxiv. 10, 11, 12,
them shall be pricks in your eyes, and thorns in your sides, and shall vex you in the land wherein ye dwell. Moreover it shall come to pass, that I shall do unto you, as I thought to do unto them."-Numb. xxxiii. 50-56. Jehovah is a jealous God, who cannot endure that other gods besides himself shall be worshipped.
“ For I Jehovah thy God am a jealous God.”—Exod. xx. 5.
“ Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest it be for a snare in the midst of thee : But ye shall destroy their altars, break their images, and cut down their groves: For thou shalt worship no other god: for Jehovah, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God: Lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice.”—Exod. xxxiv. 12-15. Jehovah sanctions robbery and fraud. He commands the Israelites to borrow jewels of silver, jewels of gold, and raiment of the Egyptians, at the same time the Israelites are given to understand that these borrowed articles are never to be returned.
“ Ye shall spoil the Egyptians.”
“ And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyp-
“ And Jehovah gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians."-Exod. xii. 36. Jehovah changes his determination. He will not execute his previous intention to conduct his people by his presence to the Land of Promise, because he perceives that they are a stiffnecked people, and he fears he may be tempted “ to consume them by the way;" but he promises to send an angel before them. Moses earnestly entreats Jehovah to allow his presence to accompany them, and his prayer prevails. Jehovah again changes his purpose, and agrees to do this thing also, because Moses “ had found grace in his sight."
“ And I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out
the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite,
I will do this thing also that thou hast spoken : for
Exod. xxxiii. 2, 3, 14, and 17.
Government and Providence of God.
Jehovah is the principal agent in the government of the earth: He dwells among the Hebrews in his tabernacle :
“ And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them."-Exod. xxv. 8.
“ And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be
their God.”—Exod. xxix. 45. His abiding-place, that is, the peculiar presence and manifestation of his glory, is above the mercy-seat between the cherubim ; therefore it is that, when the ark sets forward, Moses says
“ Rise up, Jehovah, and let thine enemies be scattered; and
let them that hate thee flee before thee.” And when it rests he
saysReturn, O Jehovah, unto the many thousands of Israel.” Numb. x. 35, 36. Jehovah communes with Moses from above the mercyseat :
“ There I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy-seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel.”
Exod. xxv. 22. The tabernacle is the abode of the sacred oracle of Jehovah, which Moses interprets during his lifetime, and which is afterwards interpreted by the high-priest:
“ And Moses took the tabernacle and pitched it without the camp, afar off from the camp, and called it the Tabernacle of the Congregation. And it came to pass, that every one who sought Jehovah went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation, which was without the camp. And it came to pass, when Moses went out unto the tabernacle, that all the people rose up, and stood
every man at his tent-door, and looked after Moses, until he was
man speaketh unto his friend.'—Exod. xxxiii. 7-11. The Urim and Thummim," the breastplate of judgment,” is also used by the priests, for obtaining answers to their inquiries of Jehovah. It is very uncertain in what this Urim and Thummim consisted ; but it seems to have been a sacred instrument for casting lots. Three stones of the twelve which composed the breastplate were probably especially distinguished: the one giving an affirmative, the second a negative, and the third returning no answer. The Israelites were not ignorant of the practice of casting lots before the time of Moses, which was now probably preserved to them by means of the Urim and Thummim. The Egyptians had a similar mode of deciding the lot. Their high-priest wore an image of sapphire upon his breast, with the inscription “The Truth.” When Joshua is intrusted with the conduct of the people of Israel to the land of promise, and Moses consecrates him to the office, he is desired “ to stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall ask counsel for him after the judgment of Urim before Jehovah." *
Angels are occasionally introduced as the ministers of God's providence. The angel of Jehovah accompanies the Israelites when they go out from Egypt.
“ Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions : for my name is in him."
Exod. xxiii. 20, 21. “And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them.”
Exod. xiv, 19. The angel of Jehovah meets Balaam, and will not allow the ass to go on his way.
* See Exod. xxviii. 30; Lev, viii. 8; Numb. xxvii. 18–23.
“ And Balaam rose up in the morning, and saddled liis ass, and went with the princes of Moab. And God's anger was kindled because he went: and the angel of Jehovah stood in the way for an adversary against him. Now he was riding upon his ass, and his two servants were with him. And the ass saw the angel of Jehovah standing in the way, and his sword drawn
in his hand." —Numb. xxii. 21-23. Jehovah is the Lawgiver of the Hebrews. They are governed, not so much by Moses, as by Jehovah. From him Moses receives the political and the moral law. In cases of difficulty Moses does not venture to decide how he shall act, but inquires of Jehovah, who judges for him.* Jehovah declares that he will be gracious to whom he will be gracious, and will show mercy to whom he will show mercy;" accordingly he is unceasingly careful for his chosen people. His peculiar providence protects them; he guides, shields, and favours them; he brings them forth out of the land of Egypt, with mighty signs and wonders; and, in the time of their necessity, gives them water to drink from the dry rock, and feeds them with bread from heaven.
Every event is attributed to the immediate power of Jehovah : all cleverness and skill in workmanship is from God: the proficients in cutting of stone and carving in timber are filled with the Spirit of God.t But Jehovah's continual government and providence are especially manifested by the rewards or punishments, the prosperity or misery, which follow the observance or neglect of his laws. The blessings and curses are set forth in fearful array in the twenty-sixth chapter of Leviticus. Peaceful possession of the land of promise, fruitful seasons, numerous offspring, safety from enemies, victory in war, and great worldly prosperity, are the blessings promised, “ if Israel will diligently hearken to observe and do all the commandments of Jehovah their God.” Exile and adversity, war and oppression, pestilence and famine, barrenness and loathsome diseases, are the evils threatened, if Israel shall depart from the worship of Jehovah, to serve other gods, and if they do not obey his statutes and commandments.
Thus does Jehovah enter into solemn covenant with his people--it is a regular contract between two parties. * See Exod. xviii. 13 to end.
+ See Exod. xxxi. 3-5.