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Among the many vague legends preserved respect- | Mellitus ecclesiastical authority over all his own ing the first propagation of Christianity in Great dominions, which are supposed to have extended Britain, there is one which attributes that service no further than the present diocese of London. to the apostle whose name distinguishes this cathe- Ethelbert, to whom Sebert was viceroy, fully apdral. The curious in such matters will find the proved of the creation of this new jurisdiction, and question discussed at some length in the tracts presented to the bishop of London and monastery on the British Church, which have been published of St. Paul's the manor of Tillingham, in Essex, by Dr. Burgess. The writers who enforce this as which it still retains, and 3000 acres of marsh a fact add another equally difficult of proof-that the first foundation of our great national Church of an introduction of Christianity in the year 185. Sir H. took place in honour of this saint during the time Palgrave, in his History of England (Anglo-Saxon period), he sojourned on the island. It is scarcely neces- printed in Murray's Family Library, will be held to come sary to observe that these points are disbelieved by

nearer the positive truth in the following passages :modern authors. But though nothing certain can

“Sebert, the king of the East Saxons, was the nephew of be affirmed of them, it is clear, upon many dif

Ethelbert, being the son of his sister Ricola, and the Chrisferent heads of evidence, that the church was in ex

tian missionaries therefore obtained an easy access into his

dominions. London was still noted for its opulence ; its istence during the rule of the ancient Britons, and

fame was diffused far and wide; and the city was the resort was an archiepiscopal see in the second century.

of merchants from all parts of the world. I say, still, beThere is a papal bull upon record, issued by Pope

cause it had been equally pre-eminent in the Roman times. Gregory to Augustine, which directs that the arch

And the great confusion consequent upon the Saxon conbishop of London “shall be hereafter consecrated

quest had scarcely injured the prosperity of London, which of his own synod, and receive his pall of the holy has continued increasing from the time of the Romans till see.” Bede also informs us, that the bishops of the present day. London and York had equal rank. His words are, “London was quite unlike the great metropolis which we “Between the bishops of London and York let this

now inhabit. Its extent was confined to what is now be the difference, that he be the highest who is

termed the city,' then surrounded by a wall, built, as it is the first ordained.” The degree of faith to be

supposed, about the age of Constantine, and of which a few

All around was open country. placed upon the many stories related of the pri- fragments are existing.

Towards the north-east a deep marsh — the name is yet mitive foundation of St. Paul's may be inferred

preserved in Moorfields-extended to the foot of the Roman from the fact that Sir Christopher Wren was only ramparts. On the western side of the city, and at the disable to conjecture that it was first built upon the site tance of nearly two miles, the branches of a small river of a prætorian camp, established by the Romans, which fell into the Thames formed an island, so overgrown and reduced to ruins during the persecution of with thickets and brushwood, that the Saxons called it Dioclesian, in the third century.

Thorney, or the Isle of Thorns.' The river surrounding Upon the ruins of that edifice another structure Thorney crept sullenly along the plashy soil; and the spot was raised, as the same architect conjectures, in

was so wild and desolate, that it is described as a fearful and the reign of Constantine the Great. But the re

terrible place, which no one could approach after night-fall

without great danger. In this island there had been an lapses into paganism were frequent, and the main

ancient Roman temple, consecrated to Apollo. And Sebert, tenance of the Christian Church feeble and pre

perhaps on account of the seclusion which Thorney afforded, carious until the reign of Sebert over the Eastern

resolved to build a church on the site, and he dedicated the Saxons. Confirmed by the preaching of Augustine, fabric to St. Peter the Apostle. This church is now Westthe new faith then obtained numerous believers, minster Abbey; the busy city of Westminster is old Thorney the monarch himself being an ardent promoter of Island, that seat of desolation; and the bones of Sebert yet its cultivation. Historically speaking, the esta- rest in the structure which he founded.

Another great blishment of Christianity and St. Paul's Cathedral church was built by Sebert, in the city of London, upon the are held to have taken their rise from these pro- ruins of the heathen temple of Diana. This church is now ceedings in the year 604 *. Sebert gave the Bishop St. Paul's Cathedral; and Mellitus being appointed the first

bishop by Ethelbert and Sebert, the succession has continued • Dugdale, History of St. Paul's, p. 2. Ed. 1818, speaks to the present day."


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land, situate north of the walls of the city, but no nity. Canute's residence was near the church, longer possessed by the church.

and extended down to the banks of the Thames : With the life of Sebert, however, the progress of the ground now covered by Castle Baynard Ward Christianity also stopped: the people rose against was the demesne of his palace. Edward the Conthe monks, expelled Mellitus, and again restored fessor is next recorded among the royal benefacthe church to the celebration of idolatrous rites. tors of St. Paul's : but the celebrity of his patronThirty-eight years had thus passed in apostasy, age to this edifice is far eclipsed by the splendid when St. Chad consecrated it anew, but was un- works he erected in the monastery of St. Peter, on able to conciliate followers enough to support him Thorney Island, which is now universally known in retaining possession of it. After a short but as Westminster Abbey. perilous episcopacy he was forced to retire with A fire laid the city, and with it the cathedral, thirty monks into Northumberland, and there in ruins in the year 1088. Mauritius, then bishop one only of the emigrant band escaped the mor- of London, soon commenced the work of rebuildtality of a violent pestilence which depopulated the ing it upon a scale of greater extent, and in a province. For some length of time after this style of higher magnificence. The labour was concalamity it would seem that the East Saxons | tinued with laudable spirit by Richard de Belwere without any preachers; and the next notice meis, the succeeding bishop, who, besides devoting we have of their return is when Wulpher, king of the whole of his ecclesiastical revenues, after the Mercia, compelled the district to become tributary example of Mauritius, to the completion of this to his power, and sent missionaries to convert the stately project, also found means to lay the first inhabitants. Bede relates this event, and adds, establishment of the grammar school, which has that it was happily brought about: the instructors, existed with such prosperity down to the present according to him, were received with comfort, and day. To him it was that Henry I. conceded the the people returned to the faith with much joy. royal tower south of the church in order to increase The name of the fourth bishop of London has the materials for the work. Different opinions have been honourably preserved. He was called Erkon- been expressed by antiquaries as to what tower or wold, and rendered many effective benefits to the palace it was that was thus presented. Some have religion he professed and the church which he confounded it with the Palatinate Tower, near the governed. He obtained from the pope a confirma- river Fleet, on the ground of which the Fleet tion of the various privileges it had formerly ac- prison stood; others have erroneously supposed it quired, and added many endowments to its reve- to have been the Bell Tower, in Cheapside : but

These services elevated him to a rank the fact is, that the gift consisted of the ruins of among the saints of the English Church; but the the palace, supposed to have been built by Athelsudden fame of the see fell away after his death, stan, and which had been inhabited, as already which occurred in the year 686. East Saxony mentioned, by Canute, the Dane. Exclusive of became incorporated with Mercia, the dignity of this donation from the sovereign, the contributions London declined, and the only particulars related from private individuals, “ to God and the church of St. Paul's, during two centuries, is comprised in of St. Paul,” were numerous and considerable. a barren list of the names of those who filled the The consequence of all this ardour on the part of

the bishop, and piety on the side of his flock, was Athelstan, grandson of Alfred the Great, who was the production of the Gothic fabric, which is so the first to make London the seat of government, minutely described and eminently commended in restored St. Paul's to its former state, and liberally the antiquarian writings of Dugdale, Hollar, and provided for its future independence. Encouraged others,-a fabric which not only exceeded in beauby his patronage, the monks here made the first ties, but surpassed in every circumstance of riches translation of the Scriptures into the Saxon tongue, and state, any thing before known in the capital of and also opened the first school for the study of England. The space around was enlarged and Greek that was ever taught in the kingdom. extended over a considerable portion of ground,

The next superior over the diocese was Dunstan, which has since been built upon. Its boundaries the saint of that name, who makes so conspicuous were Paternoster-row and Ave-Maria-lane on the a figure in English history, both as a statesman one side; Old Change, Carter-lane, and Creed-lane and a prelate. His administration was long and on the other. The space thus formed was enclosed vigorous: he added as well to the privileges as to with suitable residences for the various dignitaries the possessions of the church; and when he died, and dependants upon the cathedral. in 988, the glory of St. Paul's, to use the em- From this period, St. Paul's became distinguished phatic words of the old chronicles, died with him. for the charitable support it gave to the poor and the The only honour it derived from the reign of sick, for the numbers educated within its studious Ethelred II. was the burial of that monarch in the precincts, and the hospitality and learning that chavaults. The city which had rendered him most racterized its inmates. Indeed, the services formerly essential aid during the vexations of life received rendered to society by the monasteries established the care of his corpse in the quiet of death ; after under the Benedictine order, were in most respects which his son Edmond was crowned over his grave. equal, and in some other superior, to the advantages It was to the pious attention of the monastery of which are now derived from our more popular St. Paul's that the conversion of Canute, the Dane, universities. The amazing wealth which St. Paul's was attributed; and the warrior monarch showed must then have been possessed of, may be conjechis sense of the benefit by the favours he bestowed tured from the various officers attached to its mulupon the clergy and the grants he conferred upon tiplied foundations. At first it was governed by a the cathedral. The post of dean of St. Paul's was bishop, fifty canons, or prebendaries, and twelve first instituted during his reign, and by him en- minor canons. As the monastery grew in public dowed with a revenue for the support of its dig- estimation, different priests were drawn off from


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the parent fount, to preach holiness and inculcate dependent of the general property of their own learning at other places; fifty more canons were church, and the common usage of the period. created to supply the labours of this draft. The Henry VI. added the rectory of St. Gregory's body consisted exclusively of clerks or priests, church, near St. Paul's, to their patronage. When whose duties consisted in discharging the ministe- a vacancy occurs in their college, they elect two rial services of the different altars and confessionals candidates themselves, one of whom the dean and of the cathedral in rotation ; consoling the sick, chapter are bound to approve of. The qualifiand distributing charity ; teaching in the grammar- cations commonly required for the situation are, school, as well as instructing the poor in the cathe- besides the understood attainments of a clerk, a dral ; transcribing the most approved works upon good voice and a knowledge of music. After the religious matters, from foreign languages ; collect- minor canons are placed the vicars choral : coning amongst themselves the revenues of their trary to the old custom, these are now all laymen. church, and superintending the distribution of The organist generally is one of them; and the them. Superadded to these cares was the edu- almoner another. The latter officer assumes his cation of the choristers, and the young men in- style from the almonry, better known in olden tended for the ministry of the Gospel.

times as St. Paul's hospital, a charitable institution The first creation of the office of dean has already of infinite public service, which was founded in the been recounted ; the change was demanded by twelfth century, but in our days is perverted from the increased duties imposed upon the attention its original use, to serve as a school for the educaof the bishop, as his diocese became populous, tion of the choral boys to the cathedral. and the affairs of the cathedral grew in num- If what has hitherto been related of the hisber and importance. Next to the dean in point tory of St. Paul's has been properly expressed of precedence is the precentor, or chanter; his in the language of praise and admiration, what is duty originally lay in the instruction of the singers, left to be told cannot be conveyed in too severe and the regulation of the choral service of the terms of reprobation and sorrow. The pillage of cathedral. After him comes the chancellor, who every ecclesiastical foundation in the kingdom by was formerly required to read lectures in divinity, Henry VIII. has been often described, and is provide a grammar-master for the choristers, and sufficiently known ; it is, therefore, enough to state serve the chapter upon all occasions of public here, that St. Paul's suffered greatly in the unibusiness, in the capacity of secretary. This officer versal robbery. It suffered greatly from the baris still retained, though his original functions have barous fury with which hatred of popery impelled long ceased to be exercised. The treasurer is the the rabble of England to mutilate their churches last of those who are styled the dignitaries of the and cathedrals in the reigns of Edward VI. cathedral : the nature of his duties is clearly indi- | and Elizabeth. In the time of Cromwell it was cated by his name.

still more scandalously desecrated. Horse-soldiers The archdeaconries are five in number, and take were then quartered in it, and the portico filled their names from London, Middlesex, Essex, Col- with sempstresses’ shops. Thus invaded, destitute chester, and St. Alban's. For each of these, except of all resources and every means of support, it St. Alban’s, there is an appropriate stall in the gradually declined into a state of utter ruin. What choir. The major canons, or prebendaries, are the neglect of man thus hurried on to decay, an still as numerous as ever ; though the duties re- accident soon precipitated into the last stage of quired from them are all reduced in a great degree, destruction. On the night of Saturday, September and many wholly abolished. Formerly they were the 2d, 1666, a fire broke out near the spot on obliged to reside in the church close, and led a which the monument now stands, in Fish-street, regular monastic life, according to the rules of and spread with irresistible rage and rapidity over the Benedictine order. But in proportion as the the devoted city. The flames, wrapping every landed possessions conferred upon them became thing with fire, proceeded on in two great volumes, more extensive, a pastoral residence upon these of which the one consumed Cheapside, and the different properties was assigned to the greater other all that stood before it between Watlingpart of them; and thus by degrees they were street and the river. On the Monday evening, excluded from any share in the direct revenues, this double tide of destruction joined in St. Paul's which became confined to those only who continued church-yard, and having darted over on the roof, to perform the ministerial duties of the church. soon reduced to ashes all that was combustible in For some time, the number of resident canons was the venerable pile. unfixed, and consequently variable: since the Re- Fire had more than once proved a fatal enemy formation, they have been limited to four, inclu- to old St. Paul's. One broke out on Candlemas ding the dean, who take the task of reading the Eve, 1444, which did so much damage that it was service, preaching, and residing on the spot, in not entirely repaired until 1462. In 1561 the vane monthly turns between them. The other twenty- was set on fire by lightning, and the steeple burned. six prebendaries have nothing to do but to per- The upper roof of the aisles was so extensively form service once upon their induction, and deliver injured on this occasion, that a public subscriptwo sermons in the course of the year: even this tion was opened to restore it. The work proceeded latter duty is often discharged by proxy.

so actively, that in 1566 all the timber frames The minor canons, twelve in number, are said to of the roof (they were put together in Yorkshire, have been attached to the primitive foundation. and transported to London by sea) were finished They were constituted a body corporate within and leaded. But the steeple, says Dugdale, was themselves, under the denomination of the Warden let alone. In other respects the building was much and College of Minor Canons of the Cathedral neglected. At length King James, in 1620, went Church of St. Paul, by the unfortunate Richard in solemn procession to the cathedral, and took II., who bestowed upon them a gift of lands, in- active measures to put it into a state befitting a


place of worship. A commission of noblemen, The present edifice of St. Paul's is a rich and ecclesiastics, and citizens, including amongst them tasteful specimen of Grecian architecture, and the the celebrated Inigo Jones, was issued for the pur- only English cathedral built in the same style. pose, and a public subscription set on foot, in the According to the prevalent models of such buildmidst of which James died. But the commissionings, it is in the shape of a cross, and divided, was renewed, and the subscription continued under according to the established plan, into aisles and a Charles I., who rebuilt, at his own charge, a por

The extreme length is 500 feet, and the tico, magnificent and stately, say the chroniclers, greatest breadth, which is from north to south, but certainly, though the work of Inigo Jones, not along the proper transept, 250 feet. The length in the best taste, being formed of Corinthian pil- of the choir is 165 feet, and its breadth, in the lars attached to a Gothic church. Independently middle aisle, 40 feet. The length of the nave and of the cost of this structure, 126,6041., being the aisles is 107 feet; and the height, from the pavetotal receipts of the public subscription, were now ment in the street to the top of the cross, is 404 spent upon the cathedral. The outlay was con- feet. Internally the height from the floor to the sidered to have put it in a state of finished repair, dome is 356 feet. The ground plot occupies a with the exception of the steeple, to which nothing space equal to 2 acres, 16 perches, and 70 feet. was done, as it was intended to rebuild it. Writers This area is situated in the wards of Castle Baysay that the architectural effect of the whole was nard and Farringdon Within, and in the parishes now much improved. This may have been the of St. Gregory and St. Faith. The burial-ground case, and yet it must have been far from good : for is elevated above the street, and surrounded by a although the Gothic style was preserved through- stately balustrade of cast iron, with each palisade out the interior, externally two orders of architec- 5 feet 6 inches in height, from the forge of Lamture were confounded together. Eastward all was berhurst, in Kent. Gothic; westward, and at the north and south por- Before the front portico, which faces the west, ticos, were Grecian pillars. In the one half were stands a statue of Queen Anne, in whose reign this the old pointed arch windows, and in the other a splendid building was finished. At the base of the heavy round-headed Italian window. Such was figure are allegorical personifications of her differold St. Paul's.

ent dominions—Great Britain, Ireland, France, and The massy walls, the work of years, and which had America. This group was the work of Francis endured for ages, stood after the great fire, above Bird, a man of considerable repute in his time. the universal wreck, awful and sublime. Much For this work, no small portion of which was supdoubt and consideration now ensued, in order to de- plied by the hands of a later artist, to fill up the termine what best could be done with this range of breaches of time and accident, Bird received 11801. grand ruin, which covered a space of ground nearly The arcade of St. Paul's is generally preferred to equal to three acres and a half. Several ineffectual that of St. Peter's, as being at once simpler, nobler, attempts to repair were made ; at last commission and more consistently effective. It is composed of ers were appointed to report upon the subject, and, a double elevation of porticos *; the first of twelve fortunately for posterity, they agreed in recom- pillars in the Corinthian, the second of eight, in the mending a new building. The work was confided Composite order, which are crowned with a trianto Sir Christopher Wren, and the present edifice gular pediment. Upon the entablature is worked affords the best proof that can be offered of the the story of St. Paul's conversion, by Bird, and on excellence of the choice made upon that memorable the apex of the pediment rises a statue of the same occasion. The first stone of the new cathedral apostle. St. Peter is recognised by the attendant was laid June 21, 1675, during the reign of Charles cock to the right, and on the left stands St. James II., and the choir was opened for divine service in the habit of a pilgrim. These statues are each on the day of thanksgiving for the peace of Rys- 11 feet in height. It may be as well here to wick, December 2, 1697. So commendable an in- admit, that the only sound objections made to this stance of public spirit and personal ability cannot be front condemn the form of the campanile turrets too often referred to as an example to other days. which flank the sides; and perhaps the inverted St. Peter's at Rome, which is the only compeer in segments thus distinguished are not altogether acthe world with the metropolitan church of Great cordant with the more simple outlines which conBritain, occupied 145 years in building, and twelve stitute the charm of all classical buildings in the successive architects were required to complete it: Grecian or Roman style. St. Paul's was finished in forty years, under the The transepts are entered by semicircular porpresidency of one bishop of London, and the direc- ticos, with the royal arms supported in the hands tion of one architect. The parliamentary grants for of angels, engraved upon the entablature of that this purpose were increased by a tax levied on all one to the north, and a phønix rising from flames coals imported into London, and still further en- on the entablature of the southern portico. This larged by the contributions of private individuals. phønix is the work of Gabriel Cibber, the father This liberality amply redeemed the promises held of Colley Cibber the comic author and actor. out in the instructions given to the architect at the Beneath appears the emphatical word, Resurgamcommencement of his labours, and which enjoined “ I shall arise,” which is the motto of the cathehim to frame a design handsome and noble, suit- dral, as the phenix is its crest. The choice is able to all the ends of religion, to the expectations of the city, and the reputation of the country at

* Wren's original idea was better still: in that but one large ; and to take it for granted that money would

order of architecture is used, and a single range of pillars be provided to accomplish the purpose.


ninety feet high. There is no room to doubt the superiority whole expense of the building, according to the

of this design in chasteness and majesty. The difficulty of estimate in Sir H. Ellis's edition of Dugdale's St. procuring stone of a sufficient size for such pillars is asPaul's, amounted to 736,7521. 2s. 3 d.

signed as the cause of its being abandoned.


said to have been made from the following circum- in length. The weight of the bell is 11,474 lbs.; it stance : one day as Sir Christopher Wren was strikes the hours ; is heard at a distance of twenty marking out the foundations of the great dome, a miles, and is only tolled to announce the death of labourer was desired to carry a stone from a heap the king, the lord mayor, the bishop of London, or of adjoining rubbish, and lay it down as a mark for a member of the royal family. Neither are the the workmen. It happened to be the fragment of iron gates on entering the choir and dividing the an old tomb-stone, upon which one only word of aisles to be passed by without notice; the workthe epitaph remained visible, and that word Re- manship on them will be found exquisitely fine, surgam, which was popularly accepted as an omen and highly deserving of praise. of the undertaking.

Near the altar stands the episcopal throne, surThe dome intersects the cross, and is supported mounted by a mitre, and relieved by carved fesin majestic simplicity by four massive piers, each toons of fruit and flowers. It is only occupied on forty feet square. Externally it is environed with occasions of great solemnity ; the more usual seat an admirable colonnade, terminated by a lantern for the bishop of the diocese may be recognised by and globe, surmounted by a cross. The diameter of the carved pelican sucked by its young, and the this globe is six feet, and it is capable of contain- mitre upon it. Opposite is the lord mayor's seat, ing six persons: the cross is in height six feet. marked by the city sword and mace : the dean's The best view of the church is obtained under the stall is covered by a canopy under the choir, and cupola, which was painted by Sir James Thornhill, may be distinguished by festoons of fruit and who has been pronounced by his admirers the best flowers. The contiguous seats are reserved for historical painter this country can boast. The the canons residentiary ; while the other clerks, design records the principal features in the life of choristers, and officers, have appropriate places, the Apostle to whom the fabric stands dedicated. railed with brass, on either side of the choir. His miraculous conversion near Damascus, accord- There are two meetings of singular interest and ing to Acts chap. ix., is first delineated ; then, his benevolence held yearly in St. Paul's Cathedral. address before Sergius Paulus, and the judgment | The first, which usually takes place in the month of Elymas, Acts chap. xiii. ; next, the conversion of May, is for the benefit of the charitable foundaof the jailor of Philippi, chap. xiv., which is pre- tion, situated in St. John's Wood, near the Regent's ceded by the sacrifice at Lystra, in the same Park, for the relief of the widows and orphans of chapter. After these he is represented preaching such clergymen of the established Church as may to the Athenians, as in chap. xvii.; the Ephesians have died in distressed circumstances. Upon this burning their magical books follows, chap. xix.; day the service is attended by all the objects of his defence before Agrippa, chap. xxiv., and his the charity, and preceded by a miscellaneous conshipwreck, near Melita, chap. xxvii., conclude the cert of sacred music, selected from the composiseries,

tions of Handel, Boyce, and others.

To give This long description is the more necessary as greater effect to this performance, the three choirs time and dust have greatly dulled the beauties of of St. Paul's, Westminster Abbey, and the Chapel this noble work : already the plaster is peeling off; Royal attend gratuitously. The stewards, who and unless some pains be quickly taken to pre-regulate the ceremony, are generally headed by serve it, a trace of it, ere long, will not be visible. the lord mayor of the year, some members of Painting in fresco seems to be gaining friends in the royal family, the judges, and the highest England ; a strong desire is expressed in favour of civil as well as ecclesiastical dignitaries. The its introduction in the new houses of parliament. concourse of visitors is highly respectable and The public, perhaps, would be induced to take a numerous, and the only terms requisite for adgreater interest than it has done in the subject, if mission are a contribution to the funds of the more care had been taken of the few specimens charity. The second is even more popular and of the art which we happen to possess already. attractive ; it occurs generally in the month of There is an anecdote of powerful interest told of June, and is held for the purpose of collecting Sir James Thornhill, while painting this cupola. together all the children educated in the parochial One day, while at work, a friend stood talking to schools of the metropolis, to offer up to Heaven him on the scaffold, which, though broad, was not their grateful devotions for the blessings they rerailed in. He had just given the last touch to the ceive on earth. Upon this day they are all newly head of one of the apostles, and retreating hastily, clad ; the number assembled amounts, on most as is the custom with artists, to observe the effect, occasions, to ten thousand : and the sight is one of had actually reached backwards the last step of the most impressive that can be witnessed, as the the scaffolding, when the gentleman, observing his benefit is one of the most creditable that can be danger, snatched up a brush and hastily bedaubed conferred. the whole figure. “ Heavens !” exclaimed the Of the monuments, some of which form principal astonished artist, advancing as quickly as he had features of attraction in St. Paul's, it is enough to retired ; “what have you done!"

state here that their introduction was resisted for life,” replied his companion, describing at the same a length of time by Bishop Osbaldiston, who was time the position in which Thornhill had been violently opposed to the plan. The first erected standing.

was that to Howard, in 1791 ; the second to Dr. Amongst the works of art in the cathedral, it Johnson. On the former occasion a salutary rule were unpardonable to omit a notice of the beauti- was made, that no monument should be erected ful simplicity of the clock-work, and the fine tone before the design had been approved by a comof the great bell. Both are of ingenious construc- mittee of Royal Academicians. The object of this tion : the dial-plate of the clock, small as it ap- provision is to ensure good taste and keeping in pears from the street below, is fifty-seven feet in the style and character of the works set up. circumference, and has its minute-hand eight feet Separate notices of them are given in the lives of

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