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grammes" or 250,000 piastres in coffee, (the arroba at five piastres). The exportation of sugar which was next to nothing before 1760, amounted in 1792 to 14,600,000 kilogrammes; in 1796 to 24 millions of kilogrammes; and from 1799 to 1808 at an average to 33,200,000 kilogrammes annually. In 1802, the harvest, of sugar was so abundant, that the exportation rose to 40,880,000 kilogrammes f; so that this branch of trade has been almost tripled in ten. years. The customs of the Havanah amounted between 1799 and 1803 at an average to 2,047,000 piastres annually ; and in 1802 they exceeded 2,400,000 piastres. The total : amount of the trade of the Havanah is 20 millions of piastres. * * * Lima. Importation, five millions of piastres. Exportation, (including the precious metals,) seven million of piastres. • . Carthagena, including the small adjoining ports of Rio Hacha, Santa Marta, and Portobello, connected together by the most intimate commercial relations. Exportation of the produce of native agriculture, without including the precious metals, 1,200,000 piastres, whereof 1,500,000 kilogrammes of cotton, 100,000 kilogrammes of sugar, 10,000 kilogrammes of

* 1,378,125 lb avoid. Trans. # 90,140,400 lb. avoird. Trans.

indigo, 400,000 kilogrammes of Brazil wood, 100,000 kilogrammes of quinquina of New Grenada, 1000 kilogrammes of balm of Tolu, and 6000 kilogrammes of ipecacuana.” Importation, four millions of piastres. La Guayra, the principal port of the province of Caracas. From 1796 to 1800 t, the exportation amounted at an average to 1,600,000 piastres annually, of which 2,985,000 kilogrammes of cocoa, 99,000 kilogrammes of indigo, 354,000 kilogrammes of cotton, and 192,000 kilogrammes of coffee. But from 1789 to 1796 the importation might have been taken at an average of 2,362,000 piastres annually f ; and the exportation in native produce at 2,739,000 piastres, of which 4,775,000 kilogrammes of cocoa, 886,000 kilogrammes of indigo, 204,000 kilogrammes of cotton, 166,000 kilogrammes of coffee, and 73,000 hides. Guayaquil. Exportation in native produce * La Raicilla or ipecacuana, which comes into Europe through the Spanish ports and through the contraband trade of Jamaica, is the root of the Psychotria emetica, and not of the Calicocca of Brotero, or the Viola emetica of Mutis, as some botanists have advanced. This Psychotria was examined by M, Bonpland and myself, on ascending the 550,000 piastres, whereof three millions of kilogrammes of cocoa. Importation, 1,200,000 piastres. Cumana, (including the small adjoining port of Nueva Barcelona). Importation one million of piastres. Exportation, 1,200,000 piastres, whereof 1,100,000 kilogrammes of cocoa, 500,000 kilogrammes of cotton, 6000 mules, 1,200,000 kilogrammes of Tasajo or salt meat. These valuations are founded on information procured by me in the course of my travels in America. The Balances were struck from the declarations at the customs: and no account is taken of the contraband except in the table of the commerce of Carthagena and Cumana. The whole of these data will enable us to take a general view of the balance of trade of the whole of Spanish America. It is only by comparing the commerce of Mexico with that of the other colonies, that we can be enabled to judge of the political importance of the country which I have endeavoured to make known in this work. I begin first with collecting into one table what the Spanish custom-house books contain, respecting the balance of trade between the mother country and the colonies before and after the famous regulation of

river Magdalen near Badillas. We must not confound the Spanish with the Brazilian ipecacuana.

t Depons, ii. p. 439. # According to the official papers which I shall publish in the first volume of the historical account of my travels,


- | Value of the exportation from Spanish value of the importation from Spain | America into Spain, (in piastres.) into Spanish America, (in piastres) Periods | Agricultural Precious Total National Foreign Total produce. metals. exportation. goods, goods. importation, Average year from 1748 to X 4,955,000 18,060,000 || 23,015,000 4,039,000 7,076,000 ll, l 15,000 1753 - 1778 3,728,000 unknown unknown 1,431,000 2,314,000 3,745,000 1784 16,720,000 || 46,456,000 | 68,176,000 9,799,000 11,941,000 21,740,000 1785 19,415,000 || 43,888,000 63,303,000 | 16,863,000 || 21,499,000 38,362,000 1788 unknown unknown 7,900,000 || 7,120,000 || 15,020,000

We are struck in this table" with the want of agreement between the partial data. The years 1778 and 1788 differ the most from those which immediately precede them, and yet these two years, in which trade does not appear to have followed its natural course, are cited by all the authors who treat of the beneficent influence of the regulation of the Count de Galvez on the progress of the national industry and prosperity of the colonies. The years 1784 and 1785 exhibit examples of an extraordinary commercial activity, because, after the peace of Versailles, the productions of the colonies, which had been accumulating during the war, flowed all at once into Europe. The peace of Amiens recently exhibited a similar but still more remarkable phenomenon. In 1802 the port of Cadiz alone t received from the

* The result in this table for the five years preceding 1753 differs from that given by Raynal (vol. ii. liv. vi.), because that celebrated author did not enter into the account, the importations and exportations of the Spanish West India islands. The balance of 1778 is taken from the Tableau de l’Espagne of M. Bourgoing, t. ii. p. 200. For 1784 and 1785 see Demeunier, Encycl. method, art. Espagne, p. 322. The imports and exports of 1784 are specified in the work of Page, t. i. p. 115, and 300. The exports from the ports of Spain to the colonies in national goods, were valued in 1789 at 7,220,000 piastres; in 1790 at 5,100,000 piastres; in 1791 at 5,800,000 piastres; and in 1792 at 13,500,000 piastres. (Laborde, t. iv. p.383). + Cadiz in 1802 received 54,742,033 piastres in gold and

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