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lucrative. In travelling over the chain of the Andes, one is surprized to see on the ridge of the mountains, in small provincial towns, all the merchants transformed into colonels, captains, and serjeant-majors of militia. As the rank of colonel gives the tratamiento, or the title of Señoria", which is repeated inces. santly in familiar conversation, we may conceive that it contributes the more to the happiness of domestic life, and the creoles make the greatest sacrifices of fortune to obtain it. Sometimes these militia officers are to be seen in full uniform, and decorated with the royal order of Charles III., gravely sitting in their shops, and entering into the most trifling detail in the sale of their goods. They display a singular mixture of ostentation and simplicity of manners, at which the European traveller is not a little astonished. Till the period of the independence of the United States of North America, the Spanish government never thought of increasing the number of troops in the Colonies. The first colonists in the New Continent were soldiers; the first generations knew no profession more honourable and lucrative than that of arms; and from this military enthusiasm, the Spaniards displayed an energy of character, inferior to nothing in the history of the crusades. When the subjected Indian bore with patience the yoke imposed on him, and when they became tranquil possessors of the treasures of Peru and Mexico, the colonists were no longer tempted by new conquests, and the warlike spirit insensibly declined. From that period, a peaceful rural life was preferred to the tumult of arms; the fertility of the soil, the abundance of subsistence, and the beauty of the climate, contributed to soften the manners of the people; and the same countries which, in the first part of the sixteenth century, presented nothing but the afflicting spectacle of wars and pillage, enjoyed under the Spanish dominion a peace of two centuries and a half. . The internal tranquility of Mexico has been rarely disturbed since the year 1596, when, under the viceroyship of the Count de Monterey, the power of the Castilians was secured, from the peninsula of Yucatan, and the gulph of Tehuantepec, to the sources of the Rio del Norte, to the coast of New California. Disturbances among the Indians took place in 1601, 1609, 1624, and 1692; in the last of these commotions, the palace of the viceroy, the residence of the mayor, and the public prisons, were burned by the Indians; and the Count de Galve ", the viceroy, found security

* La Senoria, V. S., vulgarly usia.

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only in the protection of the monks of Saint Francis. Notwithstanding these disturbances, occasioned by the want of subsistence, the Court of Madrid did not think it necessary to increase the military force of New Spain. In those times, when the union was closer between the Mexican and European Spaniards, the suspicions of the Mother Country were solely directed against the Indians and mestizoes. The number of white creoles was so small, that on that very account they were generally induced to make a common cause with the Europeans. To that state of things we are to attribute the tranquillity of the Spanish Colonies, at the period when the possession of Spain was disputed by foreign princes, on the death of Charles the Second. The Mexicans, governed at that period, first by a descendant of Montezuma, and afterwards by an Archbishop of Mechoacan, remained tranquil spectators of the great struggle between the houses of France and Austria; the Colonies patiently followed the fortune of the Mother Country; and the successors of Philip the Fifth only began to dread the spirit of independence, which was manifested in New England in 1643", when a great confederation of free states was formed in North America.

* Robertson, vol. iv. p. 307.

254 POf ITICAL ESSAY ON THE [Book wi. t

Continuation of Table III.

Denomination of Corps. * Men.
Brought over - - 15,081, 21,218

Divisions of the South (South-Sea coast) thirty-four companies

First Division - 680
Second Division - - 1,140
Third Division - - 300
Fourth Division - 1,030
Fifth Division - - 409

b. Of the provincias internas fourteen squadrons or 48 companies - 2,587

B. Town Militia (milicias urbanas) - 1,059 Commercial regiment of Mexico, ten companies, created in 1698 702 Commercial battalion of Puebla, four companies created in 1789 - 228 Squadron of cavalry of Mexico, created in 1787 - - 129

Total of Militia in time of peace 22,277

We have not included in these tables, the corps of invalids formed in 1774, consisting of two companies, nor the troops distributed in the intendancy of Merida, and commanded by the captain general of the peninsula of Yucatan. I was unable to procure the state of the military force of that peninsula. There

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are eight companies of regular troops (tropas veteranas) at Campeche, and in the small fort of San Felipe de Bacalar; and the defence of Merida is entrusted to militia, composed of whites and men of colour. The cavalry is extremely numerous in the Mexican army, forming almost the half | of the total force. In 1894 there were

Men. In Infantry - - - 16,200 Men. 1. Regular troops - 5,200 2. Militia - - 11,000 In Cavalry - - - 16,000 1. Regular troops 4,700 Men a. In Mexico - 1,000 b. In the provincias internas - 3,700 2. Militia - - 11,000 a. In the interior of Mexico - 4,700 b. On the coast 4,000 c. In the provincias intermaS - 2,600 Total * - - 32,200 *

* A state of troops preserved in the archives of the Viceroyalty, and tolerably conform to the Guia de for

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