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a lethargy of generations, and in every part of the republic the preaching of Sar miento has called into life new schools and an incipient thirst for improvement.
" The number of children attending school throughout the republic appears to be, according to the census, 89,500, but the returns of the various schools show this is an exaggeration, and if we deduct 14 per cent. the return of 77,000 children will be much nearer the truth. Hence the minister calculates there are at présent 350,000 children who neither attend school nor receive the simplest rudiments of education. He adds that of the 40,000 immigrants who arrive annually two-thirds do not know how to read.
“The statistical returns of education in the various provinces are : Buenos Ayres City.
2,833 Buenos Ayres camp.
2,500 San Juan 6,873 Salta
2, 475 Corrientes 5,720 Rioja
2,239 Cordoba ... 5, 261 Jujuy.
2,000 Santa Fé... 5,000 San Luis
1,784 Santiago Estero
4,500 Entre Rios.. 3, 691
2, 900 “This includes 1,884 youths belonging to the national colleges, (of which there are 14 in the republic,) being an increase of more than 80 per cent. on the returns for tho previous year. In 1867 the province of Rioja was destitute of schools, and now it has over 2,000 children in course of instruction, besides a high school, with 217 collegians.
“The national government attaches great importance to the establishment of uormal schools for the training of teachers, which is, in fact, the most necessary element in the whole system. The first normal school will shortly be established in the old government-house at Paraná, under the direction of Mr. George Stearns, from the United States, who is to receive a salary of $2,400 per annum, and a lady teacher at $1,000 per annum. The new national college at Corrientes, under Dr. Fitzsimons, has already 156 pupils, and receives a subsidy of $2,000; Dr. F. furnishes a long and luminous report on education, based on the London university system.
“ Night schools have been established in Buenos Ayres, Salta, and Santiago del Estero, each of which is attended by 100 or 200 adults. Libraries are also about to be opened in eaeh of the upper provinces, at a cost of $1,500 each, for use of the public. Infant schools or Kindergarten forin another item of improvement; the first being opened in Buenos Ayres. The observatory at Cordoba will shortly be inaugurated, Dr. Gould being shortly expected from the United States with his staff. Congress has also authorized the ininister to send abroad for 20 first-class professors for the University of Cordoba and the national colleges; 8 are expected from Germany.
"The new subsidies granted during the year amounted to $90,660, viz: Rioja. $19,080 Jujuy...
$3,000 Entre Rios. 13,500 Mendoza..
2, 100 San Juan. 12,500 Salta.
2, 100 Corrientes.
2,500 San Luis. 4,680 | Santiago del Estero..
1, 100 Santa Fé.
4,500 | Miscellaneous Buenos Ayres.
2,000 4,200 “Among minor subsidies we find subscriptions for Doña Juana Manso's Annals, Barbati's History, Wickersham on Schools, &c. The budget also provides $100,000 for the purpose of buying books for distribution in the provinces. The budget for 1870 shows a total of $785,027 for the department of instruction, worship, and justice, which will be increased by $80,000 for the ensuing year.”
EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB. In affording the means of education to its deaf and dumb the United States has done more, proportionally, than any other nation in the world.
Florida and Oregon are the only States of our country in which no provision has been made in this regard. And this omission is owing, probably, rather to the fact that public attention has not been drawn to the subject, than to any unwillingness on the part of the people of these States to recognize the claims of deaf-mutes to education.
From being regarded in the days of its inception in 1816 as a charity, the furtheranco of which was to be urged on humane and philanthropic gronnds, the work of instructing deaf-mutes has now come to be looked upon as an essential feature of that system of public education, obtaining more and more in the world, the basis of which may be shown to rest on considerations of pure State selfishness. For as the expense of education in general can be shown to be a wise investment, bringing to the State a large return in the elements of material prosperity, so it has latterly been made clear that to educate the deaf and dumb is cheaper than to leave them in ignorance.
In the early days only indigent deaf-mutes were taught at public expense. But at the present tiine, althongh some institutions require certificates of pecuniary inability for free admission, the education of the deaf and dumb is practically as free as that of other children.
For nearly fifty years the system of instruction in the United States remained uniform, being substantially that introduced from France, in 1816, by Dr. Thomas H. Gallaudet, who organized the first American deaf-mute institution, at Hartford, Connecticut, in 1817. This system discards articulation, and makes large use of a language of signs which is natural to the deaf-mute, and which affords at all stages of his education a free, precise, and full means of conveying ideas.
Text books, however, and written exercises enter largely into the course of instruction from its commencement, and the great work to be accomplished is to impart to the deaf-mute child a knowledge of language as it is written or printed, and a facility in its use.
This acquirement having been made, the education of the deaf-mute may be proceeded with to a range of culture as high as is possible in the case of persons who hear and speak. The mute also has, in his ability to express thought in writing, an exact and easy, though somewhat slow methcd of communication with all who can read and write.
Within a few years the German, or articulating method, has been regarded with favor in certain quarters, and two institutions, one the Clarke Institute, fonnded by private benevolence, in Northampton, Massachusetts, and one in New York City, havo been established, wherein the exclusion of the sign language is attempted, and oral speech is sought to be made the medium of communication between teacher and pupil.
Public attention having been thus directed to this feature of deaf-inute instruction, the Columbia Institution, at Washington, sent its president, in the spring of 1867, to examine the most prominent articulating schools of Europe with a view of determining whether any change in the system of the old institutions in the direction suggested by the new schools of Massachusetts and New York City was desirable. The report on this inspection of foreign schools, published in the tenth annual report of the institution, while urging the retention of the old system as the most valuable for the general instruction of the deaf and dumb, advised that instruction in articulation be given'in all schools for deaf-mutes; and expressed the opinion that not over one-third of the pupils in such schools can be expected to engage successfully in the proposed study. În the spring of 1868, the subject of articulation was discussed in a conference of principals of institutions for deaf and dumb held at Washington, and the following resolutions were adopted:
Resolred, That in the opinion of this conference it is the duty of all institutions for the education of the deaf and dumb to provide adequate means for imparting instruction in articulation and lip reading to such of their pupils as may bo able to engage with profit in exercises of this nature.
" Resolved, That while in our judgment it is desirable to give semi-mutes and seinideaf children every facility for retaining and improving any power of articulate speech they may possess, it is not profitable exzept in promising cases, discovered after fair experiment, to carry congenital mutes throngh a course of instruction in articulation.
* Resolved, That to attain success in this department of instruction an added force of instructors will be necessary, and this conference hereby recommends to boards of directors of institutions for the deaf au dumb that spoedy measures be taken to provide the funds needed for the prosecution of this work.”
The recommendations of those resolutious have been accepted and acted upon in nearly all the largo institutions of the country, thus adding, with a marked harmony of action, a feature of no little importance to the national system.
To a full course of training in the usual eleinentary branches taught in common schools, a majority of the institutions of the deaf and dumb add instruction in trades and useful labor, so that their pupils on leaving are fitted at once to exert themselves intelligently and successfully for their own maintenance.
Thus does the American system of deaf-mute instruction take a class of citizen's deprived of one most important sense, and cut off from the exercise of ono of the most important powers of man-a class once ranked in the cye of the law with idiots and imbeciles, à class once only a drag and burden to society-and so cultivate their remaining powers, through the senses that are still unimpaired, as to make them intelligent and useful men and womeu, able to earn the means for their own subsistence, fitted to assumo the burden of sustaining others, and to add to tho aggrogate wealth of the community.
But this is not all that has been done for the deaf and dumb of the United States. In the year 1804 the Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, located at Washing
ton, and sustained by the Federal Government, organized a department in which might be afforded to deaf-mutes of high mental capacity a full academic course of study, such as is given in colleges and universities.
Congress has evinced its approval of this novel undertaking by appropriating ample means for the maintenance of the work, and by authorizing the admission of students from all the States and Territories of the United States.
More than sixty young men and women, representing twenty-two States and the District of Columbia, have availed themselves of the advantages thus afforded, and nine have been already graduated from a course of study equal, in the severity of its requirements, to that of the most respectable colleges of the country.
The following extract from the last report of the institution (not yet published) is of interest as showing the practical results of the college work in fitting deaf-mutes for positions in life much higher than they could hope to reach were their education limited to that of the comuon schools :
“What the graduates of the college do.-In the progress of our college and the presentation of its interests to the public, the questions are often asked, rather doubtingly, "But what can your graduates do in the struggle of life " " What positions can they fill that shall justify the expenditure of time and money necessary to their collegiate training ?" Our practical answers to these questions were begun to be given last year by our first three graduates, who were at once called to fill honorable and useful positions, one in the service of the Patent Office, one to instruct his fellow-mutes in Illinois, and the third to supply a professor's place, as tutor, in the college from which he had just graduated.
“ The young men of our second graduating class have also given gratifying evidence that their collegiate training has been to good purpose. One has been called to teach in the Tennessee Institution for Deaf-mutes; another has been employed in a similar manner in the Obio Institution; a third has taken an eligible position as teacher in the new Institution for Deaf and Dumb in Belleville, Canada; the fourth is a valued clerk in the Census Bureau ; and the fifth is continuing his studies here with a view of becoming a librarian, while he fills temporarily the position of private secretary in the office of the president of the institution.
“ The aggregate annual income to-day of the nine young men who have graduated from our college is $9,600, giving an average of more than $1,000 to each. This may, perhaps, be taken as the present market value of their services to the community, and is no mean return for the cost of their education. But who can measure the probable influence for good which these educated young men may be expected to exert during the years they may reasonably hope to live and labor in the world p"
An examination of the table of statistics, while it sustains the claim that the United States takes the lead of other countries in caring for the deaf and dumb, reveals also the fact that much yet remains to be done in order that the benefits of education may be extended to all the mutes of our land.
The proportion of this class of persous to the entire community does not vary materially in the different States. This being the case, it appears that several of the larger and older commonwealths are greatly behind what might be expected of them in the number of deaf and dumb ander instruction.
In no instance is this discrepancy more marked than in the State of Pennsylvania, with a population in 1860 of 2,900,000, where only 238 deaf-mutes are reported as being under instruction, while New York, with a population less than one-third greater, reports more than double the number of deaf-mutes in school. Ohio, with a population less by 600,000, reports nearly one-third more deaf and dumb in its institution; and Illinois, with but little more than half the population of Pennsylvania, greatly exceeds it in the number of mutes provided for.
E. M. GALLAUDET, Ph. D., LL.D.
EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS IN ENGLAND.
A great advance has been made in the system of pablic education in England during the past year, one which gives promise that before long the proud boast of America that education is offered as a free gift by the State to the child of every citizen-will also be that of the mother country. The preliminary step was taken in 1869, when the government took upon itself the supervision of the endowed schools of the kingdom. These endowed schools, many of them of great antiquity, were founded by benevolent people, generally for specific purposes. In many cases the value of the foundation has greatly increased, owing to the rise of real estate ; and also abuses have sprung up, to correct which, and to render available for general educational purposes, so far as may be practicable, those moneys devoted to education, was the object of the bill. A few of the larger schools, such as Eton, Harrow, Rugby, which have been notably well managed, were excepted from the provisions of the law. With these express exceptions, it includes all endowed schools. We are indebted to the visit of the Right Honorable A. J. Mandella, M. P., for information concerning the recent school legislation.
ENDOWED SCHOOLS. The endowed schools bill was passed in 1869, which has for its object to bring all the oducational endowments of England, many thousands in number, and some of them of very large amount, entirely under the control of the educational department. This law requires a complete statement of all the property of every educational corporation established in England; and some of them have been grossly mismanaged-have been entirely wrested from the purposes for which they were founded. Most of them were founded to give education to the poor, but have fallen into the hands of the rich. Some of them have increased enormously in value, but instead of giving a siniple elementary education to the poor, they have given the very highest classical education to the sons of rich men. By this act all these are brought under the control of the educational department, and it is intended that they shall supply the means of sustaining education of a higher character, preparatory for the university. It is proposed to offer scholarships to a certain percentage of the scholars of the elementary schools who shall distinguish themselves, to sustain them in this higher school. Mr. Forster described it, in the words of Napoleon, as “la carière ouverte aux talents."
SCHOOLS AND THE SCHOOL LAW IN ENGLAND.
The central authority rests in the council of education, and the whole of England is cat up into certain districts for school purposes, which are under the charge of inspectors. For instance, suppose Yorkshire has two inspectors, who go to every elementary school and report upon each to the vice-president of the council of education. If there is any improvement to suggest, that is done; or, if a teacher should be removed, that is reported and acted upon. If children pass a certain examination an extra grant is made to the school. There are certain standards from one to seven inclusive, and the higher the standard which a class reaches, the greater the grant from the educational fund for that school. The payment is dependent upon the results, and the teacher is therefore earnest in pushing on his work.
“In regard to truancy, we shall, whenever we get the law well in working order, alter that word 'may' to 'shall."
Within one year provision has to be made for the education of every child in Eng: land and Wales; and this, it is anticipated, will require that the present number of school-houses shall be doubled. The school boards are authorized to provide funds for those additional buildings by issuing bonds running for thirty years at 4 per cent. The discussion in Parliament which resulted in the present act was long
and earnest, and the advance indicated by this bill, which is confined in its action
England and Wales, will be fully appreciated only by those who followed the course of the debate or were familiar with the previous state of public education in Great Britain.
The question of compulsory attendance was very earnestly discussed, and was finally left to separate school boards, who have a certain discretionary power of enforcing attendance; but the advocates of compulsion do not propose to be content until its ultimate adoption.
The question of religious education in schools was also very warmly debated, and resulted, as will be seen in the following summary of the acts, in making them wholly unsectarian.
The leading features of the law will be found in the following abstract, prepared by Mr. James Richardson of New York for the Educational Gazette, which is prononnced by Mr. Mundella to be a clear and fair statement of the law as it passed, which we make use of in default of receiving our official copy of the act. The bill was prepared and brought in by Mr. William Edward Forster (vice-president of the council of education) and Mr. Secretary Bruce, and was ordered printed by the House of Commons February 17, 1870. The present act was passed August 9, 1870.
ENGLISH ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ACT.
BY JAMES RICHARDSON, NEW YORK. The complete text of the new education law of England and Wales having at last boen published, we are able to see exactly what its provisions are.
The object of the law is to secure the establishment in every school district of public schools sufficient for the elementary instruction of all the children resident therein whose education is not otherwise provided for. School districts are either municipal boroughs or parishes included in them. An elementary school, in the meaning of the act, is a school in which elementary instruction is the principal part of the education giren, and in which the ordinary payments of each scholar do not exceed ninepenco a week. In estimating the educational requirements of any district, one-sixth of the total population are to be countod as of school age. These, less the number in schools charging more than ninepence a week, are they for whom the public schools must provide. In calculating the accommodation afforded by existing schools, eight square feet of flooring is to be allowed for each child.
DEFINITION OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOL.
To be considered a public school, every elementary school must be conducted in aecordance with the following regulations, a copy of which must be conspicuously posted in the school-room:
1. It shall not be required as a condition of any child being admitted into or continuing in the school, that he shall attend or abstain from attending any Sunday school or any place of religious worship, or that he shall attend any religious observance or any instruction in religious subjects in the school or elsewhere, from which observance or instruction he may be withdrawn by his parent, or that he shall, if withdrawn by bis parent, attend the school on any day exclusively set apart for religious observance by the religious body to which his parent belongs.
2. The time or times during which any religious observance is practiced, or instruction in religious subjects is given at any meeting of the school, shall be either at the beginning or at the end of each meeting, and shall be inserted in tho time-table to be approved by the education department, and to be kept prominently and conspicuously affixed in every school-room. And any scholar may be withdrawn by his parent from such observance or instruction without forfeiting any of the other benefits of the school.
3. The school shall be open at all times to the inspection of any of her Majesty's inspectors. So, however, that it shall be no part of the duties of such inspectors to inquire into any instruction in religious subjects given in such school, or to examine any scholar therein in religious knowledge, or in any religious subject or book.
4. The school shall be conducted in accordance with the conditions required to be fulfilled by an elementary school in order to obtain an annual parliamentary grant.
The word "parent," as used in these regulations, is defined as signifying any parent, guardian, or other person having legal authority over the child.
HOW SCHOOLS ARE TO BE SUPPLIED.
Full returns of existing school accommodations in each district are to be made by proper authorities (as hereinafter explained) to the education department, which will promptly decide whether any deficiency exists. In so doing, the department will tako into consideration every school, whether a public elementary school or not, and whether actually situated in the school district or not, which in their opinion gives, or, when completed, will give, sufficient elementary education to, and is, or will be when completed, suitable for the children of the district.
The education department will then publish their decisions, giving the number, size, and description of the schools reported as available for the district, with the amount and description of the accommodations required. Any appeal against such decision must be made in writing to the department within one month after its publication, either by rate-payers of the district (not less than ten in number, except when the smaller number represents at least one-third of the ratable value of the district) or by the managers of any elementary school in the district. If such an appeal is made, the case must be settled by public inquiry. If no appeal is made, or if, after appeal, public inquiry bas shown more accommodation to be necessary, final notice is to be issued by the department, directing the required accommodation to be provided. If it is not supplied at the expiration of six months, or is not in the course of being supplied, a school board must be formed to see that the work is done. If this school board fail to comply with the requirement within twelve months, the education department must take the matter out of their hands and provide the needed school accommodations independent of the local authorities. School boards may be formed without such preliminary inquiry or notice, where application is made to the education department by the persons who would elect the school board, or where the department are satisfied that the managers of any elementary school in the district are unable or unwilling to maintain such school, and that its discontinuance would occasion a deficiency of accommodation.
MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF SCHOOLS BY SCHOOL BOARDS.
Every school-board school must be a public elementary school as defined above, and no religious catechism or religious formula, distinctive of any particular denomination, shall be taught in the school. The school board may delegate any of their powers,