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called to this subject a moment too soon. The trial of its political institutions through which the American nation has just passed; the manner in which the necessity for education as the only guarantee for the perpetuity of those institutions has just been burned into the national consciousness; the pressing demand made by our material and social conditions for the best educational facilities the world can furnish; and the fast accumulating evidence that America is surely destined to a glorious leadership in the grand march of the nations—all these constitute an appeal to action which it were criminal to disregard. The necessity is great. The country and the times are ripe for the undertaking
The questions that remain for our discussion relate to the very important subject of definite ways and means. For the proper consideration and satisfactory solution of these, your committee have found it necessary to pray for an extension of the time allotted them. Respectfully submitted.
J. W. HOYT, Chairman.
In compliance with the request of the committee, further time was granted, in the hope that at the next annual convention they will be enabled to submit a plan for an organized movement looking to the early establishment of some such institution as the one foreshadowed in their preliminary report.
The committee consists of the following gentlemen : Dr. J. W. Hoyt, chairman, Wisconsin ; Hon. N. B. Cloud, Montgomery, Alabama; Hon. Thomas Sinith, Little Rock, Arkansas ; Prof. W. P. Blake, San Francisco, California; Hon. B. G. Northrup, New Haven, Connecticut; Prof. L. Coleman, Wilmington, Delaware; Hon. C. T. Chase, Tallahasse, Florida :
-, Georgia; Hon. Newton Bateman, Springfield, Illinois ; Hon. B. C. Hobbs, Indianapolis, Indiana; Hon. A. S. Kissel, Des Moines, Iova; Hon. P. McVickar, Topeka, Kansas; Hon. Z. T. Smith, Frankfort, Kentucky; Hon. T. W. Conway, New Orleans, Louisiana; Hon. Warren Johnson, Augusta, Maine; Hon. M. A. Newell, Baltimore, Maryland; Hon. Joseph White, Boston, Massachusetts; Hon. 0. Hesford, Lansing, Michigan ; Prof. W. F. Phelps, Winona, Minnesota ; Dr. Daniel Read, Columbia, Missouri ; Prof. J. M. McKinsey, Peru, Nebraská; Hon. A. N. Fisher, Carson City, Nevada ; Hon. Amos Hardy, Concord, New Hampshire; Hon. C. A. Apgar, Trenton, New Jersey; Hon. J. W. Bulkley, Brooklyn, New York; Hon. S. S. Ashloy, Raleigh, North Carolina ; Prof. A. J. Rickoff, Cleveland, Ohio; Rev. Geo. H. Atkinson, Portland, Oregon; Hon. J. P. Wickersham, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; Hon. T. W. Bicknell, Providence, Rhode Island : Hon. J. K. Jillson, Charleston, South Carolina; Rev. C. T. P. Bancroft, Lookout Mountain, Tennessee ;
Texas; Hon. J. S. Adams, Montpelier, Vermont; Hon. Wm. H. Ruffin, Richmond, Virginia Prof. Z. Richards, Washington, District of Columbia.
SOCIETY, CRIME, AND CRIMINALS. Under this heading Rev. Fred. H. Wines contributed a recent article to the New York Independent, giving some account of the proceedings of the late meeting at Cincinnati, called “The Prison Congress,” or “National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory discipline.” This began its sessions on the 12th of October, and continued until the evening of Tuesday, the 18th. There were 230 delegates present, from twenty-two States of the Union, including Maine, California, and South Carolina; and among them were two governors, (Hayes, of Ohio, and Baker, of Indiana,) one exgovernor, (Haines, of New Jersey,) fourteen wardens, twenty-three superintendents of reform schools, fourteen chaplains, five prison surgeons, and four matrons. There are in the United States forty State prisons, twenty-five houses of correction, and thirty reform schools. These were all very fully represented. Two social science associations, and six State boards of charity sent representatives, and ten governors who could not be present sent deputies.
Hon. Speaker Blaine being unable to carry out his engagement to preside over the congress, by the death of his friend and neighbor, Governor Cony, Governor Hayes was chosen permanent chairman, and Rev. Dr. Peirce, of New York, Z. R. Brockway, of Michigan, Rev. A. G. Byers, of Ohio, and Rev. Joshua Coit, of Massachusetts, were chosen secretaries; and Charles F. Coffin, of Indiana, treasurer.
There were thirty-two different papers read, and more or less fully discussed. These, as we understand, will all be published in book form, together with a synoptical report of the discussions. The points eliciting most debate were: The comparative merits of the congregate and family systems in reformatories; the effect upon reformation of aiming at the highest pecuniary results in prisons; the principle of indeterminate sentences-i. c., of sentences of imprisonment until reformation; the admission of women to labor among male prisoners for their reformation; the Irish system, especially the ticket-of-leave; tbe comparative efficiency of prison restraint–with or without walls, and the responsibility of parents for the full or partial support of their children when in reformatories.
There was a very general concurrence of opinion as to the true principles of prison disciplino; all agreed that the true end of disciplino is the diminution of crime, and the reformation of the criminal; and that reformation cannot be secured by any single instrumentality. The spirit of the meeting was warm, earnest, unselfish, resolute, with an utter absence of sectarian or partisan feeling, well illustrated by the incident of a Quaker reading the essay of an absent Roman Catholic. A platform was adopted, which is to be scattered over the country in the newspapers and in tract form.
The most salient of the principles of this platform relate to the reformatory character to be impressed on prison discipline; the progressive classification of prisoners, based on character; the evils of political appointments, and of fluctuating administration; the professional training of prison officers; the substitution of reformation for the time sentences; the injurious effect of degradation as a part of punishment; the necessity for industrial training in prisons; and the supreme necessity of a central authority sitting at the helm, guiding, controlling, unifying, vitalizing the whole.
On motion of Governor Baker, it was decided to organize a national prison association, and a committee of eleven was appointed to prepare a plan of organization, and to secure the passage of an act of incorporation. The committee are Governor Hayes, of Ohio; Hon. James G. Blaine, of Maine; Governor Baker, of Indiana ; ex-Governor Haines, of New Jersey; Hon. Theodore W. Dwight and General Amos Pillsbury, of New York; F. B. Sanborn, of Massachusetts; Z. R. Brockway, of Michigan; Charles F. Coffin, of Indiana ; Hon. G, W. Welcker, of North Carolina ; and Dr. E. W. Hatch, of Connecticut.
The national association will make the necessary arrangements for the international copgress on penitentiary and reformatory discipline, which it was decided to call to meet, probably in London, in 1872.
THE CHINESE MIGRATION.
The Chinese migration to this country is now presenting to every considerato mind problems of the most engaging interest. Its political and moral aspects especially command the earnest attention of the statesman and the philanthropist. Tho movement has the appearance now of being but germinal ; it is diminutive, almost insignificant, so as to escape the observation of the mass of men; it yet gives the promise of swelling into dimensions, and branching out into relations of the grandest and most vital importance. The little rill just rippling from the fountain, it may now by gentlest touches of kindness and wisdom be turned in directions, where it shall irrigate and nourish our most precious possessions, while, if it be left to itself, it may prove in its coming volume and strength to be mightyonly to desolate and destroy. It is none too early to turn toward it the most careful observation and the wisest forecast. What are the facts which it presents and with which we have to deal in solving the great problems it brings to us? what are the results which should be aimed at in dealing with it? and what is the method of attaining these results? These are tho three leading questions demanding careful consideration from every American citizen and philantbropist.
I.-FACTS TO BE DEALT WITH.
The first thing that arrests the attention in this movement is its prospectire magnitude.
NUMBERS OF CHINESE IMMIGRANTS.
The federal statistics exhibit the character of this immigration up to the present time in the following particulars: Tbe arrivals returned are in 1820 to 1830, ten years, 3; 1831 to 1840, ten years, 8; 1841 to 1850, ten years, 35; 1851 to 1860, ten years, 41,397; 1861 to 1868, eight years, 41,214; 1869, one year, 14,902; 1870 to June 30, six months, 7,347.
The aggregate of arrivals thus returned is 105,744. If from this total of arrivals there be deducted the number of deaths and returns to China, it would appear that there were considerably less than 100,000 Chinamen in the country on the 30th of Juno last.
The rate of increase of immigration may be more definitely estimated from the numbers returned for each of the last four years ending June 30, which wero, in 1867,3,519; in 1868, 6,707 ; in 1869, 12,874; in 1870, 15,740.
The immigration has been chiefly of males. But tho returns for the later periods show a notoworthy increase in the arrivals of fomales. In the year ending June 30,
1867, there were only eight, and all of them in Boston and Charlestown, none in the Pacific ports. In 1868 the whole number was 46; in 1869, 974; in 1870, 1,116. The total of arrivals of females reported to June 30, 1870, is 2,144.
In regard to occupation, the returns for the year ending June 30, 1870, exhibit the following facts: Physicians, 6; carpenters, 71; stonecutters, 14; mechanics, (trade not stated,) 14; bakers, 3; barbers, 7; tailors, male 16, female 11; cooks, (male,) 42; farmers, 733; interpreters, 4; laborers, 12,782; merchants, 43; peddlers, 2; sailors, 8; occupation not stated, 11; without occupation, 1,973; total, 15,740.
CHARACTER OF IMMIGRANTS. In regard to character and condition, no exact information is attainable. We may believe, however, that the earlier immigrants would be the worst specimens of the race. They came mainly from the southwestern coast of China, where morality and stability are reported to be at a lower standard than elsewhere; where, indeed, the fortuneseeker, the profligate, the exile from home, the ruined in fortune and in character, most congregate. Yet, in addition to the uniform testimony of those who have had the best opportunities for observation that they are for the class more sober, more industrious, more orderly and faithful than the same class from European countries, we have the following facts well attested in regard to their intelligence which are worthy of careful attention. Of the Chinese in North Adams all can read and write their own language. On the Pacific Railroad every Chinese laborer, so far as known, was also able to read and write. Of the Chinese in San Francisco, by the recent census it appears that all can read and write their own language, while there are 7,658 foreigners who can neither read nor write. Of these, 6,882 are from Ireland; 248 from Italy; 283 from Mexico; 40 colored from the Southern States; 29 from England. Of native Americans 9 are returned as unable to read and write.
RESIDENCES OF IMMIGRANTS.
Of the distribution of the Chinese, accurate intelligence is as yet unattainable. The recent census in San Francisco returns 9,777 males and 2,040 females, or a total of 11,817 Chinese in a population of 150,361. Nearly all the Chinese females in the country are in San Francisco or the immediate vicinity. Some thousands of male Chinese, it is understood, are employed on the Central Pacific Railroad. There are many mining camps made up chiefly of Chinese. They also constitute the majority of the population in some towns and villages in the Pacific States, as also in some silk, tea, and cotton plantations. Ninety-five males are employed at North Adams, Massachusetts; 68 at Belleville, New Jersey; 167, all males, are reported as having arrived at New Orleans in the year ending June 30, 1870. In Oregon 2,304 males, 51 females are returned for the four years ending June 30, 1870; in New York 70 males, 9 females; in Philadelphia 13 males. The number now in New York is estimated to be 200, only two or three being adult females, "exemplary mothers of families." These, it is reported, all came from Havana. A large portion of these are cigar-makers and earn large wages; there are some candy-makers, jewelers, and bakers; a majority, however, are house servants. A good proportion have intermarried with native or naturalized whites. The use of opium was two years ago well-nigh universal among them; but reformatory laborg have effected a prohibition of its use in a majority of the houses, and many havo been reclaimed at the hospitals.
CHINESE COMPANIES. In San Francisco the Chinese have united themselves into associations for mutual help and benefit, organized after the pattern to which they had been wonted in their native country. The specific objects of these companies" are stated to be “ to improve the life of their members and to instruct them in principles of benevolence.” Membership is voluntary. Dr. Speer, who took especial pains to ascertain the true character of these “Chinese companies," regards them as "institutions which have no parallel for ability and philanthropy among the immigrants from any other nation or people to our wide shores." Their funds are not used for mercantile purposes or to obtain revenue.” They are simply mutual aid societies. One of them reports to Dr. Speer that the total membership in it from the beginning is about 16,500. Of these perhaps 3,700 have returned; more than 300 have diel; 3,400 separated last year to form a new company; and about 9,200 repain in California. They do not appear to be directly engaged in promoting emigration from China; have of course nothing to do with any importation of men in servitude of any kind; but are purely philanthropic organizations.
PROBABLE INCREASE OF IMMIGRATION. It is, however, the stupendous proportions of the future of this migration which most forcibly arrest the attention. The great facts on which this future may reasonably be forecast and measured are, first, the immensity of the supply, and particularly as set over against the vastness of the demand. Tho source of supply, is oceanic; the basin into which it naturally settles, under the great law of supply and demand, is continental. A homogeneous people, numbering over 400,000,000, writhing under the distresses of repletion, have found an outlet, a way of escape and deliverance, into a broad and goodly land. They are characteristically adventurous, and, whilo patient under difficulties, yet persistent and steadfast of purpose. “We can spare," said a Chinese missionary,“ 40,000,000 of laborers, and shall not feel it in China." The tide of human migration, in its eastward course, has reached its bounds in the Old World; it stays on the Pacific coast only as an ever-rolling, ever-swelling stream at a dam, ever accumulating volume and purpose. It is in the clear intent of Providence that sooner or later, in quiet current or in bursting flood, it pour itself into the open, empty basin of the American continent.
HINDERANCES TO EMIGRATION IN CHINA
There is little in the circumstances or in the disposition of the Chinese to withstand this movement of population toward its equilibrium. The southeastern parts of China, from which the emigration chiefly moves at present, are so densely populated that it is difficult to obtain the means of subsistence. It is here, mainly, that infanticide prevails-an acknowledged immorality, an enforced necessity. The filial sentiment of affection and respect toward ancestors, in cases where, from want, the life of a dependent parent or child must be sacrificed, desperately saves the old and lets go its hold on the child. It is not want of natural affection, but hard necessity, which is the source of Chinese infanticide. The want of food, even where there is not absolute starvation, as is often the case, occasions disease and protracted suffering and premature death, and frequently terrible pestilence. The stern, driving law of self-preservation enforces the natural method of relief by migration.
Although not properly to be regarded as a migratory people, the Chinese yet are wanting in that powerful sentiment which so characterizes some races—love of country. The love of home and of family in the Chinese takes the place of the love of country and of nation in other peoples. It is a most noticeable fact that the Chinese are still properly to be placed in the patriarchal, tribal stage of development; they have not reached the stage of nationality. Rebellions, revolts against the national authority when deemed oppressive, hence, are of the commonest and most customary occurrence. Their religion is predominantly ancestral; their most sacred places are the depositories of ancestral remains. To be gathered with their fathers in the world of spirits is the governing religious aspiration. The government itself is characteristically patriarchal, and political as well as religious institutions—indeed, the social life generally-bear this family stamp. Removal of family goods, of ancestral remains, and tablets carries with it what elsewhere assumes the form of local attachment, and place, country, is left without regret. In natural correspondence with this family sentiment, as displacing proper national feeling, love of country, and attachment to native soil, is the universal worship paid to the kitchen god, the household divinity of China, which has no local abode, no templo, no fixed place, but is represented only on paper, that is burned every year to represent its departure to the spirit land, and is replaced by a new engraving to mark its return.
The great hinderances to migration, consequently, arising from political and religious associations, and consisting in attachments to native land, and the social bonds of a true nationality, politically and religiously organized, are relatively weak or entirely wanting among the Chinese, and the pressure from overcrowded population finds its check not in the national but only in the proper family associations. Let but the integrity of the family lifo be maintained secure, let but the ancestral remains, the ancestral images, and tablets, the monuments and representatives of the dead, together with the living membership of the family, be assured safe conveyance and safe transplanting, and the repugnance to expatriation is so weakened that it is easily overborne by the pressure of want.
DEMAND FOR LABOR IN AMERICA. While China thus presses, America invites; a territory vast as China itself remains unoccupied, except by roving tribes subsisting on game and fish, and wild vegetable products. An area capable of absorbing the entire population of China proper, now desert, craves occupancy by civilized men-by men that in tixed settlements will till the soil and cultivate the arts. The earth was made to be occupied and improved by man; the human race has, since the great opoch of the dispersion, been under orders to spread and occupy. The sentiment of the American people has been, from the first, in harmony with this great providential ordering. Its language has been that of Henry: “ Encourage emigration, encourage the husbandmen, the mechanics, the merchants of the Old World to come and settle in the land of promise ; make it the home of the skillful, the industrious, the fortunate, and the happy as well as the asylum of the distressed; fill up the measure of your population as speedily as yon can.” The wants of the country for men are still as great as they were in the times of Henry. We have a vast territory to be occupied; we have a vastly extended field of industrial wants to be filled. There is a special adaptation in the extent and character of these wants to the numbers and character of the Chinese people. We have a desert territory capable of sustaining a population of hundreds of millions to be subdued and tilled and made productive. The Chinese are most expert and successful tillers of the soil; industrious, economical, patient. We have boundless mineral tracts to be developed and wronght. The Chinese have proved themselves successful miners, working on contentedly where the more grasping, more wasteful, more restless American has abandoned his work. We have experienced these last few years a lack of seamen, and a difficulty of procuring men at moderate prices has crippled our commerce. The Chinese have proved themselves excellent seamen, and are now extensively employed as such on the Pacific coast. We have vast public improvements to be constructed. The Pacific States, the great central Territories, and the Mississippi Valley, to say nothing of the Eastern States that are still devising and promoting new works everywhere to supplement and perfect their facilities for inter-communication, are to have soon most gigantic systems of railroads, of wbich we hardly see as yet the rudimentary outlines. The Chinese have proved themselves, in the construction and operation of the Pacific Railroad, the best of laborers, quiet, orderly, industrious, and every way satisfactory to their employers; indeed, the most satisfactory class of laborers in this department of labor yet tried on our continent. Our manufacturing enterprises, particularly in the Pacific and Mississippi Valley States, are needing laborers at less cost than can now be obtained, in order to compete with foreign production; the Chinese have met this want with most emphatic success. When the Pacific Railroad brought production on the Pacific coast into more direct competition with the eastern, it was found impossible to continue operations, not too lucrative before, except at a loss; the introduction of the cheaper Chinese labor brought deliverance. The Chinaman has been found to be apt to learn and faithful to practice in these manufacturing industries. Even in the remote East, as at North Adams, in Massachusetts, and at Belleville, in New Jersey, the problem of initiating him into our peculiar mechanical employments has proved thus far successful and encouraging.
In like manner on southern plantations and on northern farms, as well as in universal household work, there is a great want and an ever-swelling demand; for these employments as for others the new race has recommended itself everywhere, in the exhibition of those qualities which are chiefly required of capacity and fidelity as well as in the matter of economy and cheapness. The Chinese are expert in agricultural employments, capable of patient toil, careful, saving, trusty; and, in the household, docile quiet, neat, prudent, faithful, economical. In the mining camps of the Pacific States, as in the new settlements on railroads, the Chinese are the preferred cooks and laundrymen, even where cost is disregarded.
In short, the immense and importunate demand for labor in our country finds in this immigration its satisfactory and abundant supply. If left to itself, it is most apparent that this immigration must come in in a steadily swelling flood, which, regarded in its immensity simply, is absolutely appalling. China could spare millions a year for years to come without feeling the loss except in the sense of relief; and America can absorb these millions, so far as sustaining labor is concerned, with no sense of repletion.
CHECKS TO IMMIGRATION. The question arises just here, what now shall limit this threatening inundation of alienism and paganism? There are the general providential checks that hamper all excessively impetuous movements among men. The Chinese must first hear of the new land and of the possibilities of his obtaining support there. He must preserve the means of transportation. Ships must be built. Agencies must be established. Fields of employment must be found. These all are natural or general providential checks wbich will to a greater or less degree give steadiness and moderation to the movement.
But there are positive artificial checks, so to speak, operating or may be expected to operate more or less. There is the direct interposition of government. In 1862 the atrocities of the so-called coolie trade, chiefly directed to Peru, Trinidad, and Cuba, occasioned the act of Congress of February 19, of that year, prohibiting under heavy penalties the transportation of “ inhabitants or subjects of China known as coolies,'” * for any term of years or for any time whatever, as servants or apprentices, or to be held to service or labor.” The term "coolie" properly denotes simply a laborer; it has acquired its opprobrious use only from its associations with the flagitious proceedings connected with the trade mentioned to Peru and the West Indies, which are to be paralleled only with those of the African slave trade. The act of 1862 accordingly pro