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The 80 or 90 dots in New Mexico show that nearly all the population is illiterateall but 10 or 15 per cent. The 50 or 60 dots in most of the cotton or plantation States show that about half or more than half the population cannot read. In a few other blave States it is about one-third, in some a quarter, and in some of the Northwestern States, from a fourth to a tenth of the people. Quito a number of the Northern States, east and west, have from five to ten per cent.; while Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Nevada, and Utah are the only States having but three per cent., or less. Of course, this includes the illiterate of all classes—foreign and slave, as well as native white. It shows how great a work each State has to do in proportion to the number of its inhabitants; but it does not sbow anything definitely of the causes operating to increase or perpetuate illiteracy among our own free people, born and educated in our own land.

View 10 shows us that the per cent. of illiteracy increased from 1840 to 1850, not only in the whole country, but especially in New England, (chiefly from foreign sources,) and in some of the Western and Southern States. View 11, on the contrary, shows how it was diminished in the next decade, not only in the whole country, but in most of the Southern and Western States, though still increasing in New England, iu Mississippi, and on the Pacific slope. View 12 shows that during the whole twenty years there was some improvement in respect to the per cent. of total illiteracy in the whole country, and in what States and parts of the country it was most marked. But a great increase of the evil is seen in New England and the Middle States, as also in Michigan and in one or two other States, for the main causes of which we need not go beyond the fact of ignorant immigration from Canada and Europe, and of slave migration toward the extreme South and Southwest..

It is not so important or instructive to investigate minutely here the improvement in the percentage of some of the States, as it will be in connection with the views of native white illiteracy. It is here complicated so much with the relative increase of slaves and whites, as well as with the influence of foreigners, that it teaches but little. Mississippi, for instance, lost, on the whole, 3 per cent. between 1850 and 1860, (View 11;) but this was due to the greater increase of the slave population—the ratio of white illiteracy actually diminished one per cent.

It may, however, be noticed here that the improvement was not confined to particular States. . It was very general throughout the South and West-almost everywhere except in New England. It is noticeable particularly in the northern tier of slave States, and in some Western States. It must have been due to some common cause or causes operating over those vast areas and large sections and groups of States. But this is not the best place to consider it in detail.

Another thing strikes us on looking at these three maps, and that is the comparative harmony and uniformity of the results of the three census reports of 1840, 1850, and 1860. We have already noticed (page 19, View 3) the bearing of this upon the question of the reliability of the census statistics on this subject. It is very manifest here. Whether we look at these three maps with reference to the whole country, or look at larger or smaller sections, or groups of States, or at individual States, the conviction becomes irresistible that these corresponding and harmonious results of the three successive census reports are due to the fact that they are substantially correct; that there are no irregularities or inaccuracies in them that can in any way materially affect the general conclusions to which they lead, and the great lessons which they teach. It only remains for us to do the work to which they point us.

CAUSES AND REMEDIES.

It would be premature to enter upon a full discussion of the causes and remedies of this evil before we come to the Views of percentage of native white illiteracy, which show its density (its proportion to the whole adult pative white population of each State) and bring out its relations to the special local influences which have been operating to produce or remove it. Indeed, maps of some of the States, showing its distribution in the several counties, and thus bringing us more directly to see its relations to general and special causes, ought first to be studied. Views of such minute geographical distribution by counties would be as much more instructive than these maps of its distribution among the States as these maps are more instructive than the single group of dots for the whole United States, to be seen in the lower right-hand corner of Views 6, 7, 10, or 12; and such county Views need to be prepared, and shall be, as soon as circumstances will permit, and the necessary means can be obtained.

But already the maps we have been looking at and studying point to several important causes; the influx of ignorance from Canada, and through Canada, and to the great Atlantic ports, by immigration; the influence of slavery in the plantation States, and even more among the poorer farming population flowing westward from the older and wealthier portions of Virginia and North Carolina to the mountain valleys and to the newly-settled parts of those States, and of Kentucky and Tennessee, and even beyond the northern banks of the Ohio; the peonage and other adverse causes bearing upon the untaught population of New Mexico; the influences which have come down from some of the early settlers and immigrants of New York, Pennsylvania, and some other States, as compared with the school influences inherited in New England; and unfavorable circumstances and difficulties in new and sparse settlements in the pioneer Western States.

But there must be there are, other causes more universal, more fundamental, more permanent, impairing the efficiency of schools, preventing the successful use of maternal and family agencies, aggravating the effect of other adverse circumstances, preventing or taking away the anxiety of the untaught to learn, preventing the beginner's early and speedy success, disheartening him, and deterring him from persevering in his efforts at self culture in this elementary and all-essential branch of study—in this very root of all study and progress.

Full investigations of this subject will establish the fact that even in our most favored sections-in New England, in New York, and the Middle States, and in the Northwest—and in the most favored parts of them, in towns and cities where money has been most lavished and pains have been least spared, our schools have not been as efficient as they ought to be; not half as efficient as they can and must be made. It will appear also that, hitherto, home efforts, and self-teaching, and Sunday-school, and neighborly and friendly assistance have been of little or no avail; they have hardly been available or practicable.

It is believed that the mother's teaching, home-teaching, teaching by masters and mistresses, by friends and Sunday-school teachers, and with these, after these, and more than these, self-teaching can be made even more effective than schools.

EDWIN LEIGH,

TABLES

OF

SCHOOL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES.

SCHOOL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES, COMPILED FROM THE MOST RECENT INFORMATION.

Table I.-General Statistics : Statistics of Pupils and Teachers. School popula

No. of teachers in

tion.

public schools.

Ave'ge sala-
ry of teach-
ers per mo.

States.

Date of report.

Area in square

miles.

Value of taxable

property.

Population. *

Between

the ages 01

umber.

No. of children

enrolled in the schools.

Average attend.

ance.

Number of chil. dren of school age never regAverage absence

of those enrollistered.

Average total ab

sence.

No. of school districts or schools.

dura. tion of schools

in month and Average

days.

No. of pupils in private elementary schools.

ed.

Male.

Female.

Total.

Male.

Female.

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Alabama...... 1869 1, 002, 000 5-21 1336.000 1160,000

3, 804 Arkansas ... 1869 486, 103 5-21 180,000 100,000 60,000 80,000 40,000 120,000 2,500 5 months ...

. 1. 300

700 2,000 $80 00 $60 00 California..... 1869 556, 208 5-15 112, 753 73, 754 49, 802

23,925 62,941 1,354

726 961 1,687 33 62 81
Connecticut... 1870
537, 886 4-16 125, 407 105, 313 64, 707 20,094 | 40,606 60,700 1,647 | 8 mos. 3 days.

2, 1342, 813
Delaware ..... 1870

123, 252 5-21
Florida .. 1870

189, 995 4-21

41, 900
*7, 575 ......
* 36,000 250 3 months ....

250
Georgia.....
58.000

1, 179, 806
405

2,540, 216 6-21 833, 130 706, 780 269, 766 126, 350 437,014 563,364 10,590 7 mos. 3 days. 36,912 8, 240 10,797 19,037 42 40
Indiana ...

1870
$655, 521, 479 1,668, 169 6-21 619, 590 462, 527 281, 912 157,063 180,615 337,678 8, 861 3 mos. 7 days. . 17, 104

11,826
Iowa..... 1870

.1, 177, 515 5-21 418, 168 | 296, 138 178, 329 122, 030 117,809 239,839 6, 788 6 mos. 6 days. 4,200 4, 479
Kansas .. 1869 000
5-21 92, 517 58, 681 31, 124 33, 836 27,537 61,393 1, 707 5 months ....

896 263 Kentucky.. 1870 37, 680

. 1, 323, 264 6-20 376, 868 160, 446 112, 630 216, 422 47,816 264,2381 4,269 | 5 months ....
Louisiana ...
1870 46, 431 250,000,000 710, 394 6-21 254, 533 50, 000 40,000 204,533 10,000 214,533 .483 | 4 mos, 11 days.

76 00
Maino...
1870 000 219, 666, 504 630, 423 4-21 228, 167 126, 946 100, 815 90, 335 26,131 116,466 4,004 4 mos.20 days

14 00
Maryland. 1869
492, 653, 472 775, 000 5-20 182, 205 99, 315........ 82, 890

10 months ...

* 43 00 43 00
Massachusetts 1869
1, 503, 816, 504 1, 457, 385
271,032 | 247, 080 203, 468 | 29, 143 39,884 69,027 4,963 5 mos. 6 days.

053 1 7.048

77 44 30 92 Michigan ..... 1869 56, 243 . 1, 184, 158 5-20 374, 774 269, 587242, 629 104, 26,958 131,745 5,0526 mos. 3 days. .. 2,354

47 71 24 35 Minnesota .... 1870 83,500 185, 000, 000 1460,000 5-21 144, 414 102,086 45, 497 42 328 56,589 98,917 2,521

| 2, 620

33 91 22 45
Mississippi
47, 156

834, 190 5–21
Missouri.

1870 67, 380 5-21 584, 026 249, 729........ 334, 297

..... 7,000 4 mos. 6 days. ...... 4, 615 2,531 7,146 38 60 29 81 Nebraska ..... 1870

76,000 1 50,523, 390 | 116, 888 5-21 32, 619 13, 893........ 18, 726

1782 3 months .... 1,4731'261

34 32 33 66
Nevada ...... 1870 112 000

44, 686 6-18 3,778 2,028 1,382 1,170 646 1,816 45 8mos. 2 days. 360 19 36 $118 75: 92 16
N. Hampshire 1869 9, 280
318, 300 4-21 75,505 52, 190| 45, 755 5,743 24,007 24,007 2,528 3 mos. 15 days.

6243, 157

3, 781 36 59 21 62
New Jersey... 1870 8,320 | 533, 261, 261 900,000 5-18 258, 227 161, 683 78, 612 96,544 83,071 179,615 1,458 8 mos.14 days. 32,447) 915 1,905 2,820 53 62 30 66
New York .... 1870 47, 156 1,860, 120, 770 4,370, 846 | 5-21 1, 463, 299 998, 664 468, 421 464, 635 530,243 994,878 11, 750 8mos. 4 days. 125,931 6, 230 22, 080 28, 310
North Carolina 1870

45, 000

l'123, 361, 396 1,041,000 6-21 | 342, 168 49, 302 31, 812 292, 866 33,490 310,356 1,398 3 months .... ... 1,030 385 1, 415 T 20 50 19 50 1869 39, 964 1, 157, 180, 455 2,675, 468 5-21 1,028, 877 740, 382 434, 865 288, 495 305,517 590,012 11, 714 7mos. 15 days.

....... 9, 171 12, 455

* 55 63 33 26
Oregon ...... 95, 274

90, 776 4-20
Pennsylvania. 1870 46,000

.. 3, 475,000 6-21 975, 753 828, 892 555, 941 146, 861 272,951 347,951 14,211 6mos. 1 day.. 85,000 7,438
Rhode Island . 1869

| 40 45 31 38
138, 196, 489" 217, 356
1,306
56, 934 29, 477 23,857 27, 457 5,620 33,077 650 8 months ...

173

673
South Carolina 1870 24,500

720,000
168, 819 15, 918.. . 152, 901

381

255

528
Tennessee ....
1869 45, 600
. 1,258, 326 6-20 410, 000 185, 845). ....... 224, 155

1 month .....
Texas...... 1870 237, 321 300,000,000 1850,000 6-18
Vermont...... 1869 9,056
330, 585 4-18 76,759 74,140 55, 744 2,619 18,396 21,015/ 2, 197

4, 296
Virginia ..::
| 41, 352

1, 209, 007 5-21 West Virginia 1869 20,000

447, 943 6-21 59, 028 36, 684 . .. 22,344 ....... 2, 308

1,080 603 2,283 34 00 30 50 Wisconsin .... 1869 | 53, 924 1,052, 266 | 4-20 398, 747 | 264,033........134, 714 ....... 100,000 4,733 151 days..... 15,389.

*****

8,795 43 63 28 34 Actual or approximato, November 28, 1870. Estimated. No person excluded from school-truant age, 6 to 10; school money distributed on basis of the enumor.

ation under 15 years. Coin. ll Average salary of all toachors, $63 36. Toucbers pay their own board, which avoragos $10 per month.

521

55

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Alabama.....

Georgia...
Illinois .....
Indiana......

$524,621 68

$502,156 19 .. Arkansas.... $577,919 44 360,000 00 $10,000 00647,919 44 $500,500 00 $10,000 00 $510,500 00 $66,419 44 $600 00

670,944 00 $2,000,000 00 California.... 1,236,894 94 111,372 72 1,348,267 66 873,814 07 179,407 11 1,053, 221 18 205,766 95 25,331 59.

1,290,585 52 .. Connecticut 1 906,738 87 $168,965 94 $12,300 34......... 193,547 68 1,281,552 831 703,139 25 79,590 60 784,729 85 369,187 53 5,226 64 $131,782 99 1,290,927 01 62,809,770 70 Delaware ..., 81,696 00 32,030 31

113,726 31..

31, 250 13

113,726 31
Florida ..
50,000 00 ........

5,561 44 ...........
98,145 13......

38,289 01 216,335 80 5,150,679 00 486,997 00 ........ 20,849 00 1,238,354 00 6,896,879 00 3,532,643 00 550,004 00 4,082,647 00 1,599,114 00 41,921 00 707,199 00 6,430,888 00 6,348,538 32 1,278,458 02 468,200 35 ........ 8,553 90 141,27547] 1,916,487 741,262,684 54)...

1,474,000 00 8,420,454 30
Iowa...... 2,670,975 59 406,007 14...
35,987 21 3,112,969 94 1,438,964 04 150,648 56 1,689,612 60 1,206,353 09 22,518 08..

2,918,483 77 4,274,581 93
Kansas ... '428,983 98 117,153 65 19,259 93...
565,397 56 292 719 94 79,345 74 372,065 68 218,829 25 5,816 35

596,711 28 750,000 00
Kentucky
308,725 79.

276,554 86 1,400,270 01
Louisiana.... c460,000 00
40,000 00071,610 00 104,950 00 1,026,560 00

659,293 65 31,950 00... .. 33,000 00 724,243 65....
Maine ....... 740,221 00 17,043 51 27,809 00

785,073 51 385,629 76 c121,631 00 507,260 76 190,520 00 ... - 1/277,831 00 1,091,258 00 289,991 58
Maryland. ... 1,010,166 41 62,489 10...

144,997 46 1,217,652 971 819,592 20

819,592 20 240,530 40.

157,530 37| 1,217,652 971..
Massachu'tts. 3,125,053 09 158,161 17 5,312 47

18,997 90 3,307,524 63

2,923,708 701,768,719 38

81,631 36 4,419 200 62 2,210,864 09
Michigan ....
1,751,955 08 165,960 51.

841,181 35 2,759,096 941.177.847 86) 9100,000 001 1,277,847 861 776,074 00l 25.000 00! 322.596 60 2,401,518 46 2,590,214 91
Minnesota ... 456,409 71 176,806 35 ....

126,046 90 759,262 96 360,697 50

242,039 03...

91,569 16 823,571 82 2,471,199 31

56,008
Missouri.....

1,803, 403 00 864,672 00)...

279,661 52 158,075 43 ....... 1,548,257 00 2,525,252 52
Nebraska....
81.780 54 79,586 31 ..........
235,602 00 ....... - 199,692 60 56,068 58

56,008 58 62,668 68 ....

16,814 75 86,483 43 .... Nevada..... 60,299 211 14,233 13 .... 6,676 001 16,438 48 97,646 82 48,324 55 7,243 67 55,568 22 16,774 42 87 47...

72,430 11 29,203 80 N. Hampshire 287,806 67| .... 15,707 70

19,664 88 323,179 25 ..

66,014 83

336,745 45
New Jersey.. 1,514,129 13 35,000 00 28,722 88
71,866 02 1,649,718 03 933,285 52 71,130 00 1,004,415 52 476,606 83

168,695 68 1,649,718 03 556,483 50
Now York... 9,122,253 86 170,000 00 165,000 00 30,478 12 546,232 49 10,033,964 476,156,550 59 1,046,034 84 7,202,585 43 2,455,453 01 228,381 33 116,544 16 10,002,963 93 2,880,017 01
N. Carolina... 297,431 801..
165,290 50.

165,290 50 968,242 43
Ohio........ 17,535,569 82 227,747 47|
730,032 60 8,493,349 89 3,671,904 75 / 918,183 23 4,590,087 982,024,728 61

6,614,816 59 j1,878,533 30
Oregon ....
Pennsylvania
7,676,286 20 3,745,415 81|1,165,226 05 4,910,641 862,765,644 34

7,676,286 20...
Rhode Island

73,878 57 302,806 85 -
267,176 46 85,845 22

353,021 68 412,685 00
So. Carolina..
Tennessee...
k753,795 74

k753,795 74
Texas ....
Vermont.....
498,064 87 348,563 881 51,442 39 400,006 27 98,058 60

498,064 87 .........
Virginia ....
West Virginia

281,057 93..

.246,470 90

329,152 73 216,761 06 Wisconsin... 1,636,875 15 189,371 89 .......

219,777 09 2,382.326 52 1,193,985 44 37,440 78 1,231,426 22 456,503 77 11,410 81 288,135 42 1,987,436,22 2,237,414 37 a Consisting of outstanding claims, lands, &c. b Including town deposit fund of $763,661 83. c Poll tax, d Interest on lands. e l'ucl, repaira, and insurance. f Teachers' board.

Estimated. h Furniture and apparatus. i Including balance in hand, $1,761,901 56. į Balanco on baud Sept. 1, 1869. k For the two years that the froo school law was in operation.

Mississippi ..

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