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Table of statistical details of schools in Alabama, by counties, for 1869–Continued.
44 3, 437 $4,724 40 50
4,324 02 73
10, 687 99 19
1, 737 1 40 5, 233
9,168 84 40 4,327
6, 4:29 49 60 5, 913 7, 768 07 53 7, 635
10, 459 89 58 5, 490
7, 088 00 50 5, 981 7, 877 20 66 5,817 9, 171 71 52 7, 270 9, 524 00 42
4, 668 7, 822 95 59 8, 468 11, 339 24 43 5,885 8, 444 56 88 9,935 15, 036 77 59 8,48813, 489 06 52 3,077 4, 192 40 43 4,392 5, 880 40 40 18, 877 24, 652 40 48 3, 498 5,580 30 85 14,068 | 19, 396 36 72 4, 295
5, 996 40 62
9, 230 13, 046 13 45 7,092 10,637 37 69 6, 881
9, 259 20 48
4,878 6, 453 60) 40 7,084 10, 166 56 39
4, 686 6,023 20 62 4,528 6,233 60 37 3, 722 5, 066 40 51 5,878 12,409 17 68 6, 147 8,575 24 63 8, 22410, 468 80 93 7,569 10, 312 17 42 3,570 4, 684 00 12 1, 163 1,895 60 70 8,540 11, 947 27 29
1, 727 2, 622 40
The State board of education consists of the State superintendent and ten district superintendents.
The board of commissioners of the common school fund consists of the governor, secretary of state, and the State superintendent of public instruction.
The number of children of school age, as returned to the office of the superintendent, is 180,000, of whom 137,000 are white and 40,300 colored. About 100,000 have been connected with the schools during the past year.
There was apportioned to the several counties from the State treasury, for the payment of teachers, the sum of $377,919 94. The returns made to the superintendent do not show the amount raised by local taxation, but it is estimated at about $200,000.
From such information as can be obtained, it appears that a want of funds, general apathy in regard to education, and even hostility in some sections toward a free school system, have retarded very much the accomplishment of efficient work. The only official printed report received is that from the circuit superintendent of Little River and Sevier Counties, from which it appears that earnest efforts have been made by the friends of education in those counties to sustain free schools; and that thirty-seven were taught during the year 1869, four of which were colored, in Sevier County; and nine iu Little River County, two of which were colored.
A new deaf-mute institute, located at Little Rock, is in successful operation, supported by the State. The building is a commodious brick, situated upon land donated by the State. Twenty-five pupils are now enjoying the advantages of the institute, which is governed by a board of directors, who appoint teachers and all subordinate officers. A matron has charge of the girls when not in school, their clothing, &c. A physician visits the school twice a week, regularly. VALUATION OF SCHOOL PROPERTY.
The Peabody fund has afforded aid to the free schools in fourteen towns of the State, amounting, in the aggregate, to $9,300. From the report of Dr. Sears it appears that the free school system is attracting notice and meeting with favor from the people. Every county town has now quite a good school, while before the efforts of the agent, many were without any school.
In a recent communication from the State superintendent, Hon. Thomas Smith, lo says: "School prospects are brightening every day in Arkansas." Hon. Thomas SMITH, superintendent public instruction, Little Rock.
CALIFORNIA. Hon. O. P. Fitzgerald, State superintendent of public instruction in California, roports the number of school districts in the State in 1869 as 1,144; number of schools, 1,268; number of teachers, 1,687; number of pupils enrolled, 73,754 ; average attondance of pupils, 56,715; value of school property, $2,706,304 46. The increase since 1867 is as follows: In number of districts, 163; number of schools, 157; number of pupils, 12,527 ; average number of pupils, 11,078; value of school property, $1,003,000 54. Tho following is a more detailed statement of the school statistics : In the State, between five and fifteen.....
112, 743 Mongolian children under fifteen years of age.
425 In public schools....
67,834 Mongolian in schools...
34 Number enrolled, all ages.
73, 754 Attending private schools.
16, 273 Not in any school....
25, 464 Average daily attendance..
Lots, houses, furniture..
$2,706, 304 56
57, 805 77 32,504 89
$2,796, 705 22
In 1819 a permanent school fund was established for the State of California, from the 500,000 acres of land granted by Congress to the new States, for the purpose of internal improvements. An attempt was made to introduce a proviso that the legislature appropriate the revenue to other purposes, should the exigencies of the State require it. One of the chief opposers of this proviso was Mr. Semple, of Sonoma. The proviso was defeated by a vote of 18 to 17.
The first free public school in the State was established in San Francisco, in 1849, by Mr. J. C. Pelton, and in 1850 was recognized by the city council, in the following terms:
"Be it ordained by the common council of San Francisco, That from and after the passage of this act it shall be the duty of J. C. Pelton, who has been employed by the council as a public teacher, to open a school in the Baptist chapel.”
Said school was to be free to all children whose parents should obtain an order for their attendance from the chairman of the cominittee on education.
In 1851 the bill conoerning public schools passed the legislature, providing for the survey of school lands, the apportionment of the State fund, defining the duties of the superintendent of public instruction, providing for a superintending school committee, and also for the distribution of the school fund anong religious and sectarian schools, in the same manner as provided for district schools. Under this law the city of San Francisco, in the same year of its passage, hastened to adopt her first school ordinance, made provision for a city board, elected superintendent, &c., and in the same year two schools were organized.
At the third session of the legislature, in 1852, the school law was revised and rendered more complete.
The first State report was issued in 1851, by Hon. John G. Marvin, the first superintendent of public instruction. Mr. Marvin donated to the school fand the sum of $1,456 ; the first and last bequest which the State school fund ever received.
The first State teachers' convention, called by Superintendent Hubbs, was held in San Francisco, 1854, and had an attendance of about one hundred teachers.
The first State institute, called by Superintendent Moulder, met in San Francisco, in 1861, an appropriation of $3,000 having been made the previous year for the purpose of aiding State institutes. At this institute a petition to the State legislature was prepared, praying for a levy of a special State tax for school purposes of half a mill on the Collar, which was subsequently signed by more than six thousand voters. Measures were also taken which resulted in establishing the California Teacher, a State educational journal, the first number of which was published in July following. The journal is under the immediate management of the enperintendent of public instruction, the principal of the State normal school being associate editor. Contributing editors are appointed by the board of education.
STATE SCHOOL LAW.
The constitution of the
State provides for the election of a superintendent of public instruction, to hold his office for four years; requires the legislature to provide a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept in each district for three months in the year; for neglect of which the district is to forfeit its proportion of the interest of the public fund.
The legislature has created a board of education, composed of the governor, the superintendent of public instruction, the principal of the State normal school, the city superintendent of San Francisco, and the county superintendents of the counties of Sacramento, Santa Clara, and San Joaquin, and two professional teachers to be nominated by the superintendent of public instruction, and approved by the board.
The superintendent visits and superintends the schools and educational institutions of the State, apportions the public money to the districts, cities, and counties, and makes to the legislature, biennially, a report upon the condition of the schools, and the administration of the school system.
There is a county superintendent elected for two years, who has the immediate supervision of the schools, and acts as the medium of communication between the board of education and State superintendent and the districts. Ho reports annually to the State superintendent. Each county, city, or incorporated town constitutes à school district; but the board of supervisors has power to make smaller districts.
Every district, by its clerk, or by a census marshal, is required to make an annual enumeration of all children under fifteen years of age, and to specify and report separately, white, negro, and Indian children, under the guardianship of white persons, between the ages of five and fifteen years, specifying the number and sex of such children, and naming their guardians.
Children of African, Indian, or Mongolian descent, whose education can be provided for in no other way, may be permitted, by a majority vote of the trustees, to attend schools for white children, in case a majority of the parents of such children make no objection.
Upon the written application of the parents or guardians of such colored, Indian, or Mongolian children to any board of trustees, or board of education, a separate school shall be established for their education.
The superintendent of public instruction is required to subscribe for, and be one of the editors of, a monthly journal, to be devoted to the interests of education, a copy of which is to be sent to every county and city superintendent, district clerk, and school library.
The granting of State certificates to teachers is intrusted to a State board of exami. nation, composed of the superintendent of public instruction, and four professional teachers, witli power to grant certificates for one, two, four or six years, or for life.
At the meeting of the State teacher's institute, in September of this year, composed of about six hundred of the leading teachers of the State, it was unanimously resolved, "That inasmuch as the various county boards of examination are composed of persons of many different degrees of qualification, or no degree, in some instances, and therefore form no standard, or data, from which the State board can judge of their work, the granting of State certificates on county examinations, or on no examinations, should be discontinued.”
The schools are supported—1, by a State school tax of 8 cents, ad valorem, upon each $100 of valuation; 2, by a county tax, which shall not exceed 35 cents on the dollar of valuation, nor be less than $3 for every child in the county, between five and fifteen years of age; 3, by a district tax, to be voted by the inhabitants, at an election called for such purpose, the amount not to exceed, annually, 35 cents on a dollar, for building purposes, and 15 cents for school purposes; 4, by the annual distribution of the income of the common school fund. But no district can receive any portion of the school fund unless the teachers employed hold legal certificates, in full force, and unless, also, a free public school has been maintained during three months of the next preceding year.
The school fund is composed of the proceeds of all lands that may be granted by the United States for the support of schools, the congressional grant of 500,000 acres to all new States, all escheats, and all percentages on the sale of lands, together with the rents of unsold lands.
STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.
This institution is greatly in need of new buildings, the rooms furnished by the board of education being now entirely inadequate to meet its requirements. Twentyfive counties in the State are represented. The principal is Rev. W. T. Lucky, A. M. The time for completing the normal course is two years, each divided into two terms of five months. Board can be obtained at from $25 to $35 per month. Pupils must furnish their own text books. There is a normal training school under the control of Miss M. Lewis, with nearly 200 pupils. The number of pupils in the normal department from July, 1868, to January, 1870, was 188, of whom 166 were ladies and 22 gentlemen. The law provides that graduates of the normal school shall receive State certificates of a grade to be determined by the State board of examination. Under this provision certificates have been awarded to graduates according to ability and scholarship, some receiving diplomas, some first grade, and others second or third grade certificates. Five members of a graduating class, having taught previously, received State educational diplomas, which entitled them to teach as principals of grammar schools. Six members of the class, whose standing was 80 per cent., received first grade certificates. Eleven received second grade, and nine, whose standing was from 70 to 75 per cent., received only third grade certificates, which entitled them to teach only in primary schools.
The percentage of a member of the graduating class is determined by taking into consideration the standing in recitation records during the term, the report of success in the training school, and the result of the within examination at the close of the term.
The location of the State normal school was for a time a matter of much discussion, but it was at length fixed at San José, in accordance with the earnest recommendation of Hon. O. P. Fitzgerald, State superintendent, and it is now nearly completed. The advantages of San José as the proper location of the school are its unsurpassed climate, its accessibility from all parts of the State, and the intelligence, morality, and hospitality of the citizens.
COSMOPOLITAN, EVENING, INDUSTRIAL, AND REFORM SCHOOLS.
The cosmopolitan schools of San Francisco have been remarkably successful. Scarcely any feature of the public schools of that city is more popular. Not only are their advantages sought by our foreign-born citizens, but there is an eager desire on the part of a large number of our native-born citizens to avail themselves of the opportunity afforded by these schools to give their children soife acquaintance with the French, German, and Spanish languages. They have been organized and conducted on such principles as to obviate any conflict with the fundamental idea of our public school system, that every child in the State shall have the opportunity to acquire the elements of an English education. The success and obvious benefits of these schools have led to the organization of similar schools in Sacramento.
The evening schools of San Francisco are reported in a very flourishing condition, being sought by adults, whose early education was neglected, and by boys who are obliged to work during the day for their living,
The industrial school of the State is reported in a very unfavorable condition. “A bad system has been badly administered. Its name is a misnomer; it is more of a prison than a school. It has been conducted ou the prison system, without many of the restraints and safeguards which by law and usage are thrown around the management of regular jails and penitentiaries.". So great has been the maladministration of the affairs of the institution that the feeling prevails that it should either be reformed or abolished.
The need of such a school for the care, instruction, and training of neglected, orphaned, and vicious boys is so great that, instead of abolishing it, it should be reformed thoroughly, endowed liberally, and officered wisely. “Let tho family system be substituted for the prison system. Moral results can be effected only by moral agencies. Dungeons, solitary confinement in dark, damp, and cold cells, grated windows and high walls may be tolerated a while longer in State prisons, but in a school for children-little children-they are monstrous!"
INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF, DUMB, AND BLIND.
An act reorganizing this institution, passed in 1866, made it a feature of the common school system of the State. It is located about four and a half miles north of Oakland, directly in front of the Golden Gate, and adjoining the grounds of the State University. The site comprises 130 acres, of which 50 are of the highest fertility, while the remainder is hill land, well adapted to grazing purposes. The outlook, in varied beauty and extent, is unsurpassed. The editice is in semi-Gothic style, and built of a rough, blue stone, in admirable keeping with the architecture. The frontago is 192 feet, beside the lavatories, which extend 30 feet further on each corner, making a total frontage of 264 feet. The depth is 148 feet, with kitchen and laundry building, 50 feet square, in the rear. The internal arrangements seem to be as ncar perfect as experience could make them. Other institutions unite the deaf and dumb and blind, but only as a temporary expedient, for the sake of economy. This is the only institution in the world planned with special reference to keeping the two classes together. The institution will accommodate comfortably 150 pupils, together with the necessary officers and employés. There have been under instruction during the last two years 92 pupils. At present the number is 74, of whom 48 are deaf and dumb, and 26 are blind. Being a part of the common school system of California, its benefits are free to all deaf and dumb and blind persons between the ages of six and twenty-one years, who are of sound mind and body and residents of the State.
The University College, popularly known as the City College, from its location in the heart of San Francisco, was founded in 1859, and incorporated in 1863, and the property placed in the hands of trustees, among whom may be named the honorable mayor, Thomas H. Selby, president of the board, and Governor Haight, through wbose efforts mainly a very valuable tract for university purposes, five miles from the plaza, was secured. The present number of pupils is 160, of whom 57 are in the primary department. The buildings are large and provided with well lighted and ventilated study halls, and with ample illustrative apparatus. The college was founded by the Rev. George Burrowes, who, after five years, was obliged to resign the charge of it, and since 1865 it has been under the care of the Rev. P. V. Veeder, A. M.
An act creating and organizing the State University of California became a law in March 1868. The governor of the State, lieutenant governor, speaker of the assembly, State superintendent of public instruction, president of the State Agricultural Society,