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Respicere exemplar vitæ morumque jubebo,
Docum imitatorest, et veras hinc ducere voces.

To observe and to imitate the actions to efface from it all moral sentiments.

of his fellows; is a principal employ As savage as the brutes around him, faent of man during the whole of his pre perhaps still more so, he had almost fora lent existence. Were it not his cmploy, got the secret of uttering intelligible mnent, he would be perpetually exposed sounds. Capt. Rogers observed with to difficulties insurmountable. Unaslifted astonishment, that he pronounced only by the experience of others, he is alike the last syllables of words. From whence ignorant and helpless, dependant en we may infer, that if he had had no tirely on the tardy fuccours of his own books, or if his exile had continued two reason for the fupply of his wants, for. or three years longer, he would probathe prevention of his errors. We fee bly have lost all powers of articulation. the narrow extent of the human powers Man then is nothing by himself-he. in savage and solitary life, in the ac. owes all he is to society. The greatest count given of it by Mons. de Pauw, metaphysician, the most profound phiin his Enquiries concerning the Ame: losopher, were he abandoned for ten ricans. Speaking of a wild man taken years in a defest island, would become, in the forests of Germany, he tells us, like the brute part of the creation, " that this fequeftered being, lowered dumb, ignorant, and weak. In a word, to the level of the brutes, had preserved he would cxperience the fame changes only a faint spark of that realon and that with the unfortunate Selkirk. It is power which we are enabled to exercise hardly necessary to add, that the fin. over all other animals, because there is gular but real distress of this man supno other fo wonderfully organized. plied the materials, perhaps, but cor. This favage ftole very adroitly from the, tainly suggested the subject of the traps the bait set for the wolves; always' entertaining Romance of Robinson contriving to secure himself from being Crusoe. caught by the spring."

Monf. de Pauw mentions also some How much man is the creature of his other facts to illustrate the same truth, ftuation appears also from the narra “ Some years ago,” says he, “ a man tive of Captain Rogers, who visited who had been perfecuted by the Monks Cape Horn in 1709. He delivered from on account of his opinions and his eftate, the' uninhabited island of. Juan Fernan- took the resolution to quit Europe, and dez, a Scotchman, born in the pro- to live like a Canadian in Canada. He vince of Fife, who had lived in that fo- remained in that country for some time, litary Spor four years and four months. and came back at the comniencement of Alexander Selkirk, for that was his the last war ; but he had lost his under. name, had been barbarously set on Shore standing, and had lot it so entirely that there by a Capt. Stradling, who left his friends were forced to confine him with his clothes, his bed, a gun, a him.". pound of powder, and some thot, some The same thing happened, as Mons. zobacco, a hatchet, a knife, a bible, Chevreaux informs us, to the celebrated some other books which treated of re Mathematician Martial. Finding a ligious subje&ts, together with his nau. residence at Paris too noisy for the cul. tical books and instruments. During tivation of Geoinetry, he set out for the first eight months melancholy to Canada. At his return he had forgor. overwhelmed the deserted failor, that ten every thing, and appeared to have he was frequently on the point of puto become a child only by living for five ting an end to his existence. After his years among savages. powder was expended, he was obliged, It appears then that the arts of life in order to procure goats for his subift

not only make no progress, but decline ence, to have recourse to his speed. and pericht in folitude. Even in thofe He became at length so active, that he arrs where nature is considered as the could pass from rock to rock with in- chief object of study, and where to fola credible swiftnefs.

low the footsteps of another is thought By degrees solicitude for his sub

to be a proof of inferior talents, the hkence to wholly occupied his mind, as propensity to imitation not only exerto Vol. XXV.


itfelf, but is indifpenfably necessary to Many, general customs, apparently their advancement. The artist, indeed, absurd, have originated from very ra. who cannot avail himself of the labours cional caules. "In the 16th century," of a predecessor without discovering the lays an observing Avriter, " the Spani. model he has followed, will scarcely bc ards were very lubject to tumours in thought capable of attaining to emi. the throat, like the goitres which difnence; but if such assistance were cn- figure the inhabitants of the moun• tirely rejected, his art ever must remain tainous parts of Switzerland. They in its original rudeness.

contrived to hide this deformity from Man's propensity to imitation deter. the cyes of frangers by the invention mines for the most part his moral cha- of large ruffs, which covered not only racter. His habits of conduct are form- the whole length of the neck, but the ed long before the effeêts of his conduct cars also, and the lower part of the are comprehended by him; and he sel. chin. Spain poffeffed at that time dom underttands thc reasonings by which what France enjoyed afterwards, the it is blamed or recommended till he is empire of fashion, and the rest of E.11. experiencing their truth.

rope adopted cagerly a species of orna. The propensity to imitation appears ment, ridiculous in appearance, and inwith the greateft' force in young per• rented only to conceal a blemish." fons, and the lower orders of society : The characteristical virtues and rices it acts more feebly on the mature and of different nations have been someenlightened, whole understanding will times attributed to causes merely phy. de exerted to moderate its authority. Goal. That air and climate should have However, with regard to the greater fome effect upon the character, does part of human actions, it may be said not seem improbable; provided we to operate in all men without restraint; confine their influence to those qualiinducing those who are placed in the ties in which the body principaily is same circumstances to copy from the concerned. But the cafe is not the fame models. Hence are derived the same with respect to the finer and peculiar characters which distinguill more delicate qualities, which are indifferent nations from each other; which tinjately connected with the intellectual mark the various classes of men in each part; for thefe, when general in any nacions, and discriminate the individuals country, must be deduced from the of cvery class. Hence too, customs and imitative nature of the human mind. *pinions formed at first by the fanciful If the first founder of a fociety poilers invention of man have received their an ardoor for conqueft, and the conchief ítrength; have become vene• geniai fpirit breathed into his associates rable, and even facred, and have been be kept alive by perpetual ftruggles, dctended at thc hazard of lifc; cuftoms and inflamed by success, this quality which must not be viewed with too may become characteristical of his peofaftidious and philofophical an eye, nor ple for many succeeding centuries cítimated entirely by their intrinsic : Had Rome arisen from peaceable be. value. As contributing to knit the ginnings, had the been placed amida bands of fociety, they demand the re- nations less warlike or more powerful, ipect even of him who is not prejudiced had a maritime situation enabled her to by their influcnce. He ought not, on give an early attention to commerce, that account, to contemin thofe commu- the would not have been mistress of the nities in which such practices are efta- world. Fortunc, by making her now blished; this is not the effect of en. the repository of the monuments of farged prospects of human nature. elegani antiquity, makes her likewife Undoubtedly there are many indifferent the seat of taite and the fine arts; and things fan&tificd in a manner by prac- imitation has extended her gopius in tiee, and imposing an obligation of con- this particular over the bordering proformity on cvery individual ; an obli. vinces, which stand no longer in awe of gation not to be fuperfeded by circum- her power. Mances of private opinion, for imitation Imitation produccs effects of a like forms the principal tie by which the fort in smaller societies, comprehended members of a community are held to in the general one of the state. The geeher; they fcc, rerlocked by their good of such focieties will be more adallaciat, flitiattering inage of them- vanced by the cultivation of some felyes

qualities than of others; the former


of men.

therefore will be most attended to by and if we do not fcel philanthropy the persons who institute or manage from this prospect, we certainly mult chefe" focicties; and the intercourse of learn a lesson of prudence. the members among cach other gra. It may be obferved too, that when dually will render them characteristical the individuals of any class exercise the of the whole.

functions of their calling apart from It may happen that the fituacion of a cach other, they are very unlike to particular cank of men may give them contract a Gmilarity of manners, eso a propensity to certain vices. Thus, to pecially if they be men of leisure, and the mercantile have been attributed not hurried by the engagements of the fraud and fervile obfequiousness; to world into indiscriminate imitation. foldiers, sensuality and remerity ; to We are indebted to Mr. Hume himperfons of high birth, prodigality and self for an observation, which is an anpride. Mr. Hume, writing on this fwer to his own fevere infinuations.lubject, has affixed a catalogue of odious “ The same clafs of men,” says ho, vices to a oumerous and respected order may acquire from accidental cir:

Without entering minutely crimstances, in different countries and joto his reafonings, a few reficctions periods, different and even oppofite may be fuggested, which may tend to qualities. vindicate this order from fo fevere a It was the opinion of a Greck Drácharge, and may teach us at the same matist, that it was impollible a soldier time fomc cautions in drawing general could be polite. This assertion was conclufions upon a like occafion, founded probably on obfcrvation at the

One reficction is, that the morc op- time when it was written ; but it is portunity is afforded to any class of certainly contradicted by modern ex. mea for the exertion of the mental pericnce. Why may we not also sup. powers, the greater probability there is pose, even if we admit Mr. Hume's that it will be free from profeflional arguments to be conclusive, that a re vices; from those especially which are ligion whose morality is rational and prejudicial to fociety. By the habit of pure, may present profeffional vices at thinking our vicws are extended beyond Icast in those who exercise its functions, our own sphere; we fee it as helping and subdue what he calls the genius of to cornpose a widely-extended fyftem, the order ? whofe parts are mútually dependent ; [ To be concluded in our nexl. ]


[ Concluded from Page 7. ] LETTER XVII.

I wrote to his friends to send him to SIR,

Perth, and ordered what money I could ABOUT two posts ago I received a spare to be paid him at Edinburgh, for

letter of yours dated the 6th of I hope by Mr. Paton's affiftance to May in another from one Mr. Christy, settle him advantagcoully, notwithwhich I send you together with this. ftanding this disappointment. At my A little before I came out of town, he Scaving the town,

I told the copy of my came to me one day, with orders from poem to a bookfeller for twenty-five you to receive the so libs. with interest, guincas, though I had then only finihwhich I owe you. I could not pay it cd the first book of it, which the then, for I had just agreed with a Ladyfeverest of all our English critics, Mr. in London to send my brother an ap- Dennis, has read and approved; as you prentice to her's, who is a rich mer will find by his letter, which I lend chant in Jamaica, and wrote to my bro. you likewise, and defire you will reiurn, ther to come up hither, in order to be it in your first answer to this. I have {ent some months to an academy, where told you this story, that, if possible, you he might learn writing and accounts. may prevail with the person to whom But just as he was preparing to set out, this bill is due, not to exact paymeat we had a letter from Madeira that this of it till I receive this money in the merchant would not need an apprentice winter, by which time my pocm will for a year or so ; which broke all my be rcady for the press. Í ihall then measures. But as I incline to do discharge this debt punctually, with my brother all the survice in my power,' the interest due till the day of payment.

If I had the money by me just now, as soon as it is published. You will this letter does not direct me to whom I find before it three copies of recomthould pay it, nor in what manner, and mendatory verses: one written by Mr, I am at the distance of near 70 miles Hill, the second by a very fine woman from London.

at my request, and the third by myself, I have been long in suspence to whom Since all this is so, I will say nothing I should dedicate my pocm; whether of your suspecting me of insincerity, a to the Duke of Dorset, or the Earl of vice which I am very free from. Scarborough; but since it has met with I cannot yet tell whether my tragedy so much approbation in manuscript, I will be finished against next winter; am preparing a dedication for the King, however, I will have a poem, of about and hope, by the Duke's means, and five hundred lincs, ready for the press Mr. Molineux, the King's Secretary at my return to town, I intend to send while he was Prince of Wales, to get you the manuscript ere then, for your it inļroduced to him. But I beg you corrections of its faults, and observanot to mention this, till I see whether I tions on its beauties. can bring it to bear. The first book Dr. Frazer does me wrong. by saying I was sent to Edinburgh this last week, made a noise about the faulty printing by a friend of mine, who will transmit of my poem.

I mentioned it very it to you by my orders. You will not modestly, and only begged of him not to fully understand an obje&tion that Mr. distribute any more copies of it. ! Dennis makes in this letter, before you have much more reason to complain of have seen the poem. Pray return it, the indifference with which he received for it will be of service to me,

a compliment, which will do honour to I am,

his memory, as long, pernaps, as his Sincerely yours,

charity does good in the world. I am David Malloch. not afraid to say this after the praise it Shawford, 13th July 1727. .

has received from some of the bet judges of the age.

One Gentleman LETTER XVIII.

was so particularly pleased wịth it, that SIR,

he wrote it out in a fine hand, from a I BEG leave to take notice of a correct copy of mine ; which I will send mistake that runs through your last you some time hence, to be preserved, letter, and that was occafioned by your if your Society shall think it deserving of not understanding a passage of mine. that honour, in some corner of your The copy of verses that I sent you, was public library. indeed written by me; and I never I hope to have the pleasure of sending intended to make a secret of it ; but you Mr. Thomson's poem in a few days, Mr. Thomson's Winter is a very dif- which I am sure you will like; for it ferent poem, of considerable length *, is filled with a great many moral reflec. and agreeing with mine in nothing but tions, as well as with a fine spirit of the name. It has met with a great poetry. deal of dcfcrved applause, and was I am, dear Sir, written by that dull fellow, whom

Your most obliged Malcolm calls the jest of our club. The

humble servant, injustice I did him then, in joining

DAVID MALLOC#, with my companions to ridicule the first, imperfect, essays of an excellent It gives me some pain, that your genius, was a strong motive to make friends thould infift on my translating me active in endeavouring to affift and the names of the persons and clabs in encourage him fince, and I believe I your Latin poem," It is an impollibic thall never repent it. He is now setiled autempt : they cannot appear with any in a very good place, and will be able

tolerable grace in English verse; the to requite all the services his friends words are so ill-founding and disagreehave done him in time.

able to the car-Menzies, Preston, Cree, The second edition of his poem is Gillan, &c. now in the press, and shall be sent you

* The Poem here mentioned was called a « Winter's Day." It was afterwards printed in Savage's Poems, and since in Dr. Johnson's Edition of the Poets. · Mr, Mallet rej.cted it from his own edition.-EDITOR, † With çhe lignature of MRĄ. -EDITOR.


Your Latin, by Jengthening them Correspondence was in the poffeffion of with a new syllable, has an advantage; Professor Kerr's brother, who went to but I cannot say Gilla-nys, &c. in the West Indies, and is supposed to be English.

loft. (This letter concludes the series of [Should it be still in being, we should Millet's Correspondence with Professor be glad to be the means of giving it, Kerr, from October 5, 1720, to July 31, or any other correfpondcnce of this Au. 1927, in the polleffion of Mr. Drum- thor, to the public.] mond. The remaining part of the


BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL CLAUDE MARTIN. [From the TRANSACTIONs of the Asiatic SOCIETY, Vol. III. p. 475.] I Present the Socieo with a short den by the colour exhibited, the extract is

scription of the process observed in immediately poured into an adjoining the culture and manufacture of indigo small jar fixed in the ground for its ree in this part of India, The Am. ception, and is thence laded in small bore district is comprised within a range pots into larger jars disposed on adjoin. of furrounding hills of a moderate ing higher ground, being first filtered height: the river Pallar, declining from through a cloth; the jar wlien three its apparent southerly direction, enters fourths full is agitated with a split bamchis district about three miles from the boo extended into a circle, of a diameter esftward, walbes the Ambore Pettah, from thirteen to twenty inches, the a small neat village, distant three miles hoop twisted with a sort of coarse (traw, to the southward of the fort of that with which the manufacturer proceeds Dame, situated in a beautiful vallcy; to beat or agitate the extract, until a the skirts of the hills covered with the granulation of the fecula takes place, Palmeira and Date trees, from the pro the operation continuing ncarly for the duce of which a confiderable quantity space of three fourths of an hour;, a preof coarse Sugar is made. This tract is cipitant composed of red earth and fertilized by numerous rills of water water, in the quantity of four quart conducted from the river along the bottles, is poured into the jar, which margin of the heights and throughout after mixture is allowed stand the intermediate extent; this element the whole night, and in the morning, being conveyed in these artificial canals the superincumbent fuid is drawn off (three feet decp), affording a pure and through three or four apertures pracstykal current of excellent water for tised in the side of the jar in a vertical the supply of the rice fields, tobacco, direction, the lowest reaching to within mango, and cocoa-nut, plantations; the fivc inches of the bottom, fufficient to highest situated lands affording Indigo, retain the fecula which is carried to the apparently without any artificial water houses and dried in bags. ing, and attaining maturity at this fea. This is the whole of the process re. fon, notwithstanding the intenteness of curred to in this part, which, I think, the heat, the thermometer under cover if adopted in Bengal, might in no of a tent riling to joo, and out of it to small degree fuperfede the necessity of 120; the plant affording even in the raising great and expensive buildings; in dryeft spots good foliage, although a word, save the expenditure of fo more luxuriant in moister situations. much money in dead stock, before they I am just recurned from examining the can make any Indigo in the European manufacture of this article. First the method ; to which I have to add, that plant is boiled in earthen pors of about Indigo thus obtained possesses a very cighteen inches diameter, disposed on fine quality. the ground in excavated ranges from As I think there observations may be twenty to thirty feet long, and one useful to the manufactures in Bengal, I broad, according to the number used. could wish to see them printed in the When the boiling process has extracted Transactions of the Asiatic Society. all the colouring macces ascertainable Ambore, and April 1791.



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