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I That fo ftupendous an edifice of tenacious of power, and never parted syranny should ever be brought to de- with it but with extreme relu&tance. kruction, is the circumstance which This remark will meet with frequent ought chicfy to cxcite our furprise. It confirmation in the course of this Hifwas formed for duration, and must have tory; and indeed the misfortunes of liis been permanent, had not the ambitiou concluding years, appear to have been of fucceffive monarchs counteracted the greatly aggravated, if not in a measure arrangements of the corrupt but inge creared, by the circumstance. aious authors of the system. The par “ The disgraceful lyftem which had fion for war, and the practice of fund- darkened the annals of France during ing (which sooner or later muft effect a the latter years of his grandfather's violent change in all the Governments of reign, though it might be supported Europe ),-brought that of France to a under an aged monarch, to whom habit premature deftruction. Speculative had reconciled his subjects, and whose men attribute too much to the diffusion of declining years afforded a hope of a knowledge, when they alcribe to this speedy change, could not be endured cause the French Revolution. The dif. under a young king; and Louis had fufion of knowledge may teach men to the sense to see that a change of mea. feel their wrongs, but it is the painful sures was necessary, and the ipirit to en. sense of oppression that will dimulate to ter upon such a change. The duke resent them. The people in all coun- d’Aiguillon, and all the faction of the trics are timid, patient, Tubmissive; the countess du Barré, were îilently re. Naves of habit, of interes, and of pre. moved; and the young king immedijudice; and will endure much rather ately, recalled the count de Maurepas, than risk every thing.

the' friend and confidant of his father, "The prodigality of Louis XIV. was whom the vicious policy of the late reign united with a magnificence which daz- had banished from the court. zied Europe by its splendour, and gra- cient statesman declined to accept of any tified that national vanity which lias been oftensible office, but contented himself confidered for ages as characteristic of with a scat ju the privy council, while the French, He was succeeded by a the affairs of France were administered prince who united in himself the oppor under his direction. The oftensible mi. bte vices of avarice and prodigality. nisters were, M. Miroinesnil, who was While immense fums were expended appointed keeper of the feals; the count on the fruitless wars of the court, and de Vergennes, who presided over the scarcely lets on that fyftem of intrigue foreign department, and the count De by which the cabinet of France affected Muy over that of war. to direct the affairs of Europe; while “The recall and re-establishment of the public treasure was lavihhed upon the parliaments, whom the fears or the prostitutes and pandars *; the king had resentment of the late government had a private treasury of his own, in which banished, was rather a facrifice to popuhe gratified his 'avarice with contem- larity than a spontaneous measure of plating an accumulation of property, the king; but the goodness of his heart extorted by the most unjust means from was evidenced by his abolishing thehorrid the wretched peasantry of France, engine of tyranny, the question by tor

" Nature had formed the heart of Louis ture; by the edict which commuted: XVI. of the best materials, and from the punishment of deserters from death his first accetljon to power he appeared to Navery; and by the abolition of moft to make the happinels of his people, if of the oppretlive. feudal privileges not the principal, at least one of the within his own domains. great objects of his goveşnment : and “A ftill bolder and more hazardous in. had the face of the finances not been novation was the disbanding of the irretrievably bad, the reforms in admi. mousquetaires, a corps selected from the diftration which he effected would have most illustrious families for the guard immortalized his name. By disposition of the royal person, but the infolence or by habit averse to pomp and parade, and expence of which were all compenhe could part without reluctance with sated by the appearance of superior dig. every thing which had no farther object nity. This measure is commonly

attri. than to gratify those puerile passions. buted to the advice of the count De St. Yet the character of Louis has been ge- Germains, and might be the dictate ei. nerally mistaken, and one feature has ther of cxpedience or of policy. It, been constantly overlooked. He was however, indicated the spirit of reform

* “ The pomp of the court of Louis XIV," says M, Rabaut, er was parfimony when compared with that of Louis Xy.".



by which the government was actuated, fold. The number of them was oco! and which, commencing with the court,

A person who was einployed to was afterwards to be carried to an cuthu count them, and who grew weary of fiaftical cxcess by the nation.

the talk, ventured to estimate them at « The disorder in which thrce' fatal above three hundred thousand. Ano, wars had involved the finances of the ther calculated, that in the space of two nation, and which the unexampled centuries the people had been burdened prodigality of his predecctior had in with more than a hundred millions of created, was, however, an evil not calily new taxes, solely for the purpose of payto be repaired. Nor was a rigid æcu. ing the interct of those offices, nomy the characteristic of the coort "In the appointinent of M, Turgot to even of Louis XVI. However little the department of Finance, the king difpofed to babits of profufion the king evinced his difeernment or his docility. might be in his own perion, the expen. The commiercial arrangements of the five pleasures of the queen, and the une kingdom received the moli valuable imcommon fplendour of the court, served provedents under the guidance of this rather to promote than to diminish the upright and able ftatesman ; but his ingeneral distress.

“ Under ebirry fuc- tegrity was too inflexible, and his procesfive ministers,” says Rabaut,'"* tbc jects too extensive, not:oczcite the ever. court, ever craving and ever poor, had takeful jcalousy of the farmers general; invented now refources. To immine a and an accidental or artificial famine HCW tax was considered as a stroke of was made the instrument for depriving genius, and the art of disguiling it him of the public confidence. Oui Thewed the adroitness of the unencicr. relignation he was fucceeded by a M. We had already imported from braly, Ciugny, on wicfe dcach M, Taboreau under the auspices of our Regents of the des Ready Wishi?pointed to the vacant house of Medicis, the celebrarol re- polt; and in a short time after, the king, fource of farming out the taxes, the sci whose attention appears to have been ence of which contacts in giving as little particularly directed to this object, affo. as you can to the State, in order to levy ciated with him M. Neckar, oy birth a as much as you can upon the people, Swiss, and the first protestant, who, The sale of offices and commillions was from the time of the revocation of the likewise a tax levied upon pride and edićt of Nantz, had ever been elevated upon folly: their number 'increased to an official situation of any conseevery day. It is necessary to acquaint quence in France. M. Neckar had renforeigners, that among us was fold dered himself conspicuous by leveral the exclusive right of exercifing such or commercial pians, which he had success, fuch profeffions, and that this right be fully recominended to the mercantile came a citic. Patents were made out pari of the nation, and particularly by for carrying on the trade of a perukc- the adjustınent of foine differences which maker, of a coal-meter, of a searcher of had taken place between the India comhogs' tongues ; and these callings be. pany and the crown. came exclusive; they were termed pri

" In the mean time a circunstancc ocvileges. The rich purchased them as a curred, which, to a country burdened speculation, and fold them to advantage. with debrs and taxes, could only be A certain financier had in his port-fulio productive of total ruir.. thirty patents for peruke-makers, which 1774 will be memorable for the unfore were bought of him at a high price by war which the weakness and perfons dwelling in the remotelt pro- wickedness of a depraved and incayable vinces. Besides that this low kind of ministry wantonly kindled between fpeculation changed the character of a Great Britain and her Vorth Ancrican people, where every thing, even honour, colonies-a' war excited for the enfor. was become venal, these new-created cing of a tax wliich would not have paid offices were all ro many

indirect taxes ;

for collecting it; and levicd under the for the purchaser never failed to make absurd and fantastical plea, that the cothe public reimburse him. It was inju. lonies were virtually reprefented in the rious to industry, since, in order to exer British Parliament, as hy the ancient cise a profession, it was not necessary to grants and charters they were confti. have talents for it, but to be either rich tuted a portion of the manor of East already, or to borrow in order to become Greenwich in Kent! If any thing rich. In fine, it was an additional bur. could exceed the folly of the Englith den to the State, which paid the salary ministry in commencing the war, it was nr the interest of every office that was that af France in engaging in it-Such,


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however, were the infacuated politics of any persoa or any party; no disinclikih parions!

nation to record the truth where it

apThe old and deteftable prejudice pears; or to supply any links in the which caught the uninformed part of liitoric chain by vague reports or fic. the people to regard a neighbouring na tions; particular attention is paid to tion as their natural enemics, was not dates as well as facts; and, on the jess prevalent in France than in Eng- while, although it be scarcely pofiible and; and the notion of diftreiling a ri. that amongst to considerable a mals of cal stric embarratsed with a domestic recone facts, fome errors and mistakes cipue, might in such circumstances be should not have been occafionaliy incatiiy made popular. The old ftatcfinen serted, we consider this as a book of of France, accufomed to that meddling faEts that may occasionally be referred and intriguing scheme of politics which to with not a little confidence, Al. is ever dofirous to interfere in the though, as the Authors in their preface isternal concerns of other nations, could justly observe, it is not to be expected 1.98 overlook the opportunity which the that a work of this kind will be acceptaAmerican war afforded. The queen, bie to zealots of any party, yet it will cdutated froir infancy in an hereditary gain efteem in proportion as it is known; ba:red to the English nation, and flat and even zealots themselves, although it tered by the glory which the Freuch fall thort of the warmth and heat of an ghe aichicve in the contest, toon cm- their feelings, inay yet occasionally take braced the American cause. The en helter under its authority, when they lightened part of the nation were actu. have occafion to verify facts. It is ré. a:cd bs a more generous enthusiaim. ally astonithing how great a portion of Among all who read, and all who re readers avoid and eschew all books heded in France, the cause of America that do not re-ccho at least, if they do appeared the cause of Liberty; and the not serve to heighten and livell the lanedores of some of the most illuftrious guage of prejudice and passion. Most individuals anticipated the arrangements writers, especially writers in periodical of the court. The marquis de la Fay- publications, and on temporary subjc&ts, ette, a young nol-leman nearly allied to adapt their tone to that of particular the illustrious house of Noailles, of large sects, parties, and factions, whom they property, and not less remarkable for regard as the patrons of their literary is accomplishments than his rank, labours; and thus, books, in too many Erted out, in an early stage of the dif- instances, instead of being lights in this pute, a vessel at his own expence, and midst of darkness, arc made the means embarked for America, where he after- of perpetuating crror. To such a comwards obtained a high station and confi. position or compilation of interesting derable eminence and reputation in the facts as that now under confideration, setinental army.”

which not only disavows all connection The profeffions of impartiality, and and all subferviency to parties, but ini diligent inveftigation of the truth, vites information and correction, we which introduce thefe volumes are well think it our duty to give our hearty apfustained by the tenor or train that probation and applause, with good runs throughout the whole. No ela- wishes of fuccefs. Scrate defence or ftudied, accufation of

Some Account of the Deans of Canterbury, from the new Foundation of that

Church, by Henry the Eighth, to the present Time. To which is added, a Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Church Library. By Henry John Todd, M. A. Minor Canon of the Church. 8vo. ss. Cadell. FEW Cathedrals have been so well that the present work will not be thought

fupplied with Historians and Cicv, wholly uninteresting. These Memoirs roni's as the Metropolitan Church of of the Deans of Canterbury, "tho’they this kingdom. Though we do not agree are offered to the world only as humble with Mr. Todd to The full extent of ikctches,” add something to the stock of tis observation, that “whatever relates Biography of this country, and must to the characters of distinguished Ec- afford in uch fatisfaction to those who clefiafties is generally thought deferving live on the spot where the eminent per of attention, yet we are not dispoted fons licre coinmemorated enjoyed their iu refuse our attent to his expectation, preferments. Of one of the number

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we have had frequent occasions to speak M. A. In the same year he engaged in terms of the highest refpect; we ihall, in a Controversy on the subject of the therefore, select the account of him as Cherubim, in the Gentleman's Maga. a specimen of Mr. Todd's perform- zine, under the signature of Ingenatis ia ance.

reply to Gandidas. His remarks were “ GEORGE HORNE, the twenty-first intended to prove that “the Cherubim Dean, was born in 1730, at Otham, in were a representation of the Trinity." the county of Kent, of which parish In the course of the dispute, however, his father, the Rev. Samuel Horne, he was treated rather unlandsomely by was Rector ; under whose care he con the Editor, who declined publishing his tinued till he was about thirteen years last letter on the subject, which was a of age. He was then sent to Maidstone masterly defence of the Hutchinsonian School, the Master of which was the position. Rev. Deodatus Bye, who obferved, ". In 1753 he was so desirous to illuf. that " he was fitter to go from school, trate the merit of Mr. Hutchinson than to come to it.” He continued, (whose works, in his opinion, were not however, under his tuition two years, only received without encouragement, and increased the approbation which his but even opposed without due examinacarly abilities had obtained.

tion), that he published “ A fair, canIn March 1745-6 he was admitted did, and impartial State of the Case at University College, Oxford, having between Sir Isaac Newton and Mr. been previously cholen to a Scholarship Hutchinfon. In which is thewn, how from Maiditone School. In October far a System of Physics is capable of Ma1749 he took the Degree of B. A. In thematical Demonstration ; how far Sir the following year he was clected to the Isaac's, as such a Syftem, has that De. Fellowship of Magdalen College, which monstration; and consequently what is appropriated to a native of Kent. regard Mr. Hutchinson's Claim may

• In the University he was a laborious deserve to have paid to it." Student, and gave many an clegant "In the following year he produced testimony of the various learning which an ironical publication, the peculiarity he acquired. It was more especially of which foon discovers its nameless his aim to render the attainments of author. It was entitled, “ Spicilegiuin polite Literature fubfervient to the Shuckfordianum ; or a Noregay for the knowledge and illustration of the Scrip- Critics. Being some choice Flowers of

He considered his time beft ein. Modern Theology and Criticism gather: ployed when, with the learned compa- ed out of Dr. Snuckford's supplemental nion of his carliest studies, he “ railed Discourse on the Creation and Fall of his thoughts from the Poets and Ora- Man. Not forgetting Bishop Garnet's tors of Greece and Rome, to the con. Vatikra." templation of the Great Creator's wif “ He had now entered into Holy dom in his word, and in his works.” Orders, and became a frequent and He became critically acquainted with earnest Preacher. His labours, how• the Hebrew. Language ; and studied ever, were depreciated by the invidious successfully the Fathers of the Church, application of a name : for the Hutchin

“ Soon after he had attained the Fel- sonian was said to possess more zeal than lowship, he began to attract particular knowledge, more presumption than observation, by the warmth with which humility. Hence a Pamphlet was pub. he espoused the Philosophy of Mr. litbed in 1756 ty a Member of the UniHutchinson. In 1751 he commenced versity, entitled “ A Word to the an attack upon the Newtonian System, Hutchinsonians; or Remarks on three and published (but without his name) extraordinary Sermons, lately preached The Theology and Philosophy in before the University of Oxford, by the Cicero's Somnium Scipionis explained: Rev. Dr. Patten, the Rev. Mr. We. er, A Brief Attempt to demonstrate, therell, and the Rev. Mr.Horne." This that the Newtonian System is perfectly did not remain long unaufwered. Mr. agreeable to the Notions of the wifeít Horne replied in "An Apology for Ancients; and that Mathematical Prin. certain Gentlemen in the University of ciples are the only sure ones.” This Oxford, alpersed in a late anonymous Pamphlet does not confift merely of Pamphlet, with a Poftscript concerning formal argument; it displays remark- another Pamphlet lately published by able humour,

the. Rev. Mr. Heathcote." The ear“In 8752 he took the Degree of neliness of this defence, which displayed



his own fincerity, did not, however, Satisfaction to gratify the Socinians ; the convince the antagonist; and there ap- Presbyterians would object_to Epifcopeared soon afterward, “True Censure pacy, the Independents to Presbytery, no Afperfion; or, A Vindication of a late and the Quakers to all three, together featonable Admonition, called, A Word with the Sacraments of B; ptifin and the to the Hutchinsonians. In a Letter to Lord's Supper." the Rev. Mr. Horne.''

“ In 1775 he published his “ComFrom scenes of controversy we re mentary on the Psalms;" a work in turn to those of academical employment, which the earnestuess of the Christian when we find Mr. Horne, in 1758, ju- Tcacher and the modesty of the Critic pior Proctor of the University; an office are alike conspicuous. To all his exwhich he adorned by the amiable cone planations unanimous affent hath not, nexion of mildness with authority. indeed, been given. But where is the

" At the expiration of the Proctor- faftidious reader who can peruse this fhip he took the Degree of B. D. useful Commentary without owning

* In 1760 he published « A View to have derived improvement to his of Mr. Kennicott's Method of correet- knowledge, and animation to his piety! ing the Hebrew Text, with three Que- in the same year he was appointed ries formed thereupon, and humbly Vice Chancellor of the Univerlity, in submitted to the Confideration of the which Itation hc continued till Etober Learned and Christian World ;" in 1780 ; and, perhaps, none ever prefided which he endcavours to prove that in that diftinguished itation with greater Divine unequal to the bulineis in which artention or greater popularity. he was engaged.

“ Engageil as he was in the weighty "In 1704 he took the Degree of D.D. duties of that offico, his vigilance in his

". As yet we find him advanced to no profetlional character was by no means conspicuous station. He never, indeed, relaxed. Dr. Adam Smith had pube obtained a parochial benchce. But on lished an eulogium on the Life of Mr. the death of Dr. Jenner, Profident of Humc: Dr. Horne conceived a repre. Magdalen College, he was clected by hension more puceiiary. Accordingly the Society to succeed him in that im- he published in 1777, " A Letter to portant ftation on the 27th of January Dr. Smith on the Life, Death, and 1968.

Philosophy of his Friend David Huine, In the following year he testified Efq. by one of the People called Chrishis regard towards the younger Mem- tians ; in which he lashes, with keen bers of his College, by publishing, with and deserved irony, both the Philofoa Fiew to their improvement, “ Con pher and his Panegyrift. To give more fiderations on the Life and Death of St. abundant proof that he had not forget John the Baptist. They were the sub "the Clergyman in the Magiftrate," ftance of several Sermon which he he not only thus repelled the contagion had delivered before the University in of Infidelity, but published in 1779 Magdalen Ciapel on the Baptist's day. "Two Volumes of Sermons." Many

** In 1791 he was appomted Chap- of them had been preached before the lain in Ordinary to his Majefty, in which University, and had been heard with quality he oñiciated till his appointment that attention which compositions of to the Deanery of Canterbury.

ingenious enquiry, and of affcéting ex"In 1772 he exerted his abilities in hertation, never fail to command. defence of our civil and religious efta “His prefernient, at present, confifted blithment ; firmly opposing the designs only of his Headship. But, on the proof those who would have abolished Sub mion of Dr. Cornwallis to the Sce of seriptions, and altered our Liturgy. Litchfield and Coventry in 1781, he An application was, at that time, in was advanced to the Dcancry of Canten!eu to have been made to Parlia terbury, in which he was installed men!, when he published in a Letter to Spt.22. It has been said, that another Lord North, “ Confiderations on the Dcancry, which had been vacant nos projected Reformation of the Church long before, was intended to ve been of England.” Very juft were his re conferred on him. Lord North, it is marks, that “if our Governors fhould certain, was his friend. He could not, be inclined to preserve the peace among indeed, but experience the particular the various fects which would le af. regard of a Statesman, who" to his sembled in the Church according to the dying day was a most fincere friend new scheme, and to frame a new liturgy and most powerfulsupport of the Church and conftitution which might suit them of Engiand, in times when such support all, the Divinity of our Saviour must be was most wanted." reieftad rana in the

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