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In 1634 also, Peter Herigone published pound pendulum ef his own invention. a Course of Mathematics, Cours de Ma. These went so well that for ten years they bératiques, at Paris, in which he proposed erred scarcely a fecond in a month. But diiterent methods of finding the longitude, as the motion of a penduium would nebut all inferior to Morin's.

cessarily be deranged by that of a ihip at Nor muit we omit Leonard Duliris, sea, he set himself to make a watch, which, who published a theory of the longitude in in a voyage to Lisbon and back again, 1647, which was criticised by Morin, who corrected an error of a degree and a half in found little difficulty in displaying the the ship's reckoning. This was in 1736. author's ignorance of mathematics. After this be made two others, for the

In 1668, a German, whose name does latter of wlaich, in 1745, he received from not occur to us, invented an adometer, or the Royal Society Sir Godfrey Copley's initrument for ineasuring a ship's way; and gold medal. With this time-keeper, his the fame of Louis XIV, as a patron of son, Mr. William Harrilon, went to Ja. genius, induced him to present it to that mica, in 1761, on board his Majeity's king. A Committee of Academicians was fhip Deptford, and it was found to deterappointed to examine it, and it appears to niine the longitude of Port Royal, in that bave had considerable merit, but it was illand, within five seconds of what it had liable to certain objections, which the in- before been ascertained to be by an obser. ventor was unable to remove.

vation of the tranfit of Mercury in 1743. About this time, or a little earlier, Dr. It appeared also to have erred but 1' 54% Hooke and Mr. Huygens made a very great during the whole voyage. This being iinprovement in watch-making, hy the within the limits preicribed by the act, application of the penduluin spring.' Dr. Mr. Harrison claimed the reward of twen. Hooke having a quarrel with the English ty thousand pounds, Difficulties, how. Ministry, no trial was made of any of his ever, were Itarted, and foine doubts raised, machines, though several were with those about the nianner in which the longitude of Mr. Huygens. In a voyage from the had been ascertained, both at Jamaica and coast of Guinea, in the year 1665, one of at Portsmouth. Yet loon after five thou. them answered extremely well; but it was sand pounds were advanced him on ac. afterwards found that they were liable to count; and in 1764, Mr. William Harconsiderable variation from the action of rison made a voyage with the time-keeper beat and cold, so that they were of little use to Barbadoes. With hin were lent out by for determining the longitude.

the Board proper persons to make oblervaOn the 20th of July 1714, an Ad of tions; and, in confequence of this proof, Parliament was publinied, by which twen· five thouíand pounus inore were paid Mr. iy thousand pounds sterling were promised Harrison, on his ditcovering the principles wany one who should dilcover a method of its construction; with a promise of the of finding the longitude at sea to half a other ten thousand, as soon as machines degree or ten leagues; fifteen thousand, if conitructed by others, on the fame prin. sviihin two-thirds of a degree ; and tenciples, should be found to answer equally thousand, if within a degree, or twenty well. leagues. At the same tinie a Committee, Mr. Harrison having delivered up these named the Board of Longitude, was ap- three time-keepers to the Board, Mr. pointed to ascertain the merit of any claim Kendal was employed to make another, made to these rewards. It may not be which was sent out with Captain Cook, in amiss to obterve that this Act was framed his voyage round the world in 1772--1775. by Newton.

This was found to go even better than The same year, Henry Sully, an En. Mr. Harrison's; never erring quite 141 glishman, publithed a Iimall' tract on

seconds in a day. In consequence, Mr. watch-making at Vienna ; after which he Harrison received the remainder of the removed to Paris, and, encouraged by reward. A watch has since been con. Newion, labuued assiduoully at the im- structed by Mr. Arnold, that, in a trial of provement of time-keepers for the disco.

thirteen months, from February 1779 to very of the longitude, but death put a stop February 1780 inclusive, never varied to his endeavours. By him was taught the more thin 4 n' a day, or than famous Juhan Leroy, who afterwards trod 6'69" in any two days; but this watch in his steps.

was never at sea : and, indeed, in 1772, In 1726, Mr. John Harrison, who was Mr. Harrison had made another time. bred under his father a country carpenter, keeper, which at the end of a ten weeks' made two clocks, chiefly in wood, to trial, in the King's private observatory at which he applied an escapement and com Richmond, liad varied only 41".


But a French artist, Lewis Berthond, going has been regularly verified by the the nephew of Ferdinand Berthund, for. iun and stars. Mr. Nouet he man his exmrly celebrated in his art, has lately periments on the 14th of March 1789. ç one beyond ali lis predecehors. The At fint he exponteriitor nineteen days to a tirft voyage for the trial of marine watches temperature of about go of Reaumur : he undertaken from France was in 1767, the placed it in altove, where it was kept when M. de Courtenvaux fitted out a fri- in i constant heat of 250 for a week; from gate at his own expence, to prove a time whicl, ii was removed for another week to } eeper constructed by Peter Leroy, the fon

a temperature of 17" 12". During these of Julian, whom we have already mention three nials, the means of the daily variation ed; and another voyage was made in was not more than a few hundredths of a 1768 by Mr. Caffini, to ascertain the ac fecond, anci the greatett in any one day did curacy of the fame watch. In conie

not exceed tivo feconds; nor was there quence of Mr. Cailm's report, Leroy any appearance that the change of tempe. received a prize from the Frenc: Acadeniy, rature had influenced in the least the going to obtain which bis time piece had been of the watch. From the 6th of May to made: though it appeared, thai even on the 12th of December the watch was land it advanced pretty fuddenly !" or exposed to the variations of the temperature 12" a-day sometimes, so that it was by no of the atmosphere with timnilar retults. It nieans perfect.

may be objected that these trials were inade The last watch we shall have occafion to

on land, but Mr. de Puylegur has fince mention is that of Mr. Lewis Berthond, made a voyage with it up the Mediterrawhich was tried at the Observatory, by Mr. nean, and has tound it no way affected by Nouet, one of the astronomers there, who the motion of the thip. Compased it daily, for nine months, with This watch, io fingularly accurate in the excellent pendulum conit, ucted by keeping time, very little exceeds two inches Ferdinand Berthond. This pendulum, and a quarter in diameter, whilft Harvfed in the astronomical obfervations, is rifon's lart time-keeper is about fix inches. confidered as a chef d'auvre, and its

Tlie gen

CHARACTER OF SAMUEL FOOTE, ESQ. SAMUEL FOOTE was a man of we could not help quickly correcting our.

nius, a dramatic writer, ama mimic. delves for fuch uncharitable ebullitions of His paternal fortune, which was more than mirth, becaufe they were fiequently at the con i petent to the wants of a prudent man, expence of misfortune, personal deformity, was loon spent, and he had recourfe to friendship, and private worth. fhole convivial talents and powers of ridi. tleman from whom the character of Cada cule, for support, which rendered his wallader was drawn, is fuid to have been company generally fought, and had con once his intimate friend: and who can tributed, in a connderable degree, to hear without in tignation, that those pecuie involve him in pecuniary difficulty. It liarities and infirinisies which Fonte intro. was frequently observed by him, tirat no duced on the stage, were obterved and man ever knew the proper value of a copied at times devoted to convivial merriguinea, tili he lived to wani one ; an obter ment and domestic hospitality. varion not without truth, but even this ex This is not the firstiritapce, in ihe history perience had not a proper eflict on Mr. of human vanity, where the feelings of a Foote.

friend have been violated, for the fake of Not being ably at first to procure a li- saying a humorous or a witty thing. It çence for his dramatic entertainmenis at also enforces a femtinzent which has ofien the Hay-market, he advertised it as a place been repeated, that we ought not to look of rejort for tea-cricking, and drew large for the foothing balm of Talling friendship

indiences. He fucceistully laflied vicious or useful affociation among perfons eleaf étation, ftrange whim, and perfonal vated in the regions of power, learning, peculiarity, by licentions diftertion, and wit, or the arts: exceptions will undonbibroad caricature; while felnibaness, and edly sometimes occur, but ambition, like imposition, difgmised in the demure exiç. tentuality, is felfith, and not fcrupulous in rior of religioni, and pre.ended lancity', its manner of procuring gratification; and were unmarked, ridiculed, and lice in the he who has atiained eminence, will facrifice most abfurd points of view.

almost any thing to secure himfit in the By thule means he otien forced us to hrong holds of rir;xeriority. join in the litigli of the moment, thongh It Foute exercised his buffoonery on the



birporal defects of others, he did not spare the peculation of public money: as himfelt, with whom, it may be said, he had “ George Selwyn and Monsey promiled an undoubted right to take fuch liberties. to come, I need not caution you againft He often called himself Captain Timber “ ridiculing people who fabricate stale jtits, 10€, and where a piece his seemed to lan " and tell nafty ttories,” guth and f.:g, I have fccn him, by a

If the Manager were living in the present hel:bling walk across the Itage, accompanied diny, and to invite a party, I am inclined with ligificant gesture and grimace, fet to think he would not speak of a partiathe houte in a roar.

He was threatened by mentary reform, the Nave trade, or the a genticman for taking bim off: "I uie Irish propositions, in the hearing of Mi.

you no worse than myself, for,” said Pitt : he would be too polite to touch on Foote, “ I will take myself off," and lie long speeches, or recantation pamphlets, in inftantly quitted the room.

the presence of Mr. Burke; nor would love I laid he was a man of genius; liis con venture to mention toleration, and the mild verfation, and his dramatic writings, furely Spirit of christianity, to Dr. Horfiey, or the authorile the afTertion ; but I have some danger of credulity and implicit faith, to times bxn inclined to doubt, if I could say the copious Dr. Priestley: the tanie of David Garrick, who, by the To a man like Garrick, who hrunk help of an eye which from its anatomical from, and was alive all over to the fear of fructure touched the Itrings of the heart, giving or differing offence, the company

of and a happy affociation of features which Foote was irksome and terrifying; “ for, accurately reprelented the pasions, allisted « like me, he will say or du any thing, by habit and experience, acquired excel faid George Boedens, whole unbounded dence in the protellion of acting, which is licentiousness, brutality, profaneness, and an imitative and mecbanic art.

profligacy, procured him with some, the The fascinating art of conversation, the character of a wit and a pleafant compaknack of pleasing in company beyond most nion, which he attained in certain circles by people, Mr. Garrick eminently ponelled ; a favage resolution to say whatever came but the eye of a kech observer could not uppermont, lowever incompatible with debut perceive, “ that when lie was off the cency, order, or good sense; it was “ itage he was acting." Strenuous effort, “ ning muck" with a vengeance, and and the toil of attention, were palpably merited the tame treatment, being knocked evident in the whole of his behaviour; on the lead, or kicked down Itairs, while the amiable fear of giving offence,

" You did not know that I was behind or exciting relentinent, gave at uimes such



were repeating a peculiar degree of referve to his manners “ The boliloquy, as you walked up the Hayand utterance, thar Foote, whom he dread “ market a few days ago," taid Foote. ed, used sometimes to tell hiin, he was not

Garrick lowered his brow. perfc& in his part.

« from Hamletor Macbeth?" faid one of Many who have enjoyed the pleasure of the company, “I should fancy, by the Mr. Garrick's company, and an exalted 66 conclusion,” replied Foote, “ that it plealure it was, have acknowledged the was from an eslay on compound interelt; juitice of this observation.

“ but you all hear it. I was adumping Indeed it were to be withed, that cha gently along behind him, and was going racters which study rather to please than to speak, but hearing him talk to him fnine in compary, were more frequent; " But, I listened, and it was as follows: we probably inight have ills wit, and less “Pes-se-I al-! politively will wily merrijneni; but that inconvenience " Jeure off making a drudge of mytelt: woull be amply inade up by lus wrang

“ I have already a fufficiency for every Eg, and letsiti-blood.

purpose of dignity as well as comtori, I used formerly to divert myself with

« and why thould I be a llave to every inagining pror Rotcius fisting in easy chit impellinent puppy who can throw down chai at bi caktat with Mrs. Garrick, when “ bis shilling i politively will live like they expecteit a large company wodinner at a gentleman. lle remained in this Hamptor, and giving her a fort et cau opinion, "continued Foote, “will he got Honiry lectie ter the day.

to the corner of Coventry-streer, wlien • We thall have Lord George Ger " he met with the ghoit of a farthing « maine, and General Burgogne : you " coming out of the innuff-thop, at which "know, my dear, of courte you won't

" heitartet, and it put ever v generous and “ peak of Minden or Saratoga; and as

" noble ilea :o flight; he link again into we exp & Mr. Fox and Mr. Rigby, it “ih Manager, ane marched on to Lei. " kuud beridiculous to touch un gaming,

os citer fields, fuil of pounds, shillings,

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« and pence, and a holly absorbed in mort. that it provided laughter for the giddy; and

gages, bank-notes, and three per cent. indecent merriment for the unthinking, " confols."

while the go d and reafonable highet at his There appears very little in this when , fate; such a life could not be expected to wriiten, but the whole company were in end with confort or substantial hope. one convullive burst of laughter for five In the midst of company he was latterly minutes; and Garrick, seizing his hat, left obferved to be often Joit in reveries, whilst the room evidently chagrined.

frequent fighs and a corresponding counteBut latterly, Mr. Foote's spirits failed nance betrayed a heart ill at eale, and he him, and he applied to his old resource the replied to a friend, who congratulating bottle, but in vain : yet even in those tem him on having lettled his a!inuity business porary flashes which this false friend af. with Colman, obferved, that he might now fords, I have observed intervals of filence pass the remainder of bis life with tran. in his company, which I could account for quillity: “I was miserable before, and no otherwise than from the fear inspired by now: I am far from being happy." the keenuess of his farcasın, and the over. He died at Dover, on his way to France, whelming tumultuous attack of his humour, from an over-dole of laudanum, taken which, when exerted, always predominated, either by mistake or design ; though, fron and bore down every thing and every body an authentic relation of the circumstance before it.

by a person present, I strongly incline to But a life spent in a violation of the the latter opinion. moral duties, and whose best praise was,

To the EDITOR of the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. SIR, FROM a full conviction of your readiness to insert in your excellent Miscellany whatever is really entertaining, I send you the following elegant Epitaph for thai purpose, which is transcribed from an old brass plate in the chancel of Aylston church, near Leicefer, dated 1594.

In obitum pientissimi viri
Avunculi et patroni sui colendisfimi J. H.
Si natale folum quæras ; enque tibi tummis

Ad cælum assungit Derbia verticibus;
Illa nii prima indulfit fpiramina vitæ,

Communi præbens in patria patriam.
Natus ibi, hic vixi: hic dudum vixiffe fatetur
Gens inopum, et luget me male cincta cohors.
Hic vixi, lobolis fraternæ educator et altor.

Ile dedit vitam, victum ego munificé.
Ille dedit ipirare fuis, ego protinus auxi

El manibus fovi viscera nata meis.
Nec tamen exorata mihi mors, mers pietatern

Si feriar, quantum izviet in reprobos?


, delphia, has jutt published a fecond upon per fons of both sexes, who have volume of Medical Enquiries and Obier. palled the 80th year of their lives. I in. vations, from which the following is taken: iended to have given a detail of their AN ACCOUNT OF THE STATE OF THE names--manner of lifc-cuccupations

BODY AND MIND IN OLD AGE; WITH and other circumstances of each of them; OBSERVATIONS ON ITS DISEASES, but, upon a review of my notes, I found AND THEIR REMEDIES.

so great a fameness in the history of most Most of the facts which I shall deliver of them, that I despairedi, by detailing upon this subject are the result of obter. them, of answering the intention which i


hase proposed inthe following essay. I shall, that literary men (other circum tances therefore, only deliver the facts and prin- being equal) are longer-lived than other ciples which are the result of enquiries and people. But it is not necessary that the oblervations I have made upon this subject. underftanding should be employed upon

1. I hall mention the circumstances philosophical subjects to produce this inwhich favour the attainment of longevity: Huence upon human life. Business, politics,

II I Mall mention the phenomena of and religion, which are the objects of ai. body and mind which attend it : and, tention of mer of all classes, impart a vi

III. I fall enumerate its peculiar dir- gour to the understanding, which, by being eases, and the remedies which are inost conveyed to every part of the body, tends proper to remove, or moderate them. to produce health and long life. 1. The circumstances which favour

4. EQUANIMITY OF TEMPER. longevity are,

The violent and irregular actions of the 1. DESCENT

FROM LONG-LIVED pafsions tend to wear awaythe springs oflife. ANCESTORS.

Persons who live upon annuities in Eu. I have not found a single instance of a rope bave been observed to be longer-lived, person who has lived to be eighty years old in equal circumstances, than other people. in whom this was not the case. In forne This is probably occasioned by their being infances I found the descent was only from exemple, by the certainty of their luba one, but in general it was from both pa. fittence, froin those fears of want which so rents. The knowledge of this fact may frequently distract the ininds, and therehy Jerve, not only to allift in calculating what weakes ihe boilies of all people. Liseare called the chances of lives, but it may rents have been supposed to have the tanie be made useful to a physician. He may influence in prolonging life. Perhaps the learn from it to cherifi hopes of bis patients dittle of lite, in order to enjoy as long as in chronic, and in some acute diseases, in pollible that property which cannot be en. proportion to the capacity of life they have joyed a second time by a child or relation, derived froin their ancestors.

may be another cause of the longevity of e. TENPERANCE IN EATING AND perfons who live upon certain incomes. DRINKING.

It is a fact, that the desire of life is a very To this remark I found several excep. powerful stimulus in prolonging it, espea tons.-I met with one man of eighty-fourcially when that desire is supported by hope. years of age, who had been intemperate in This is obvious to phyticians every day. eating ; and four or five persons who ha: Despair of recovery is the beginning of heen intemperate in drinking ardentipirits, death in all diseases. They had all been day-labourers, or bad de But obvious and reasonable as the effects ferred drinking until they began to feel the of equanimity of temper are upon human languor of old age. ' I did not meet with a life, there are some exceptions in favour fugle person who had not, for the last fortyor of pailionate inen and women having arBfrygears of theụ lives, used tea, coffee, and tained to a great age. The morbid stimulus bread and butter, twice a day as part of of anger in these cases, was probably obtheir diet. I am disposed to believe, that viated by leis degrees, or less active exerthofe articles of diet do not materially af. ciles of the underitanding, or by the detect teet the duration of human life, although or weakness of some of the other stimuli they evidently impair the strength of the which kept up the motions of life. iyitem. The duration of lite does not

5. MATRIMONY. appear to depend so much upon the strength In the course of my enquiries, I mea is the body, or upon the quantity of its with only one perlon beyond 80 years of excitability, as upon exact accommodation age who had never been married. I met of stimuli to each of them. A watch with several women who had bore from ten {pring will last as long as an anchor, pro. to twenty children, and suckled them all. I vided the forces which are capable of de. met with one woman,a native of Herefordfroying both are in an exact ratio to their shire in England, who is now in the 100th strengt. The use of tea and coffee in diet year of her age, who bore a chiki at 60,men. feems 1o be happily suited to the change itruated till 80, and frequentiy fuckled two which has taken place in the human boly of her children (though born in fucceffion by fedentary occupations, by which mean's to each other) at the fame time. She had leis nouriíhment and itimuius are required palled the greatelt part of her lite over a than formerly to support animal life. washing-tub. 9. THE MODERATE USE OF THE UNDER 6. I have not found sedentary employe STANDING.

ments to prevent long live, where they are It has long been an eitablished truth, not accompanied by intemperance in eatVOL. XXV.



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