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which cannot be cultivated even imperfectly without yielding valuable fruit.

The assistance which the State at present renders towards the advancement of agriculture is essentially of an educational character. She encourages Agricultural Societies which draw forth and exhibit improved breeds of animals, improved implements of husbandry and hold them up for imitation and for instruction. They also encourage improved methods of cultivation by offering inducements of honor and profit, in the premiums awarded therefor. By these means knowledge is diffused as well as emulation excited,

The sessions of the Board of Agriculture are intended to subserve the same end, by bringing together a body of men supposed to be most deeply interested in its progress, by their discussions of the ways and means of securing advance and by the interchange of views and experience. The power of the press is also enlisted, and contributes by scattering abroad over the State its annual reports.

These means, although they are intended and adapted to operate chiefly upon adults already actively engaged in agricultural pursuits, and include no direct instrumentalities for imparting instruction to the young, are not without considerable efficacy, and they may serve a preliminary and necessary purpose by the introduction among all classes, of such enlarged and enlightened views regarding methods or institutions for promoting agricultural education, as shall, in due time, lead to their adoption or establishment. One is sometimes tempted to wonder that its necessity has not been sooner felt, and the want supplied. Even an old Roman writer, amid the martial condition of a proud and heathenish empire, had the sagacity to perceive its paramount importance and the honesty to utter his astonishment at its neglect.-—"Nothing equals my surprise,” says he "when I consider that while those who desire to learn to speak well, select an orator whose eloquence may serve them as a model; while those who are anxious to dance or to become good musicians employ a dancing or music master; in short that while every one looks for the best master in order to make the best progress under his instructions, the most important pursuit next to that of wisdom, has neither pupils nor teachers. I have seen schools established for teaching rhetoric, geometry, music, dancing, &c., but I have never seen a master to teach agriculture nor a pupil to learn it.”

To the question, which in one form or other, has so often been propounded for solution at the sessions of our Board, viz: “What further means can be adopted for the promotion of agriculture ?', a very brief and comprehensive answer might be given. Educate the farmer. His education it is true, may never be finished at any school of man's making, but the youth may, at least, be taught to appreciate the value and to feel the necessity of a knowledge of the principles wbich alone can safely guide his practice. He may be taught how to commence study, so that, afterwards, while his bodily powers are engaged in daily toil in the great laboratory of nature whence his support is derived, he may, with only the aid of his own trained and developed faculties, mentally prosecute scientific investigations which will yield both profit and satisfaction.

The diffusion of knowledge is the only practicable method of securing progress; says the celebrated Robert Hall, “ all attempts to urge men forward, even in the right path, beyond the measure of their light, are impracticable if they were lawful, and unlawful if they were practicable. Augment their light, conciliate their affections and they will follow of their own accord.”

It is hopeless to attempt the extension of improved methods of practice in agriculture until farmers either feel their necessity, or in some good degree apprehend the grounds upon which they are presented and the reasons which exist why beneficial results may be anticipated. It is safe to predict that agriculture will advance just in proportion to the intelligence of those engaged in it.

S. L. GOODALE,

Secretary of the Board of Agriculture. JANUARY, 4th, 1860.

APPENDIX.

COMPILED FROM RETURNS OF AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES,

For the year ending first Wednesday in December, 1859.

Societies.

gratuities
offered.

Am't of premiums, &c., awarded.

Current expenses of the Society.

Whole amount of the disbursements.

Value of real estate.

Value of other property.

Liabilities.

755 00 580 00 325

00 905

00 9000 00

Androscoggin County,
Cumberland County,
East Somerset,
Franklin County,
Hancock County,
Kennebec County,
Lincoln County,
North Aroostook,
North Franklin,
North Kennebec,
North Penobscot,
North Somerset,
Oxford County,
Penobscot and Aroostook Union,
Piscataquis County,
Sagadahoc County, .
Somerset Central,
Waldo County,
Washington County,
West Oxford,
West Penobscot,
West Somerset,
West Washington,
York County,

300 00
300 00
150 00
200 00
300 00
150 00
272 65
200 00
200 00
150 00

88 56
150 00
200 00

99 50
123 74
300 00
150 00
236 11
300 00
200 00
150 00
150 00

702 00 540 00, 1542 00
150 50 326 17 883 67 729 00 462 75
161 00 120 20

431 20 240 00 205 25
26 00 532 89

758 89 466 00 293 00
229 00 1469 00 1998 00 539 00 375 00
100 00 356 00 606 00 360 00 310 00
159 00 210 15

641 80 325 00 297 00
30 00 175 00 405 00 161 00 147 70

170 55 370 65 490 00 286 00
288 00 258 44 696 44 370 00 304 00
57 65 71 72 217 93 150 00 127 30
16 00 135 00 301 00 210 00 175 00
5 00 605 81

810 81 360 00 319 00
82 00 78 50 260 00 200 00 172 00
80 00 20 00 223 74 155 18 155 18
426 00 586 00 1312 00 546 00 425 00
496 00

646 00 700 00 435 00
144 00 111 69 491 80 274 00 215 92
23 00 319 89 642 89 524 00 326 37
26 00 465 40 691 40 295 001 239 00
29 04 174 00 353 04 384 00 245 00
57 00 103 25 310 25 159 25 166 00
160 60 50 40 211 00 143 00 88 40
101 00 504 00 905 00 550 00 443 00

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6500 00
589 15, 1051 90

680 59
93 60 299 44 1200 00

712 69
220 00 758 00 1100 00

700 00
200 00 1998 00 1400 00
209 00 519 00

350 00 130 00
350 00 647 00

50 00 5 00
25 50 173 20

25 00
339 54 466 24
150 00

2500 00 100 00 1000 00
70 30 197 60
243 00
84 00 503 001 1080 00 220 00 647 00
79 00 241 00
87 23 242 41
175 00 1154 00 3800 00 62 00 2882 00

97 50 797 50 2500 00 50 00 1000 00
136 28 352 20

58 00
631 93
259 00 229 00 1200 00 25 00 225 00
30 00 275 00
40 92 194 00
40 00 128 40
200 00 643 00 2000 00 25 00 1500 00

300 00

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